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Evaluation of novel TGR5 agonist in combination with Sitagliptin for possible treatment of type 2 diabetes.

TGR5 is a member of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, a promising molecular target for metabolic diseases. Activation of TGR5 promotes secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which activates insulin secretion. A series of 2-thio-imidazole derivatives have been identified as novel, potent and orally efficacious TGR5 agonists. Compound 4d, a novel TGR5 agonist, in combination with Sitagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, has demonstrated an adequate GLP-1 secretion and glucose lowering effect in animal models, suggesting a potential clinical option in treatment of type-2 diabetes.

1226 related Products with: Evaluation of novel TGR5 agonist in combination with Sitagliptin for possible treatment of type 2 diabetes.

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Intestine farnesoid X receptor agonist and the gut microbiota activate G-protein bile acid receptor-1 signaling to improve metabolism.

Bile acids activate farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (Gpbar-1, aka TGR5) to regulate bile acid metabolism and glucose and insulin sensitivity. FXR and TGR5 are co-expressed in the enteroendocrine L cells but their roles in integrated regulation of metabolism are not completely understood. We reported recently that activation of FXR induces TGR5 to stimulate glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion to improve insulin sensitivity and hepatic metabolism. In this study, we used the intestine-restricted FXR agonist fexaramine (FEX) to study the effect of activation of intestinal FXR on the gut microbiome, bile acid metabolism, and FXR and TGR5 signaling. The current study revealed that FEX markedly increased taurolithocholic acid (TLCA), increased fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15) and FGF21 and GLP-1 secretion, improved insulin and glucose tolerance, and promoted white adipose tissue browning in mice. Analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA sequences of the gut microbiome identified the FEX-induced and LCA-producing bacteria Acetatifactor and Bacteroides. Antibiotic treatment completely reversed the FEX-induced metabolic phenotypes and inhibited TLCA synthesis, adipose tissue browning, and liver bile acid synthesis gene expression, but further increased intestinal FXR target gene expression. FEX treatment effectively improved lipid profiles, increased GLP-1 secretion, improved glucose and insulin tolerance, and promoted adipose tissue browning, while antibiotic treatment reversed the beneficial metabolic effects of FEX in obese and diabetic mice. This study uncovered a novel mechanism in which activation of intestinal FXR shaped the gut microbiota to activate TGR5/GLP-1 signaling to improve hepatic glucose and insulin sensitivity and increase adipose tissue browning. The gut microbiota plays a critical role in bile acid metabolism and signaling to regulate metabolic homeostasis in health and disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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Bidirectional GPR119 Agonism Requires Peptide YY and Glucose for Activity in Mouse and Human Colon Mucosa.

The lipid sensor G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) is highly expressed by enteroendocrine L-cells and pancreatic β-cells that release the hormones, peptide YY (PYY) and glucagonlike peptide 1, and insulin, respectively. Endogenous oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and the dietary metabolite, 2-monoacylglycerol (2-OG), can each activate GPR119. Here, we compared mucosal responses with selective, synthetic GPR119 agonists (AR440006 and AR231453) and the lipids, OEA, 2-OG, and N-oleoyldopamine (OLDA), monitoring epithelial ion transport as a readout for L-cell activity in native mouse and human gastrointestinal (GI) mucosae. We also assessed GPR119 modulation of colonic motility in wild-type (WT), GPR119-deficient (GPR119-/-), and PYY-deficient (PYY-/-) mice. The water-soluble GPR119 agonist, AR440006 (that cannot traverse epithelial tight junctions), elicited responses, when added apically or basolaterally in mouse and human colonic mucosae. In both species, GPR119 responses were PYY, Y1 receptor mediated, and glucose dependent. AR440006 efficacy matched the GI distribution of L-cells in WT tissues but was absent from GPR119-/- tissue. OEA and 2-OG responses were significantly reduced in the GPR119-/- colon, but OLDA responses were unchanged. Alternative L-cell activation via free fatty acid receptors 1, 3, and 4 and the G protein-coupled bile acid receptor TGR5 or by the melanocortin 4 receptor, was unchanged in GPR119-/- tissues. The GPR119 agonist slowed transit in WT but not the PYY-/- colon in vitro. AR440006 (intraperitoneally) slowed WT colonic and upper-GI transit significantly in vivo. These data indicate that luminal or blood-borne GPR119 agonism can stimulate L-cell PYY release with paracrine consequences and slower motility. We suggest that this glucose-dependent L-cell response to a gut-restricted GPR119 stimulus has potential therapeutic advantage in modulating insulinotropic signaling with reduced risk of hypoglycemia.

