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Genome-wide association study identifies loci and candidate genes for internal organ weights in Simmental beef cattle.

Cattle internal organs as accessible raw materials have a long history of being widely used in beef processing, feed and pharmaceutical industry. These traits not only are of economic interest to breeders, but they are intrinsically linked to many valuable traits, such as growth, health, and productivity. Using the Illumina Bovine HD 770K SNP array, we performed a genome-wide association study for heart weight (HW), liver weight (LIW), spleen weight (SW), lung weight (LUW) and kidney weight (KW) in 1217 Simmental cattle. In our research, 38 significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (p<1.49×10) were identified for 5 internal organ weight traits. These SNPs are within or near 13 genes and some of them have been reported previously, including NDUFAF4, LCORL, BT.94996, SLIT2, FAM184B, LAP3, BBS12, MECOM, CD300LF, HSD17B3, TLR4, MXI1 and MB21D2. In addition, we detected four haplotype blocks on BTA6 containing 18 significant SNPs associated with SW. Our results offer worthy insights into understanding the genetic mechanisms of internal organs' development, with potential application in breeding programs of Simmental beef cattle.

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Role of the high mobility group box 1 signalling axes via the receptor for advanced glycation end-products and toll-like receptor-4 in the immunopathology of oral lichen planus: a potential drug target?

High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is an extremely conserved DNA-binding protein that stabilizes nucleosomes and facilitates gene transcription in mammalian cells. When released extracellularly, HMGB1 becomes an alarmin that can mediate systemic diseases. High mobility group box 1 signals via two main receptors: receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) and toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4). We hypothesized that HMGB1 expression is increased in patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) relative to healthy controls. Therefore, HMGB1 and its receptors were mapped in tissue biopsies from 25 patients with OLP and from 20 healthy controls by immunostaining and ImageJ analysis. High mobility group box 1 was induced in oral keratinocytes in all patients with OLP. The band-like cell infiltrate in patients with OLP revealed very strong staining for RAGE. Likewise, TLR4 was overexpressed throughout OLP mucosa which co-localized with HMGB1. In conclusion, we suggest that OLP could partly be an HMGB1-mediated condition by creating a proinflammatory loop cycle via RAGE- and TLR4-signalling axes, which may contribute to the chronicity of this disease.

1743 related Products with: Role of the high mobility group box 1 signalling axes via the receptor for advanced glycation end-products and toll-like receptor-4 in the immunopathology of oral lichen planus: a potential drug target?

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Immune Characterization of Bone Marrow-Derived Models of Mucosal and Connective Tissue Mast Cells.

It is well appreciated that mast cells (MCs) demonstrate tissue-specific imprinting, with different biochemical and functional properties between connective tissue MCs (CTMCs) and mucosal MCs (MMCs). Although in vitro systems have been developed to model these different subsets, there has been limited investigation into the functional characteristics of the 2 major MC subsets. Here, we report the immunologic characterization of 2 MCs subsets developed in vitro from bone marrow progenitors modeling MMCs and CTMCs.

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Histone Deacetylase 2 Inhibitor CAY10683 Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide Induced Neuroinflammation Through Attenuating TLR4/NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

Neuroinflammation involves in the progression of many central nervous system diseases. Several studies have shown that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors modulated inflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated microglia. While, the mechanism is still unclear. The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of HDAC2 inhibitor CAY10683 on inflammatory responses and TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathways in LPS activated BV2 microglial cells and LPS induced mice neuroinflammation. The effect of CAY10683 on cell viability of BV2 microglial cells was detected by CCK-8 assay. The expressions of inflammatory cytokines were analyzed by western blotting and RT-PCR respectively. The TLR4 protein expression was measured by western blotting, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry respectively. The protein expressions of MYD88, phospho-NF-κB p65, NF-κB-p65, acetyl-H3 (AH3), H3, and HDAC2 were analyzed by western blotting. We found that CAY10683 could inhibit expression levels of inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and IL-1β in LPS activated BV2 microglial cells and LPS induced mice neuroinflammation. It could induce TLR4, MYD88, phospho-NF-κB p65, and HDAC2 expressions. Moreover, CAY10683 increased the acetylation of histones H3 in LPS activated BV2 microglial cells and LPS induced mice neuroinflammation. Taken together, our findings suggested that HDAC2 inhibitor CAY10683 could suppress neuroinflammatory responses and TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathways by acetylation after LPS stimulation.

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Boxb mediate BALB/c mice corneal inflammation through a TLR4/MyD88-dependent signaling pathway in keratitis.

To investigate whether high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) Boxb exacerbates BALB/c mice corneal immune responses and inflammatory through the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88)-dependent signaling pathway in () keratitis.

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Activation of the Absent in Melanoma 2 Inflammasome in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells From Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Patients Leads to the Release of Pro-Fibrotic Mediators.

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic fibro-proliferative disease characterized by poor prognosis, with a mean survival of ~2-3 years after definite diagnosis. The cause of IPF is still unknown but it is a heterogeneous condition in which the aberrant deposition of extracellular matrix leads to extensive lung remodeling. This remodeling is a consequence of inflammatory responses, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. In this study, we first analyzed a bleomycin-induced mouse model, which showed that higher expression of IL-1β, but not IL-18, was correlated to pulmonary cell infiltration and fibrosis. Then, we found that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from IPF patients released IL-1α and IL-18 in a NLRP3- and calpain-independent manner after LPS ± ATP stimulation. Instead, the activation of the absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasome induced the release of IL-1α in a caspase-1-/caspase-8-independent manner; whereas IL-18 release was caspase-1 dependent. These effects correlated with the release of the pro-fibrotic TGF-β, which was induced by AIM2 activation in a caspase-1- and TLR4-independent manner, but dependent on IL-1α. In this context, the activation of AIM2 induced the release of caspase-4 from IPF-derived PBMCs, which correlated with the mRNA levels of this caspase that was higher in IPF than in healthy PBMCs. In conclusion, our findings identify a novel molecular mechanism whereby the activation of AIM2 could lead to the activation of the non-canonical inflammasome (caspase-4 dependent) that induces the release of IL-1α responsible for the release of TGF-β from PBMCs of IPF patients.

