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#28949776   2017/09/26 Save this To Up

Beneficial effects of bile acid receptor agonists in pulmonary disease models.

Bile acids act as steroid hormones, controlling lipid, glucose and energy metabolism, as well as inflammation and fibrosis. Their actions are implemented through activation of nuclear (FXR, VDR, PXR) and membrane G protein-coupled (TGR5, S1PR2) receptors. Areas covered: This review discusses the potential of FXR and TGR5 as therapeutic targets in the treatment of pulmonary disorders linked to metabolism and/or inflammation. Obeticholic acid (OCA) is the most clinically advanced bile acid-derived agonist for FXR-mediated anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects. It therefore represents an attractive pharmacological approach for the treatment of lung conditions characterized by vascular and endothelial dysfunctions. Expert opinion: Inflammation, vascular remodeling and fibrotic processes characterize the progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). These processes are only partially targeted by the available therapeutic options and still represent a relevant medical need. The results hereby summarized demonstrate OCA efficacy in preventing experimental lung disorders, i.e. monocrotaline-induced PAH and bleomycin-induced fibrosis, by abating proinflammatory and vascular remodeling progression. TGR5 is also expressed in the lung, and targeting the TGR5 pathway, using the TGR5 agonist INT-777 or the dual FXR/TGR5 agonist INT-767, could also contribute to the treatment of pulmonary disorders mediated by inflammation and fibrosis.

1691 related Products with: Beneficial effects of bile acid receptor agonists in pulmonary disease models.

ENZYMATIC ASSAY KITS (CH LIVER DISEASES Total Bile LIVER DISEASES Total Bile Interferon-a Receptor Typ Mouse Anti-Human Interleu GST Inhibitor 2 (Ethacryn HBeAg test strip, Infecti Anti-HBeAg (HBeAb) test s Anti-HBcAg (HBcAb) test s HBV-5 panel test, sAg sAb HCV antibody test strip, HBV-3 panel test, HBsAg H

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#28894223   2017/09/12 Save this To Up

Long-term Administration of Nuclear Bile Acid Receptor FXR Agonist Prevents Spontaneous Hepatocarcinogenesis in Abcb4(-/-) Mice.

Altered bile acid (BA) signaling is associated with hepatotoxicity. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a nuclear receptor that transcriptionally regulates BA homeostasis. Mice with FXR ablation present hepatocarcinoma (HCC) due to high toxic BA levels. Mice with Abcb4 ablation accumulate toxic BA within the bile ducts and present HCC. We have previously shown that intestinal specific activation of FXR by transgenic VP16-FXR chimera is able to reduce BA pool size and prevent HCC. Here we tested chemical FXR activation by administering for 15 months the dual FXR/ membrane G protein-coupled receptor (TGR5) agonist INT-767 (6α-ethyl-3α,7α,23-trihydroxy-24-nor-5β-cholan-23-sulphate) to Fxr(-/-) and Abcb4(-/-) mice. HCC number and size were significantly reduced by INT-767 administration. In contrast, no changes in HCC tumor number and size were observed in Fxr(-/-) mice fed with or without INT-767. Notably, INT-767 preserved the hepatic parenchyma, improved hepatic function and down-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, in Abcb4(-/-) mice INT-767 prevented fibrosis by reducing collagen expression and deposition. Thus, long term activation of FXR is able to reduce BA pool, reprogram BA metabolism and prevent HCC. These data provide the impetus to address the bona fide therapeutic potential of FXR activation in disease with BA-associated development of HCC.

2123 related Products with: Long-term Administration of Nuclear Bile Acid Receptor FXR Agonist Prevents Spontaneous Hepatocarcinogenesis in Abcb4(-/-) Mice.

Nuclear Membrane Receptor Goat Anti-Human Farnesoid Goat Anti- Glucogon recep Interleukin-34 IL34 (N-t Interferon-a Receptor Typ Goat Anti-Human HMGB3 HMG Goat Anti-Human F2R PAR1, Goat Anti-Mouse APOBEC1, Mouse Anti-Human Interleu GST Inhibitor 2 (Ethacryn TGR5 Receptor Agonist RANK Ligand Soluble, Huma

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#28756460   2017/07/30 Save this To Up

Ursolic acid activates the TGR5 receptor to enhance GLP-1 secretion in type 1-like diabetic rats.

