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#29039444   2017/10/17 Save this To Up

Vaspin protects against LPS‑induced ARDS by inhibiting inflammation, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species generation in pulmonary endothelial cells via the Akt/GSK‑3β pathway.

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by uncontrolled extravasation of protein‑rich fluids, which is caused by disruption and dysfunction of the barrier of pulmonary endothelial cells (ECs). Visceral adipose tissue‑derived serine protease inhibitor (vaspin) is a novel adipokine with pleiotropic properties, which has been reported to exert beneficial effects against obesity‑associated systemic vascular diseases; however, its effects on ARDS remain unknown. In the present study, mice were subjected to systemic administration of adenoviral vector expressing vaspin (Ad‑vaspin) to examine its effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced ARDS in vivo. Histological analysis was then conducted, and cytokine [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α, interleukin (IL)‑6 and IL‑10] levels, and intercellular cell adhesion molecule‑1 (ICAM‑1) and adherens junctions (AJs) expression were detected. In addition, human pulmonary microvascular ECs (HPMECs) were treated with recombinant human (rh)‑vaspin to further investigate its molecular basis and underlying mechanism. The mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNF‑α and IL‑6) and endothelial‑specific adhesion markers [vascular cell adhesion molecule‑1 and E‑selectin], activation of nuclear factor‑κB, and cell viability and apoptosis were then examined. Furthermore, the expression of AJs and organization of the cytoskeleton, as well as expression and activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined. The results indicated that Ad‑vaspin protected against LPS‑induced ARDS by alleviating the pulmonary inflammatory response and pulmonary EC barrier dysfunction in mice, which was accompanied by activation of the protein kinase B (Akt)/glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)‑3β pathway. In addition, pretreatment of HPMECs with rh‑vaspin attenuated inflammation, apoptosis and ROS generation without alterations in AJs and cytoskeletal organization following LPS insult, which was accompanied by activation of the Akt/GSK3β pathway. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that vaspin protects against LPS‑induced ARDS by reversing EC barrier dysfunction via the suppression of inflammation, apoptosis and ROS production in pulmonary ECs, at least partially via activation of the Akt/GSK3β pathway. These findings provide evidence of a causal link between vaspin and EC dysfunction in ARDS, and suggest a potential therapeutic intervention for patients with ARDS.

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#29020797   2017/10/12 Save this To Up

Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase Attenuates Renal Oxidative Stress through the Activation of AMPK in Diabetic Nephropathy.

Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. We evaluated whether extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) has a renoprotective effect through activation of AMPK in diabetic kidneys.

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#29017854   2017/10/11 Save this To Up

PEGylated TRAIL ameliorates experimental inflammatory arthritis by regulation of Th17 cells and regulatory T cells.

TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a death ligand that can induce apoptosis in cells expressing its cognate death receptors (DRs). Previously, we demonstrated the therapeutic potential of recombinant human TRAIL in experimental rheumatoid arthritis (RA) models. However, the mechanisms of how DR-mediated apoptosis elicits these actions is not known. Here, we show that systemically administering a potent, long-acting PEGylated TRAIL (TRAILPEG) is profoundly anti-rheumatic against two complementary experimental RA mouse models, collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA), via targeting IL-17 secreting Th17 cells and regulatory T cells (Treg). Systemic administration of TRAILPEG after disease onset ameliorated the severity of inflammatory arthritis including arthritis indices, paw thickness, cartilage damage and neutrophil infiltration in both CIA and CAIA models. Additionally, the levels of inflammatory molecules (p-p65, ICAM-1, Cox-2, MMP3, and iNOS), pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-17) and accumulation of activated macrophages were significantly reduced after the TRAILPEG treatment. Importantly, TRAILPEG decreased the number of pro-inflammatory Th17 cells in inflamed arthritic joints through TRAIL-induced apoptosis while increasing anti-inflammatory Treg population in vivo. These results suggest that TRAILPEG ameliorates autoimmunity by targeting the Th 17-Tregs axis, making it a promising candidate drug for the treatment of RA.

