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Differential Characterization of Temozolomide-Resistant Human Glioma Cells.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common type of primary and malignant tumor occurring in the adult central nervous system. Temozolomide (TMZ) has been considered to be one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents to prolong the survival of patients with glioblastoma. Many glioma cells develop drug-resistance against TMZ that is mediated by increasing O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) levels. The expression of connexin 43 was increased in the resistant U251 subline compared with the parental U251 cells. The expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated regulators, including vimentin, N-cadherin, and β-catenin, was reduced in the resistant U251 subline. In addition, the resistant U251 subline exhibited decreased cell migratory activity and monocyte adhesion ability compared to the parental U251 cells. Furthermore, the resistant U251 subline also expressed lower levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 after treatment with recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. These findings suggest differential characteristics in the drug-resistant GBM from the parental glioma cells.

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Human filarial proteins attenuate chronic colitis in an experimental mouse model.

Encouraged by our earlier results of promising therapeutic effect of filarial recombinant proteins BmALT2, BmCys and WbL2 individually in the mouse model of acute ulcerative colitis, in this study, these proteins have been explored individually and in different combinations for their therapeutic potential in dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced chronic colitis mice. These mice, treated with filarial proteins, showed reduced disease parameters including body weight loss, disease activity index, macroscopic and histopathological scores of colon and myeloperoxidase activity in colonic mucosa. Among various treatment schemes, rBmALT2 + rBmCys which showed most pronounced therapeutic implication was found to downregulate the mRNA expressions of IFN-γ and TNF-α and upregulate IL-10 and TGF-β expression in the splenocytes. Also, increase in level of IgG1 and IgG2a isotypes in the sera of rBmALT2 + rBmCys-treated colitis mice was noted. Activated NF-κB level was found to be reduced in the colon of treated colitis mice compared to untreated one. In conclusion, filarial proteins in combination have been shown to improve the clinicopathologic status of chronic colitis through suppression of pro-inflammatory immune response most possibly in NF-κB-dependent manner. We propose this therapeutic strategy to be tested further to be considered as an effective option in chronic colitis.

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Oral immunization with recombinant Lactobacillus casei expressing OmpAI confers protection against Aeromonas veronii challenge in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

Aeromonas veronii is a gram-negative pathogen capable of infecting both fish and mammals, including humans, and natural infection in fish results in irreparable damage to the aquaculture industry. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have a number of properties that make them attractive candidates as delivery vehicles for presentation to the mucosa sites of compounds with pharmaceutical interest, in particular vaccines. In this study, we generated two recombinant Lactobacillus casei (surface-displayed or secretory) expressing the OmpAI of A.veronii and evaluated the effect on immune responses in fish model. A 1022 bp gene fragment of the 42 kDa OmpAI antigen of A.veronii was cloned into pPG-1 (surface-displayed) and pPG-2 (secretory) and electrotransformed into Lactobacillus casei CC16. The recombinant plasmid in L.casei could be stably inherited over 50 generations, and production of OmpAI protein had slight limited effects on cells growth. Treatment of common carp with the recombinant vaccine candidate stimulated high serum or skin mucus specific antibody titers and induced a higher lysozyme, ACP, SOD activity, while fish fed with Lc-pPG or PBS had no detectable immobilizing immune responses. Expression of IL-10, IL-β, IFN-γ, TNF-α genes in the group immunized with recombinant L.casei were significantly (P < 0.05) up regulated as compared with control groups, indicating that inflammatory response and cell immune response were triggered. Further, viable recombinant L.casei strains were directly delivered and survive throughout the intestinal tract, the recombinant OmpAI was also detected in intestine mucosal. The results showed that common carp received Lc-pPG1-OmpAI (66.7%) and Lc-pPG2-OmpAI (50.0%) had higher survival rates compared with the controls after challenge with A.veronii, indicating that Lc-pPG1-OmpAI and Lc-pPG2-OmpAI had beneficial effects on immune response and enhanced disease resistance of common carp against A.veronii infection. Our study here demonstrates, for the first time, the ability of recombinant L.casei as oral vaccine against A.veronii infection in carps. The combination of OmpAI delivery and LAB approach may be a promising mucosal therapeutic agent for treating and controlling A.veronii.

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Human neutrophils are targets to paracoccin, a lectin expressed by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

Paracoccin (PCN), a lectin expressed by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb), is known to exert activities on the fungal biology, as well as different immune cells of myeloid origin. The aim of this study was to investigate the direct interaction of the recombinant form of the lectin (rPCN) with neutrophils, a neglected area.

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ApoE4 markedly exacerbates tau-mediated neurodegeneration in a mouse model of tauopathy.

APOE4 is the strongest genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease. ApoE4 increases brain amyloid-β pathology relative to other ApoE isoforms. However, whether APOE independently influences tau pathology, the other major proteinopathy of Alzheimer disease and other tauopathies, or tau-mediated neurodegeneration, is not clear. By generating P301S tau transgenic mice on either a human ApoE knock-in (KI) or ApoE knockout (KO) background, here we show that P301S/E4 mice have significantly higher tau levels in the brain and a greater extent of somatodendritic tau redistribution by three months of age compared with P301S/E2, P301S/E3, and P301S/EKO mice. By nine months of age, P301S mice with different ApoE genotypes display distinct phosphorylated tau protein (p-tau) staining patterns. P301S/E4 mice develop markedly more brain atrophy and neuroinflammation than P301S/E2 and P301S/E3 mice, whereas P301S/EKO mice are largely protected from these changes. In vitro, E4-expressing microglia exhibit higher innate immune reactivity after lipopolysaccharide treatment. Co-culturing P301S tau-expressing neurons with E4-expressing mixed glia results in a significantly higher level of tumour-necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secretion and markedly reduced neuronal viability compared with neuron/E2 and neuron/E3 co-cultures. Neurons co-cultured with EKO glia showed the greatest viability with the lowest level of secreted TNF-α. Treatment of P301S neurons with recombinant ApoE (E2, E3, E4) also leads to some neuronal damage and death compared with the absence of ApoE, with ApoE4 exacerbating the effect. In individuals with a sporadic primary tauopathy, the presence of an ε4 allele is associated with more severe regional neurodegeneration. In individuals who are positive for amyloid-β pathology with symptomatic Alzheimer disease who usually have tau pathology, ε4-carriers demonstrate greater rates of disease progression. Our results demonstrate that ApoE affects tau pathogenesis, neuroinflammation, and tau-mediated neurodegeneration independently of amyloid-β pathology. ApoE4 exerts a 'toxic' gain of function whereas the absence of ApoE is protective.