Endogenous Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5), G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1), regulates glucose metabolism. In animals, TGR5 activation by a chemical agonist may increase incretin secretion and reduce the blood sugar level. Recently, betulinic acid has been suggested to activate TGR5. Ursolic acid is a well-known pentacyclic triterpenoid that is similar to betulinic acid. It is of special interest to determine the potential effect of ursolic acid on TGR5. Therefore, we transfected cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells with the TGR5 gene. The functions of the transfected cells were confirmed via glucose uptake using a fluorescent indicator. Moreover, NCI-H716 cells that secreted incretin were also investigated, and the glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) levels were quantified using ELISA kits. In addition, streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1-like diabetic rats were used to identify the effect of ursolic acid in vivo. Ursolic acid concentration dependently increased glucose uptake in CHO-K1 cells expressing TGR5. In NCI-H716 cells, ursolic acid induced a concentration-dependent elevation in GLP-1 secretion, which was inhibited by triamterene at the effective concentrations to block TGR5. Ursolic acid also increased the plasma GLP-1 level via TGR5 activation, which was further characterized in vivo with type 1-like diabetic rats. Moreover, ursolic acid is more effective than betulinic acid in reduction of hyperglycemia and increase of GLP-1 secretion. Therefore, we demonstrated that ursolic acid can activate TGR5, enhancing GLP-1 secretion in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, ursolic acid is suitable for use in TGR5 activation.

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Top 4 types of cancer (co Interferon-a Receptor Typ interleukin 17 receptor C Native Parainfluenza Viru Native Parainfluenza Viru Native Parainfluenza Viru Native Influenza HA (A To Native Influenza HA (A To interferon-alpha receptor GLP 1 ELISA Kit, Rat Gluc N-Acetyl-2-O-(5-bromo-1H- (2S)-2-Amino-benzenebutan

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#28607110   2017/06/13 Save this To Up

The Bile Acid Receptor GPBAR1 Regulates the M1/M2 Phenotype of Intestinal Macrophages and Activation of GPBAR1 Rescues Mice from Murine Colitis.

GPBAR1 (TGR5 or M-BAR) is a G protein-coupled receptor for secondary bile acids that is highly expressed in monocytes/macrophages. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of GPBAR1 in mediating leukocyte trafficking in chemically induced models of colitis and investigate the therapeutic potential of BAR501, a small molecule agonist for GPBAR1. These studies demonstrated that GPBAR1 gene ablation enhanced the recruitment of classically activated macrophages in the colonic lamina propria and worsened the severity of inflammation. In contrast, GPBAR1 activation by BAR501 reversed intestinal inflammation in the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid and oxazolone models by reducing the trafficking of Ly6C(+) monocytes from blood to intestinal mucosa. Exposure to BAR501 shifted intestinal macrophages from a classically activated (CD11b(+), CCR7(+), F4/80(-)) to an alternatively activated (CD11b(+), CCR7(-), F4/80(+)) phenotype, reduced the expression of inflammatory genes (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, and CCL2 mRNAs), and attenuated the wasting syndrome and severity of colitis (≈70% reduction in the Colitis Disease Activity Index). The protective effect was lost in Gpbar1(-/-) mice. Exposure to BAR501 increased the colonic expression of IL-10 and TGF-β mRNAs and the percentage of CD4(+)/Foxp3(+) cells. The beneficial effects of BAR501 were lost in Il-10(-/-) mice. In a macrophage cell line, regulation of IL-10 by BAR501 was GPBAR1 dependent and was mediated by the recruitment of CREB to its responsive element in the IL-10 promoter. In conclusion, GPBAR1 is expressed in circulating monocytes and colonic macrophages, and its activation promotes a IL-10-dependent shift toward an alternatively activated phenotype. The targeting of GPBAR1 may offer therapeutic options in inflammatory bowel diseases.

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BACTERIOLOGY BACTEROIDES Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Androgen Receptor (Ab 650 Lymphatic vessel endothel TCP-1 theta antibody Sour Recombinant Thermostable Recombinant Thermostable Recombinant Thermostable Recombinant Human PKC the

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#28596381   2017/06/09 Save this To Up

A dual agonist of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the G protein-coupled receptor TGR5, INT-767, reverses age-related kidney disease in mice.