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#28990932   2017/10/09 Save this To Up

Uromodulin p.Cys147Trp mutation drives kidney disease by activating ER stress and apoptosis.

Uromodulin-associated kidney disease (UAKD) is caused by mutations in the uromodulin (UMOD) gene that result in a misfolded form of UMOD protein, which is normally secreted by nephrons. In UAKD patients, mutant UMOD is poorly secreted and accumulates in the ER of distal kidney epithelium, but its role in disease progression is largely unknown. Here, we modeled UMOD accumulation in mice by expressing the murine equivalent of the human UMOD p.Cys148Trp point mutation (UmodC147W/+ mice). Like affected humans, these UmodC147W/+ mice developed spontaneous and progressive kidney disease with organ failure over 24 weeks. Analysis of diseased kidneys and purified UMOD-producing cells revealed early activation of the PKR-like ER kinase/activating transcription factor 4 (PERK/ATF4) ER stress pathway, innate immune mediators, and increased apoptotic signaling, including caspase-3 activation. Unexpectedly, we also detected autophagy deficiency. Human cells expressing UMOD p.Cys147Trp recapitulated the findings in UmodC147W/+ mice, and autophagy activation with mTOR inhibitors stimulated the intracellular removal of aggregated mutant UMOD. Human cells producing mutant UMOD were susceptible to TNF-α- and TRAIL-mediated apoptosis due to increased expression of the ER stress mediator tribbles-3. Blocking TNF-α in vivo with the soluble recombinant fusion protein TNFR:Fc slowed disease progression in UmodC147W/+ mice by reducing active caspase-3, thereby preventing tubule cell death and loss of epithelial function. These findings reveal a targetable mechanism for disease processes involved in UAKD.

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#28982738   2017/10/06 Save this To Up

Intranasal administration of recombinant progranulin inhibits bronchial smooth muscle hyperresponsiveness in mouse allergic asthma.

Progranulin (PGRN) is a growth factor with multiple biological functions, and has been suggested as an endogenous inhibitor of TNFα-mediated signaling. TNFα is believed as one of the important mediators of the pathogenesis of asthma, including airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). In the present study, effects of recombinant PGRN on the TNFα-mediated signaling and the antigen-induced hyper-contractility were examined in bronchial smooth muscles (BSMs) both in vitro and in vivo. Cultured human BSM cells (hBSMCs) and male BALB/c mice were used. The mice were sensitized and repeatedly challenged with ovalbumin antigen. Animals also received intranasal administrations of recombinant PGRN into the airways 1 hour before each antigen inhalation. In hBSMCs, PGRN inhibited both the degradation of IκB-α (an index of NF-κB activation) and the up-regulation of RhoA (a contractile machinery-associated protein that contributes to the BSM hyperresponsiveness) induced by TNFα, indicating that PGRN has an ability to inhibit TNFα-mediated signaling also in the BSM cells. In BSMs of the repeatedly antigen-challenged mice, an augmented contractile responsiveness to acetylcholine with an up-regulation of RhoA was observed: both the events were ameliorated by the pretreatments with PGRN intranasally. Interestingly, a significant decrease in the PGRN expression was found in the airways of the repeatedly antigen-challenged mice than those of control animals. In conclusion, exogenously applied PGRN into the airways ameliorated the antigen-induced BSM hyperresponsiveness, probably by blocking TNFα-mediated response. Increasing PGRN levels might be a promising therapeutic for the AHR in allergic asthma.

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#28959956   2017/09/29 Save this To Up

ApoE4 markedly exacerbates tau-mediated neurodegeneration in a mouse model of tauopathy.

