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           Search results for: Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) Assay Kit100 assays   

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#28777065   2017/08/04 Save this To Up

Possible role of antioxidative capacity of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate treatment in morphological and neurobehavioral recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury.

OBJECTIVE This study examined the capacity of the major polyphenolic green tea extract (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) to suppress oxidative stress and stimulate the recovery and prompt the regeneration of sciatic nerve after crush injury. METHODS Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups: 1) Naïve, 2) Sham (sham injury, surgical control group), 3) Crush (sciatic nerve crush injury treated with saline), and 4) Crush+EGCG (sciatic nerve crush injury treated with intraperitoneally administered EGCG, 50 mg/kg). All animals were tested for motor and sensory neurobehavioral parameters throughout the study. Sciatic nerve and spinal cord tissues were harvested and processed for morphometric and stereological analysis. For the biochemical assays, the time points were Day 1, Day 7, Day 14, and Day 28 after nerve injury. RESULTS After sciatic nerve crush injury, the EGCG-treated animals (Crush+EGCG group) showed significantly better recovery of foot position and toe spread and 50% greater improvement in motor recovery than the saline-treated animals (Crush group). The Crush+EGCG group displayed an early hopping response at the beginning of the 3rd week postinjury. Animals in the Crush+EGCG group also showed a significant reduction in mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia latencies and significant improvement in recovery from nociception deficits in both heat withdrawal and tail flick withdrawal latencies compared with the Crush group. In both the Crush+EGCG and Crush groups, quantitative evaluation revealed significant morphological evidence of neuroregeneration according to the following parameters: mean cross-sectional area of axons, myelin thickness in the sciatic nerve (from Week 4 to Week 8), increase of myelin basic protein concentration and gene expression in both the injured sciatic nerve and spinal cord, and fiber diameter to axon diameter ratio and myelin thickness to axon diameter ratio at Week 2 after sciatic nerve injury. However, the axon area remained much smaller in both the Crush+EGCG and Crush groups compared with the Sham and Naïve groups. The number of axons per unit area was significantly decreased in the Crush+EGCG and Crush groups compared with controls. Sciatic nerve injury produced generalized oxidative stress manifested as a significant increase of isoprostanes in the urine and decrease of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the blood from Day 7 until Day 14. EGCG-treated rats showed significantly less increase of isoprostanes than saline-treated animals and also showed full recovery of TAC levels by Day 14 after nerve injury. In spinal cord tissue analysis, EGCG-treated animals showed induced glutathione reductase and suppressed induction of heme oxygenase 1 gene expression compared with nontreated animals. CONCLUSIONS EGCG treatment suppressed the crush-induced production of isoprostanes and stimulated the recovery of the TAC and was associated with remarkable alleviation of motor and sensory impairment and significant histomorphological evidence of neuronal regeneration following sciatic nerve crush injury in rats. The findings of this study suggest that EGCG can be used as an adjunctive therapeutic remedy for nerve injury. However, further investigations are needed to establish the antioxidative mechanism involved in the regenerative process after nerve injury. Only upregulation of glutathione reductase supports the idea that EGCG is acting indirectly via induction of enzymes or transcription factors.

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#28764775   2017/08/02 Save this To Up

An assessment on the role of endophytic microbes in the therapeutic potential of Fagonia indica.

Natural products of animals, plants and microbes are potential source of important chemical compounds, with diverse applications including therapeutics. Endophytic bacteria that are especially associated with medicinal plants presents a reservoir of therapeutic compounds. Fagonia indica has been recently investigated by numerous researchers because of its striking therapeutic potential especially in cancer. It is also reported that endophytes play a vital role in the biosynthesis of various metabolites; therefore we believe that endophytes associated with F. indica are of crucial importance in this regard. The present study aims successful isolation, molecular identification of endophytic bacteria and their screening for bioactive metabolites quantification and in vitro pharmacological activities.