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Nanotherapeutics Containing Lithocholic Acid-Based Amphiphilic Scorpion-Like Macromolecules Reduce In Vitro Inflammation in Macrophages: Implications for Atherosclerosis.

Previously-designed amphiphilic scorpion-like macromolecule (AScM) nanoparticles (NPs) showed elevated potency to counteract oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) uptake in atherosclerotic macrophages, but failed to ameliorate oxLDL-induced inflammation. We designed a new class of composite AScMs incorporating lithocholic acid (LCA), a natural agonist for the TGR5 receptor that is known to counteract atherosclerotic inflammation, with two complementary goals: to simultaneously decrease lipid uptake and inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion by macrophages. LCA was conjugated to AScMs for favorable interaction with TGR5 and was also hydrophobically modified to enable encapsulation in the core of AScM-based NPs. Conjugates were formulated into negatively charged NPs with different core/shell combinations, inspired by the negative charge on oxLDL to enable competitive interaction with scavenger receptors (SRs). NPs with LCA-containing shells exhibited reduced sizes, and all NPs lowered oxLDL uptake to <30% of untreated, human derived macrophages in vitro, while slightly downregulating SR expression. Pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, including IL-1β, IL-8, and IL-10, is known to be modulated by TGR5, and was dependent on NP composition, with LCA-modified cores downregulating inflammation. Our studies indicate that LCA-conjugated AScM NPs offer a unique approach to minimize atherogenesis and counteract inflammation.

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INT-767 improves histopathological features in a diet-induced mouse model of biopsy-confirmed non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

To characterize the efficacy of the dual FXR/TGR5 receptor agonist INT-767 upon histological endpoints in a rodent model of diet-induced and biopsy-confirmed non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

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Reversal of metabolic disorders by pharmacological activation of bile acid receptors TGR5 and FXR.

Activation of the bile acid (BA) receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) or G protein-coupled bile acid receptor (GPBAR1; TGR5) improves metabolic homeostasis. In this study, we aim to determine the impact of pharmacological activation of bile acid receptors by INT-767 on reversal of diet-induced metabolic disorders, and the relative contribution of FXR vs. TGR5 to INT-767's effects on metabolic parameters.

2609 related Products with: Reversal of metabolic disorders by pharmacological activation of bile acid receptors TGR5 and FXR.

Androst-4-ene-3,17-dion-1 ENZYMATIC ASSAY KITS (CH LIVER DISEASES Total Bile LIVER DISEASES Total Bile Ofloxacin CAS Number [824 PSAP (Prostate Specific PSAP (Prostate Specific Cytokeratin AE1 (Acidic) Cytokeratin AE1 (Acidic) Glial Fibrillary Acidic Glial Fibrillary Acidic PSAP (Prostate Specific

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The pruritus of cholestasis: From bile acids to opiate agonists: Relevant after all these years.

The pruritus of cholestasis is a maddening complication of liver disease. Increased opioidergic tone contributes to the pruritus of cholestasis, as evidenced by the amelioration of the symptom by opiate antagonists. Obeticholic acid, an agonist of the farnesoid receptor, has been approved for the treatment of primary biliary cholangitis, a disease characterized by cholestasis; this drug is associated with pruritus, the cause of which is unknown. In animal models, bile acids, which accumulate in the body as a result of cholestasis, have been reported to cause scratching behavior mediated by the TGR5 receptor, in an opioid-dependent manner, in laboratory animals. As obeticholic acid also binds to TGR5, the pruritus caused by this drug is likely to be mediated by the opioid system. Lisophosphatidic acid, which has been reported to be increased in patients with cholestasis and pruritus, has been described to cause scratching behavior that is prevented by an opiate antagonist in laboratory animals, suggesting an opioid-receptor mediated mechanism of scratching. In summary, evidence continues to support a role of the endogenous opioid system in the pathogenesis of the pruritus of cholestasis.