Even in healthy individuals, renal function gradually declines during aging. However, an observed variation in the rate of this decline has raised the possibility of slowing or delaying age-related kidney disease. One of the most successful interventional measures that slows down and delays age-related kidney disease is caloric restriction. We undertook the present studies to search for potential factors that are regulated by caloric restriction and act as caloric restriction mimetics. Based on our prior studies with the bile acid-activated nuclear hormone receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G protein-coupled membrane receptor TGR5 that demonstrated beneficial effects of FXR and TGR5 activation in the kidney, we reasoned that FXR and TGR5 could be excellent candidates. We therefore determined the effects of aging and caloric restriction on the expression of FXR and TGR5 in the kidney. We found that FXR and TGR5 expression levels are decreased in the aging kidney and that caloric restriction prevents these age-related decreases. Interestingly, in long-lived Ames dwarf mice, renal FXR and TGR5 expression levels were also increased. A 2-month treatment of 22-month-old C57BL/6J mice with the FXR-TGR5 dual agonist INT-767 induced caloric restriction-like effects and reversed age-related increases in proteinuria, podocyte injury, fibronectin accumulation, TGF-β expression, and, most notably, age-related impairments in mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial function. Furthermore, in podocytes cultured in serum obtained from old mice, INT-767 prevented the increases in the proinflammatory markers TNF-α, toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), and TLR4. In summary, our results indicate that FXR and TGR5 may play an important role in modulation of age-related kidney disease.

2600 related Products with: A dual agonist of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the G protein-coupled receptor TGR5, INT-767, reverses age-related kidney disease in mice.

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#28594916   2017/06/08 Save this To Up

Identification of key amino acid residues in the hTGR5-nomilin interaction and construction of its binding model.

TGR5, a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, is activated by bile acids. Because TGR5 promotes energy expenditure and improves glucose homeostasis, it is recognized as a key target in treating metabolic diseases. We previously showed that nomilin, a citrus limonoid, activates TGR5 and confers anti-obesity and anti-hyperglycemic effects in mice. Information on the TGR5-nomilin interaction regarding molecular structure, however, has not been reported. In the present study, we found that human TGR5 (hTGR5) shows higher nomilin responsiveness than does mouse TGR5 (mTGR5). Using mouse-human chimeric TGR5, we also found that three amino acid residues (Q77ECL1, R80ECL1, and Y893.29) are important in the hTGR5-nomilin interaction. Based on these results, an hTGR5-nomilin binding model was constructed using in silico docking simulation, demonstrating that four hydrophilic hydrogen-bonding interactions occur between nomilin and hTGR5. The binding mode of hTGR5-nomilin is vastly different from those of other TGR5 agonists previously reported, suggesting that TGR5 forms various binding patterns depending on the type of agonist. Our study promotes a better understanding of the structure of TGR5, and it may be useful in developing and screening new TGR5 agonists.

1834 related Products with: Identification of key amino acid residues in the hTGR5-nomilin interaction and construction of its binding model.

Rat intestinal fatty acid Fibroblast Growth Factor Fibroblast Growth Factor GST Inhibitor 2 (Ethacryn DNP X acid [6 (2,4 Dinitr DNP X acid, SE [6 (2,4 Di Standard Pipet Tips200ul Primary antibody GFR alp anti GFP antibody, rat mo EDANS acid [5 ((2 Aminoet EDANS acid [5 ((2 Aminoet EDANS sodium salt [5 ((2

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#28580281   2017/06/05 Save this To Up

Glucagon-like peptide-2 promotes gallbladder refilling via a TGR5-independent, GLP-2R-dependent pathway.

Glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) are secreted from enteroendocrine cells in response to nutrients and bile acids and control metabolism via actions on structurally-related yet distinct G protein coupled receptors. GLP-1 regulates gut motility, appetite, islet function, and glucose homeostasis, whereas GLP-2 enhances intestinal nutrient absorption. GLP-1R agonists are used to treat diabetes and obesity, and a GLP-2R agonist is approved to treat short bowel syndrome. Unexpectedly, reports of gallbladder disease have been associated with the use of both GLP-1R and GLP-2R agonists and after bariatric surgery, although the mechanisms remain unknown.