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#28737454   2017/07/24 Save this To Up

Bioactivity of Epigallocatechin Gallate Nanoemulsions Evaluated in Mice Model.

The hypothesis that incorporation of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) into nanoemulsions may increase its bioactivity compared with EGCG aqueous solutions was examined in mice. After an in vitro study in a model system with stimulated gastrointestinal conditions, the following EGCG nanoemulsions were used in a mice experiment: Emulsion I: emulsion water in oil (W/O), which contained 0.23 mg/mL EGCG in aqueous phase; Emulsion II: emulsion oil in water (O/W), which contained 10% olive oil and 0.23 mg/mL esterified EGCG in fatty phase; and Emulsion III: emulsion O/W in water (W1/O/W2; 8:32:60), which contained 32% olive oil and 0.23 mg/mL EGCG in aqueous phase. After 2 h of mice administration by gavage with 0.1 mL of EGCG nanoemulsions, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of plasma and some tissues (especially colon, jejunum, heart, spleen) was measured with Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assays. No toxic effects were observed after administration of 0.23 mg/mL esterified EGCG in CD1 mouse strain. The study concluded that administration of mice with the three EGCG nanoemulsions did not increase their TAC in specific tissues, compared with an aqueous EGCG solution at the same concentration. Nevertheless, the esterified EGCG emulsion (Emulsion II) exerted an increase in mice plasma compared with aqueous EGCG and showed higher values of TAC in several tissues, compared with Emulsions I and III. EGCG nanoemulsions could be considered a useful method in plethora functional food applications, but further research is required for safer results.

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#28628845   2017/06/19 Save this To Up

Serum antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage in clinical and subclinical canine ehrlichiosis.

The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the antioxidant response and the products of oxidative damage analysed by various assays in clinical and subclinical canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME). For this purpose, four assays to measure the total serum antioxidant capacity (TAC), such as the cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) using acidic medium (TEACA), and the TEAC using the horseradish peroxidase (TEACH) were used. In addition, the serum thiol concentrations were analysed. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange (FOX) were measured to determine the concentrations of free radical and the products of oxidative damage as result of the disease. All antioxidant markers were significantly lower in the dogs on clinical ehrlichiosis when compared with healthy dogs; however only the CUPRAC, FRAP and thiol were significantly lower in subclinical CME compared with healthy dogs. TBARS and FOX showed no significant differences between dogs with CME and healthy dogs; however, a significant increased ROS concentration was observed in dogs with clinical and subclinical CME when compared with healthy dogs. Results showed that in CME there is a state of oxidative stress with significant changes in markers of antioxidant defence and in concentrations of free radicals. However, the detection of these changes would depend of the assay used.

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#28501158   2017/05/14 Save this To Up

Poly(vinyl alcohol) capped silver nanoparticles for antioxidant assay based on seed-mediated nanoparticle growth.

A simple and rapid method for measurement of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was developed. In this work, gallic acid was used as the antioxidant standard. Poly(vinyl alcohol) embedded silver nanoparticles (PVA-AgNPs) were employed as a colorimetric sensor. The detection principle was based on the seed-mediated nanoparticle growth technique. The PVA-AgNPs act as a catalyst in the reduction of Ag(+) by gallic acid by providing nucleation seeds. Ag(+) was reduced to Ag° and accumulated on the PVA-AgNP surface, leading to an increase in the size of particles. The absorbance of the colloidal solution was drastically enhanced with a small red shift. Under optimal conditions, a linear response was established between the change in absorbance and the TAC value expressed in terms of gallic acid equivalents. The linear range was from 25 to 200μM with a detection limit of 22.1μM. Satisfactory precision was obtained with % relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.17. The developed sensor was successfully applied for TAC assessment of commercial ginger products. The PVA-AgNP sensor offers rapid analysis (within 5min) compared to other nanoparticle-based antioxidant assays. Synthesis of the particles and assay involved less-toxic chemicals, and is therefore a "greener" method.