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ENZYMATIC ASSAY KITS (CH LIVER DISEASES Total Bile LIVER DISEASES Total Bile FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Human Dnak (HSP70) His ta Topoisomerase II; Clone Topoisomerase II; Clone Topoisomerase II; Clone Toludine Blue Solution

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Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of a Series of Bile Acid Derivatives as FXR Agonists for Treatment of NASH.

Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) has become a particularly attractive target for the discovery of drugs for the treatment of liver and metabolic diseases. Obeticholic acid (), a FXR agonist, has advanced into clinical phase III trials in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but adverse effects (e.g., pruritus, LDL increase) were observed. Pruritus might be induced by Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5, GPBAR1), and there are chances to develop FXR agonists with higher selectivity over TGR5. In this letter, novel bile acids bearing different modifications on ring A and side chain of are reported and discussed. Our results indicated that the side chain of is amenable to a variety of chemical modifications with good FXR potency . Especially, compound not only showed promising FXR potency and excellent pharmacokinetic properties, but also proved superior pharmacological efficacy in the HFD + CCl model.

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Chronic infusion of taurolithocholate into the brain increases fat oxidation in mice.

Bile acids can function in the postprandial state as circulating signaling molecules in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism via the transmembrane receptor TGR5 and nuclear receptor FXR. Both receptors are present in the central nervous system, but their function in the brain is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of taurolithocholate (tLCA), a strong TGR5 agonist, and GW4064, a synthetic FXR agonist, on energy metabolism. We determined the effects of chronic i.c.v. infusion of tLCA, GW4064, or vehicle on energy expenditure, body weight and composition as well as tissue specific fatty acid uptake in mice equipped with osmotic minipumps. We found that i.c.v. administration of tLCA (final concentration in cerebrospinal fluid: 1 μM) increased fat oxidation (tLCA group: 0.083 ± 0.006 vs control group: 0.036 ± 0.023 kcal/h,  = 5.46,  = 0.04) and decreased fat mass (after 9 days of tLCA infusion: 1.35 ± 0.13 vs controls: 1.96 ± 0.23 g,  = 0.03). These changes were associated with enhanced uptake of triglyceride-derived fatty acids by brown adipose tissue and with browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue. I.c.v. administration of GW4064 (final concentration in cerebrospinal fluid: 10 μM) did not affect energy metabolism, body composition nor bile acid levels, negating a role of FXR in the central nervous system in metabolic control. In conclusion, bile acids such as tLCA may exert metabolic effects on fat metabolism via the brain.

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Bile acid metabolism and signaling in liver disease and therapy.

Bile acids play a critical role in the regulation of glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism through activation of the nuclear bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and membrane G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (Gpbar-1, aka TGR5). Agonist activation of FXR and TGR5 improves insulin and glucose sensitivity and stimulates energy metabolism to prevent diabetes, obesity, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Bile acids have both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions through FXR and TGR5 in the intestine and liver. In the intestine, bile acids activate FXR and TGR5 to stimulate stimulate fibroblast growth factor 15 and glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion. FXR and TGR5 agonists may have therapeutic potential for treating liver-related metabolic diseases, such as diabetes and NAFLD.

1387 related Products with: Bile acid metabolism and signaling in liver disease and therapy.

ENZYMATIC ASSAY KITS (CH LIVER DISEASES Total Bile LIVER DISEASES Total Bile Androst-4-ene-3,17-dion-1 Liver disease spectrum ti Multiple diseases of live Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge GST Inhibitor 2 (Ethacryn HBeAg test strip, Infecti

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