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Contribution of TLR4 signaling in intermittent hypoxia-mediated atherosclerosis progression.

Intermittent hypoxia (IH), a typical character of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), is related to atherogenesis. However, the role of IH on atherosclerosis (AS) progression and the mechanisms involved remains poorly understood.

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Inhibition of autophagy with 3-methyladenine is protective in a lethal model of murine endotoxemia and polymicrobial sepsis.

Here, the regulatory role of autophagy is examined in both an LPS-induced lethal endotoxic shock mouse model and cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) mouse model. Autophagy-inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and autophagy-enhancer rapamycin were administrated to mice challenged with LPS or CLP. Animals challenged with LPS or CLP combined with 3-MA displayed increased survival after endotoxemia, but LPS combined with rapamycin worsened the endotoxic shock of the mice. Among the different organs studied, the lungs and intestines exhibited significant differences among LPS alone, LPS combined with 3-MA and LPS combined with rapamycin. LPS combined with 3-MA attenuated the inflammatory damages of these organs as compared with LPS alone. In contrast, LPS combined with rapamycin increased damage in these organs. Consistently, serum inflammatory mediators TNF-α and IL-6 were decreased by the treatment of LPS combined with 3-MA as compared with LPS alone, while administration of LPS combined with rapamycin increased the serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Similar results were found in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages exposed to LPS. Moreover, the regulatory effect of autophagy to endotoxic shock is dependent on the TLR4 signaling pathway. Our results demonstrate the central role of autophagy in the regulation of endotoxic shock and its potential modulation for endotoxic shock treatment.

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TLR agonist combinations that stimulate Th type I polarizing responses from human neonates.

Each year millions of neonates die due to vaccine preventable infectious diseases. Our study seeks to develop novel neonatal vaccines and improve immunogenicity of early childhood vaccines by incorporating TLR agonist-adjuvant combinations that overcome the inherent neonatal Th2 bias and stimulate Th1 polarizing response from neonatal APCs. We systematically stimulated cord blood mononuclear cells with single and multiple combinations of TLR agonists and measured levels of IL-12p70, IFN-γ, IFN-α, IL-10, IL-13, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β from cell culture supernatants. APC-specific surface expression levels of costimulatory markers CD40, CD83 and PD-L1 were assessed by flow cytometry. Whole blood assays were included to account for the effect of plasma inhibitory factors and APC intracellular TNF-α and IL-12p40 secretions were measured. We found robust Th1 polarizing IL-12p70, IFN-γ and IFN-α responses when cord blood APCs were stimulated with TLR agonist combinations that contained Poly I:C, Monophosphoryl Lipid A (MPLA) or R848. Addition of class A CpG oligonucleotide (ODN) to Th1 polarizing TLR agonist combinations significantly reduced cord blood IL-12p70 and IFN-γ levels and addition of a TLR2 agonist induced significantly high Th2 polarizing IL-13. Multi-TLR agonist combinations that included R848 induced lower inhibitory PD-L1 expression on cord blood classical dendritic cells than CpG ODN-containing combinations. Incorporation of combination adjuvants containing TLR3, TLR4 and TLR7/8 agonists to neonatal vaccines may be an effective strategy to overcome neonatal Th2 bias.

1485 related Products with: TLR agonist combinations that stimulate Th type I polarizing responses from human neonates.

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The TLR4-IRE1α pathway activation contributes to palmitate-elicited lipotoxicity in hepatocytes.

Lipotoxicity induced by saturated fatty acids (SFAs) plays a pathological role in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, the exact mechanism(s) remain to be clearly elucidated. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 plays a fundamental role in activating the innate immune system. Intriguingly, hepatocytes express TLR4 and machinery for TLR4 signalling pathway. That liver-specific TLR4 knockout mice are protective against diet-induced NAFLD suggests that hepatocyte TLR4 signalling pathway plays an important role in NAFLD pathogenesis. Herein, using cultured hepatocytes, we sought to directly examine the role of TLR4 signalling pathway in palmitate-elicited hepatotoxicity and to elucidate underlying mechanism(s). Our data reveal that palmitate exposure up-regulates TLR4 expression at both mRNA and protein levels in hepatocytes, which are associated with NF-κB activation. The inhibition of TLR4 signalling pathway through both pharmacological and genetic approaches abolished palmitate-induced cell death, suggesting that TLR4 signalling pathway activation contributes to palmitate-induced hepatotoxicity. Mechanistic investigations demonstrate that inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α), one of three major signal transduction pathways activated during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, is the downstream target of palmitate-elicited TLR4 activation and mechanistically implicated in TLR4 activation-triggered cell death in response to palmitate exposure. Collectively, our data identify that the TLR4-IRE1α pathway activation contributes to palmitate-elicited lipotoxicity in hepatocytes. Our findings suggest that targeting TLR4-IRE1α pathway can be a potential therapeutic choice for the treatment of NAFLD as well as other metabolic disorders, with lipotoxicity being the principal pathomechanism.

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