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Estrogen receptor β-dependent Notch1 activation protects vascular endothelium against tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-induced apoptosis.

Unlike age-matched men, premenopausal women benefit from cardiovascular protection. Estrogens protect against apoptosis of endothelial cells (ECs), one of the hallmarks of endothelial dysfunction leading to cardiovascular disorders, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. The inflammatory cytokine TNFα causes EC apoptosis while dysregulating the Notch pathway, a major contributor to EC survival. We have previously reported that 17β-estradiol (E2) treatment activates Notch signaling in ECs. Here, we sought to assess whether in TNFα-induced inflammation Notch is involved in E2-mediated protection of the endothelium. We treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with E2, TNFα, or both and found that E2 counteracts TNFα-induced apoptosis. When Notch1 was inhibited, this E2-mediated protection was not observed, whereas ectopic overexpression of Notch1 diminished TNFα-induced apoptosis. Moreover, TNFα reduced the levels of active Notch1 protein, which were partially restored by E2 treatment. Moreover, siRNA-mediated knockdown of estrogen receptor β (ERβ), but not ERα, abolished the effect of E2 on apoptosis. Additionally, the E2-mediated regulation of the levels of active Notch1 was abrogated after silencing ERβ. In summary, our results indicate that E2 requires active Notch1 through a mechanism involving ERβ to protect the endothelium in TNFα-induced inflammation. These findings could be relevant for assessing the efficacy and applicability of menopausal hormone treatment, because they may indicate that in women with impaired Notch signaling, hormone therapy might not effectively protect the endothelium.

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miR-146a Inhibits dengue-virus-induced autophagy by targeting TRAF6.

During dengue virus (DENV) infection, the virus manipulates different cellular pathways to assure productive replication, including autophagy. However, it remains unclear how this autophagic process is regulated. Here, we have demonstrated a novel role for the microRNA miR-146a in negatively regulating the cellular autophagic pathway in DENV-infected A549 cells and THP-1 cells. Overexpression of miR-146a significantly blocked DENV2-induced autophagy, and LNA-mediated inhibition of miR-146a counteracted these effects. Moreover, co-overexpression of TRAF6, a target of miR-146a, significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of miR-146a on autophagy. Notably, treatment with recombinant IFN-β fully restored the autophagic activity in TRAF6-silenced cells. Furthermore, our data showed that, in DENV2-infected A549 cells, autophagy promoted a pro-inflammatory response to significantly increase TNF-α and IL-6 production. Taken together, our results define a novel role for miR-146a as a negative regulator of DENV-induced autophagy and identify TRAF6 as a key target of this microRNA in modulating the DENV-autophagy interaction.

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Allantopyrone A interferes with multiple components of the TNF receptor 1 complex and blocks RIP1 modifications in the TNF-α-induced signaling pathway.

Allantopyrone A is a fungal metabolite that uniquely possesses two α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moieties. We recently reported that allantopyrone A inhibited the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. In the present study, the mechanism by which allantopyrone A inhibits the TNF-α-induced signaling pathway was investigated in more detail. Allantopyrone A blocked extensive modifications to receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) in the TNF receptor 1 (TNF-R1) complex. Allantopyrone A augmented the high-MW bands of TNF-R1, TNF receptor-associated factor 2, RIP1, the NF-κB subunit RelA and inhibitor of NF-κB kinase β in A549 cells, suggesting that it binds to and promotes the crosslinking of these proteins. The extracellular cysteine-rich domains of TNF-R1 were crosslinked by allantopyrone A more preferentially than its intracellular portion. The present results demonstrate that allantopyrone A interferes with multiple components of the TNF-R1 complex and blocks RIP1 modifications in the TNF-α-induced NF-κB signaling pathway.

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Transforming growth factor activating kinase 1 regulates extracellular matrix degrading enzymes and pain-related molecule expression following tumor necrosis factor-α stimulation of synovial cells: an in vitro study.

Recent studies have suggested that the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) pathway is a potential target for the management of osteoarthritis (OA). Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is essential in several cytokine-mediated cascades, including the TNF-α, interleukin-1 (IL-1), and TGF-β pathways. The role of TAK1 in synovial tissue in OA is not fully understood. Using synovial cells harvested from OA patients during surgery, we investigated whether TAK1 inhibition suppresses production of TNF-α-induced extracellular matrix degrading enzymes and expression of pain-related molecules.

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Efficacy and safety of recombinant human lymphotoxin-α derivative with cisplatin and fluorouracil in patients with metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: A randomized, multicenter, open-label, controlled, phase 2b trial.

Recombinant human lymphotoxin-α derivative (rhLTα-Da) is a lymphotoxin-α derivative that is missing 27 N-terminal amino acid residues. Previous studies indicated a benefit from the addition of rhLTα-Da to cisplatin-based treatment in patients with metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The current study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rhLTα-Da plus cisplatin and fluorouracil (PF) in patients with mESCC.

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