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#28478385   2017/05/07 Save this To Up

Farnesoid X receptor induces Takeda G-protein receptor 5 cross-talk to regulate bile acid synthesis and hepatic metabolism.

The bile acid-activated receptors, nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the membrane Takeda G-protein receptor 5 (TGR5), are known to improve glucose and insulin sensitivity in obese and diabetic mice. However, the metabolic roles of these two receptors and the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we studied the effects of the dual FXR and TGR5 agonist INT-767 on hepatic bile acid synthesis and intestinal secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in wild-type, Fxr(-/-), and Tgr5(-/-) mice. INT-767 efficaciously stimulated intracellular Ca(2+) levels, cAMP activity, and GLP-1 secretion and improved glucose and lipid metabolism more than did the FXR-selective obeticholic acid and TGR5-selective INT-777 agonists. Interestingly, INT-767 reduced expression of the genes in the classic bile acid synthesis pathway but induced those in the alternative pathway, which is consistent with decreased taurocholic acid and increased tauromuricholic acids in bile. Furthermore, FXR activation induced expression of FXR target genes, including fibroblast growth factor 15, and unexpectedly Tgr5 and prohormone convertase 1/3 gene expression in the ileum. We identified an FXR-responsive element on the Tgr5 gene promoter. Fxr(-/-) and Tgr5(-/-) mice exhibited reduced GLP-1 secretion, which was stimulated by INT-767 in the Tgr5(-/-) mice but not in the Fxr(-/-) mice. Our findings uncovered a novel mechanism in which INT-767 activation of FXR induces Tgr5 gene expression and increases Ca(2+) levels and cAMP activity to stimulate GLP-1 secretion and improve hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Activation of both FXR and TGR5 may therefore represent an effective therapy for managing hepatic steatosis, obesity, and diabetes.

1997 related Products with: Farnesoid X receptor induces Takeda G-protein receptor 5 cross-talk to regulate bile acid synthesis and hepatic metabolism.

Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Ab 650 Lymphatic vessel endothel AZD-3514 Mechanisms: Andr Recombinant Human Endothe Recombinant Human Androge G Protein Coupled Recepto G Protein Coupled Recepto G Protein Coupled Recepto G Protein Coupled Recepto G Protein Coupled Recepto

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#28435224   2017/04/24 Save this To Up

Investigation of triamterene as an inhibitor of the TGR5 receptor: identification in cells and animals.

G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1, also known as TGR5) has been shown to participate in glucose homeostasis. In animal models, a TGR5 agonist increases incretin secretion to reduce hyperglycemia. Many agonists have been developed for clinical use. However, the effects of TGR5 blockade have not been studied extensively, with the exception of studies using TGR5 knockout mice. Therefore, we investigated the potential effect of triamterene on TGR5.

1799 related Products with: Investigation of triamterene as an inhibitor of the TGR5 receptor: identification in cells and animals.

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#27987324   2016/12/17 Save this To Up

TUDCA: An Agonist of the Bile Acid Receptor GPBAR1/TGR5 With Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Microglial Cells.

Bile acids are steroid acids found in the bile of mammals. The bile acid conjugate tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is neuroprotective in different animal models of stroke and neurological diseases. We have previously shown that TUDCA has anti-inflammatory effects on glial cell cultures and in a mouse model of acute neuroinflammation. We show now that microglial cells (central nervous system resident macrophages) express the G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1/Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5 (GPBAR1/TGR5) in vivo and in vitro. TUDCA binding to GPBAR1/TGR5 caused an increase in intracellular cAMP levels in microglia that induced anti-inflammatory markers, while reducing pro-inflammatory ones. This anti-inflammatory effect of TUDCA was inhibited by small interference RNA for GPBAR1/TGR5 receptor, as well as by treatment with a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. In the mouse model of acute neuroinflammation, treating the animals with TUDCA was clearly anti-inflammatory. TUDCA biased the microglial phenotype in vivo and in vitro toward the anti-inflammatory. The bile acid receptor GPBAR1/TGR5 could be a new therapeutic target for pathologies coursing with neuroinflammation and microglia activation, such as traumatic brain injuries, stroke, or neurodegenerative diseases. TUDCA and other GPBAR1/TGR5 agonists need to be further investigated, to determine their potential in attenuating the neuropathologies associated with microglia activation. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2231-2245, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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