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#28494853   2017/05/12 Save this To Up

In vitro antioxidant assessment and a rapid HPTLC bioautographic method for the detection of anticholinesterase inhibitory activity of Geophila repens.

Geophila repens (L.) I. M. Johnst. (Rubiaceae), a small, creeping, perennial herb, is claimed to have memory-enhancing property. The goal of this study was to assess its antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity and conduct a rapid bioautographic enzyme assay for screening acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibition of G. repens extracts.

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#28116742   2017/01/24 Save this To Up

Evaluation of ROS-TAC Score and DNA Damage in Fertile Normozoospermic and Infertile Asthenozoospermic Males.

The aim of study was to evaluate reactive oxygen species (ROS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) andROS-TAC score as indicator for oxidative stress status as well as 8-hydrodeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels as amarker for DNA damage in the seminal plasma of asthenozoospermia patients compared to normozoospermiasamples.

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#27979153   2016/12/16 Save this To Up

The effects of heat treatment on the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of red wine pomace seasonings.

The impact of thermal processing on the phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity (TAC) of powdered red wine pomace seasonings (RWPSs) obtained from different sources (seedless: Sk-S; whole: W-S; seeds: Sd-S) was assessed. High contents in anthocyanins, flavonol-3-O-glycosides, phenolic acids and flavan-3-ols were found in Sk-S, whereas flavan-3-ols and phenolic acids were the main compounds identified in Sd-S. Reductions in the anthocyanidin and flavonol-3-ol contents mainly determined the effect of heat on the total phenolic contents (Sk-S: -29.4%; W-S: -28.0%; Sd-S: -5.78%), although heating affected positively the phenolic acid and flavonol aglycon contents. Slight TAC decreases were observed in the RWPS-derived extracts (classical Folin-Ciocalteu and ABTS assays). However, higher TAC reductions were detected when the powdered RWPSs were used directly as samples (QUENCHER approach). In conclusion, there is little evidence against submitting RWPSs to thermal processing, as heating affects differently each type of phenolic compound and does not induce very severe TAC decreases in these seasonings.

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#27965064   2016/12/14 Save this To Up

Solutions to decrease a systematic error related to AAPH addition in the fluorescence-based ORAC assay.

Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay in 96-well multi-detection plate readers is a rapid method to determine total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in biological samples. A disadvantage of this method is that the antioxidant inhibition reaction does not start in all of the 96 wells at the same time due to technical limitations when dispensing the free radical-generating azo initiator 2,2'-azobis (2-methyl-propanimidamide) dihydrochloride (AAPH). The time delay between wells yields a systematic error that causes statistically significant differences in TAC determination of antioxidant solutions depending on their plate position. We propose two alternative solutions to avoid this AAPH-dependent error in ORAC assays.

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#27919600   2016/12/06 Save this To Up

Preanalytic of total antioxidant capacity assays performed in serum, plasma, urine and saliva.

The investigation of oxidative stress (OS), its mechanisms and connections with human diseases, is a topic of interest with more than 36,000 PubMed citations to date. The OS can be approached either from the perspective of pro-oxidation, either of anti-oxidation, and both can be investigated considering individual chemical constituents or their pooled effect. Actually, as it is for any laboratory assay, whatever source of variability introduces a bias potentially undermining the test results regardless of its application. In this regard, the effect of sample collection, handling and storage - that collectively constitute the preanalytical phase - on the likeliness of the measured value represent a major challenge for any researcher. In this review, we will deal with methods devised to assess the so-called total antioxidant capacity (TAC), which represents the sinking capability expressed toward a given load of pro-oxidant species. Thus, it will be presented the information available to date on the preanalytical phase of TAS assessment, focusing on the issues that strictly concern the preservation of antioxidants within the specimen. Obviously, preanalytic should represent a first concern in any laboratory research, to which this work could contribute giving practical indications and raising the researchers' awareness about the issue.

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