APOE4 is the strongest genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease. ApoE4 increases brain amyloid-β pathology relative to other ApoE isoforms. However, whether APOE independently influences tau pathology, the other major proteinopathy of Alzheimer disease and other tauopathies, or tau-mediated neurodegeneration, is not clear. By generating P301S tau transgenic mice on either a human ApoE knock-in (KI) or ApoE knockout (KO) background, here we show that P301S/E4 mice have significantly higher tau levels in the brain and a greater extent of somatodendritic tau redistribution by three months of age compared with P301S/E2, P301S/E3, and P301S/EKO mice. By nine months of age, P301S mice with different ApoE genotypes display distinct phosphorylated tau protein (p-tau) staining patterns. P301S/E4 mice develop markedly more brain atrophy and neuroinflammation than P301S/E2 and P301S/E3 mice, whereas P301S/EKO mice are largely protected from these changes. In vitro, E4-expressing microglia exhibit higher innate immune reactivity after lipopolysaccharide treatment. Co-culturing P301S tau-expressing neurons with E4-expressing mixed glia results in a significantly higher level of tumour-necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secretion and markedly reduced neuronal viability compared with neuron/E2 and neuron/E3 co-cultures. Neurons co-cultured with EKO glia showed the greatest viability with the lowest level of secreted TNF-α. Treatment of P301S neurons with recombinant ApoE (E2, E3, E4) also leads to some neuronal damage and death compared with the absence of ApoE, with ApoE4 exacerbating the effect. In individuals with a sporadic primary tauopathy, the presence of an ε4 allele is associated with more severe regional neurodegeneration. In individuals who are positive for amyloid-β pathology with symptomatic Alzheimer disease who usually have tau pathology, ε4-carriers demonstrate greater rates of disease progression. Our results demonstrate that ApoE affects tau pathogenesis, neuroinflammation, and tau-mediated neurodegeneration independently of amyloid-β pathology. ApoE4 exerts a 'toxic' gain of function whereas the absence of ApoE is protective.

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#28942176   2017/09/24 Save this To Up

Recombinant Brugia malayi pepsin inhibitor (rBm33) exploits host signaling events to regulate inflammatory responses associated with lymphatic filarial infections.

Prolonged existence of filarial parasites and their molecules within the host modulate the host immune system to instigate their survival and induce inflammatory responses that contribute to disease progression. Recombinant Brugia malayi pepsin inhibitor (rBm33) modulates the host immune responses by skewing towards Th1 responses characterized by secretion of inflammatory molecules such as TNF-α, IL-6, nitric oxide (NO). Here we also specified the molecular signaling events triggered by rBm33 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of filarial endemic normals (EN). rBm33 predominantly enhanced the levels of nitric oxide in cultured PBMCs but did not result in oxidative stress to the host cells. Further, rBm33 treatment of human PBMCs resulted in higher GSH/GSSG levels. MYD88 dependent activation was found to be associated with rBm33 specific inflammatory cytokine production. rBm33 triggered intracellular signaling events also involved JNK activation in host PBMCs. In addition, c-Fos and not NF-κB was identified as the transcription factor regulating the expression of inflammatory cytokines in rBm33 stimulated PBMCs. rBm33 marked its role in filarial pathology by altered levels of growth factors but did not have a significant impact on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) activity of host PBMCs. Thus, the study outlines the signaling network of rBm33 induced inflammatory responses within the host immune cells.

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#28940886   2017/09/23 Save this To Up

Higher Order Structures of Adalimumab, Infliximab and Their Complexes with TNFα Revealed by Electron Microscopy.

Adalimumab and Infliximab are recombinant IgG1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind and neutralize human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). TNFα forms a stable homotrimer with unique surface-exposed sites for Adalimumab, Infliximab and TNF receptor binding. Here, we report the structures of Adalimumab-TNFα and Infliximab-TNFα complexes modeled from negative stain EM and cryo-EM images. EM images reveal complex structures consisting of 1:1, 1:2, 2:2 and 3:2 complexes of Adalimumab-TNFα and Infliximab-TNFα. The 2:2 complex structures of Adalimumab-TNFα and Infliximab-TNFα show diamond-shaped profiles and the 2-D class averages reveal distinct orientations of the Fab domains, indicating different binding modes by Adalimumab and Infliximab to TNFα. After separation by size exclusion chromatography and analysis by negative stain EM, the 3:2 complexes of Adalimumab-TNFα or Infliximab-TNFα complexes are more complicated but retain features recognized in the 2:2 complexes. Preliminary cryo-EM analysis of 3:2 Adalimumab-TNFα complex generated a low-resolution density consistent with a TNFα trimer bound with 3 Fab domains from 3 individual antibody molecules, while each antibody molecule binds to 2 molecules of TNFα trimer. The Fc domains are not visible in the reconstruction. These results show the two mAbs form structurally distinct complexes with TNFα. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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#28939905   2017/09/23 Save this To Up

Expression and Differential Responsiveness of Central Nervous System Glial Cell Populations to the Acute Phase Protein Serum Amyloid A.

Acute-phase response is a systemic reaction to environmental/inflammatory insults and involves hepatic production of acute-phase proteins, including serum amyloid A (SAA). Extrahepatically, SAA immunoreactivity is found in axonal myelin sheaths of cortex in Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis (MS), although its cellular origin is unclear. We examined the responses of cultured rat cortical astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) to master pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and lipopolysaccaride (LPS). TNF-α time-dependently increased Saa1 (but not Saa3) mRNA expression in purified microglia, enriched astrocytes, and OPCs (as did LPS for microglia and astrocytes). Astrocytes depleted of microglia were markedly less responsive to TNF-α and LPS, even after re-addition of microglia. Microglia and enriched astrocytes showed complementary Saa1 expression profiles following TNF-α or LPS challenge, being higher in microglia with TNF-α and higher in astrocytes with LPS. Recombinant human apo-SAA stimulated production of both inflammatory mediators and its own mRNA in microglia and enriched, but not microglia-depleted astrocytes. Co-ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide/luteolin, an established anti-inflammatory/ neuroprotective agent, reduced Saa1 expression in OPCs subjected to TNF-α treatment. These last data, together with past findings suggest that co-ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide/luteolin may be a novel approach in the treatment of inflammatory demyelinating disorders like MS.

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#28934245   2017/09/21 Save this To Up

Angiopoietin-like protein 2 regulates Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in human gingival epithelial cells.

Angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2) maintains tissue homeostasis by inducing inflammation and angiogenesis. It is produced in infiltrating immune cells or resident cells, such as adipocytes, vascular endothelial cells, and tumor cells. We hypothesized that ANGPTL2 might play an important role as a unique mediator in both systemic and periodontal disease. We demonstrated an increased ANGPTL2 concentration in gingival crevicular fluid from chronic periodontitis patients. Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment strongly induced ANGPTL2 mRNA and protein levels in Ca9-22 human gingival epithelial cells. Recombinant human ANGPTL2 increased interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA and protein levels in Ca9-22 cells. Small-interfering (si)RNA-mediated ANGPTL2 knockdown in Ca9-22 cells reduced IL-1β, IL-8 and TNF-α mRNA and protein levels compared with control siRNA (p<0.01) in P. gingivalis LPS-stimulated Ca9-22 cells. Antibodies against integrin α5β1, an ANGPTL receptor, blocked induction of these inflammatory cytokines in P. gingivalis LPS-treated Ca9-22 cells, suggesting that secreted ANGPTL induces inflammatory cytokines in gingival epithelial cells via an autocrine loop. The classic sequential cascade of P. gingivalis LPS → inflammatory cytokine induction is well established. However, in the current study, we reveal a novel cascade comprising sequential P. gingivalis LPS → ANGPTL2 → integrin α5β1 → inflammatory cytokine induction, which might be responsible for inducing potent periodontal disorganization activity in gingival epithelial cells. Via this pathway, ANGPTL2 functions in the pathogenesis of periodontitis and contributes to prolonging chronic inflammation in patients with systemic disease.

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