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#29035863   2017/10/16 Save this To Up

Sero-detection of Toxocara canis infection in human with T.canis recombinant arginine kinase, cathepsin L-1 and TES-26 antigens.

Three recombinant antigens viz. arginine kinase, cathepsin L-1 and TES-26 of Toxocara canis were expressed in Escherichia coli and evaluated for their potential in the detection of T. canis larval infection in human in immunoglobulin G-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (IgG-ELISA). Results of the IgG-ELISA with the above recombinant antigens were confirmed with commercially available IgG detection kit for T. canis infection used as a standard test. All three recombinant antigens were 100% sensitive in the detection of positive cases (n = 6) of T. canis infection in human and were screened for their cross-reactivity in human patients with history of Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium vivax, Entamoeba histolytica, hydatid and hookworm infections. The recombinant TES-26 antigen showed higher specificity and cross-reacted with T. gondii infection sera only. However, arginine kinase and cathepsin L-1 recombinant antigens showed cross-reactions with sera of patients infected with T. gondii, P. vivax and E. histolytica but not with the patient sera infected with hydatid and hookworm. These results show that recombinant TES-26 is a potential diagnostic candidate antigen for human toxocarosis caused by migrating T. canis larvae.

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#29035857   2017/10/16 Save this To Up

Humoral response of mice infected with Toxocara canis following different infection schemes.

The study was focused on the dynamics of humoral response to Toxocara canis excretory-secretory antigens (TES antigens) in mice experimentally infected by T. canis L3 larvae in different ways. In particular, we compared the effect of infection with two doses of 1000 larvae vs. repeated infections with a low number of larvae (daily infection with 10 larvae and weekly infection with 100 larvae in the course of 22 weeks). In ELISA, all infections, including both schemes with lower larval doses, elicited significant antibody response. Elevated levels of total IgE and TES-antigen-specific IgM were detected on day 12 after the first infection, followed by IgG and IgG1, and later by IgG3, IgG2a and IgG2b; specific IgE response was not detected. It seems that the high levels of IgM and IgG1 represent the best markers of infection. In addition, gradual increase of IgG2a and IgG2b could help in determination of the infection course. As a byproduct of our work, a new method of infection by repeated drinking of larvae was introduced; it minimizes the pain and discomfort for the experimental mice.

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#28807291   2017/08/15 Save this To Up

Toxocara canis: Analysis of the kinetics of antigen release and antibody production in an in vivo model for the detection of past or present infection.

Worldwide, Toxocara canis is an important zoonotic nematode of public health concern. This soil-transmitted helminth causes visceral larva and ocular larva migrans in paratenic hosts. The detection of T. canis larva migrans is complicated because current immunological tests detect only IgG antibodies, which can cross-react with antigens from other parasites and cannot distinguish between the past and present infection. Analysis of antigen release and antibody production could help improve the detection of larva migrans. Here, we report the kinetics of antigen release, IgM and IgG production in an in vivo model for the detection of past or present infection. We used four groups of seven mice: two groups infected orally with 50 or 100 embryonated eggs, and the other two infected intraperitoneally with 50 or 100 live larvae. We obtained blood samples at 0, 3, 7, and 14days and, then, every two weeks until day 140. Sandwich ELISA and indirect ELISA were performed for antigen capture and the detection of immunoglobulins, respectively. Mice inoculated with larvae developed an immune response faster than those inoculated with eggs. In all groups, antigen capture was positive starting at 3days until 140days post-inoculation (dpi). Detection of immunoglobulins was at 14 or 28dpi in mice inoculated with larvae or eggs, respectively. Negative IgM values were detected at days 98 and 112. The samples remained positive for IgG until the last day of the experiment. Data suggest that in mice inoculated with T canis eggs, some larvae did not hatch, others died or never reached the bloodstream. Based on our model, we propose that there is early infection when only antigens are present, and active larva migrans when antigen and immunoglobulins are detected, implying an immune response of the host against the antigen. Our study offers a view into the parasite-host relationship and enables us to infer if there are live larvae. Additionally, these findings provide a foundation for the diagnosis and differentiation of recent infection and active larva migrans.

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#28761466   2017/08/01 Save this To Up

Epidemiological Study of Toxocar canis in Children under 14-Years-Old and Dogs in Zabol and Chabahar Districts, Southeast of Iran.

The purpose of this study was seroepidemiological and parasitological assessment of Toxocara canis infection in children and dogs in Zabol and Chabahar, Iran.

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#28432449   2017/04/22 Save this To Up

Enteroparasitoses and Toxocarosis Affecting Children from Mar del Plata City, Argentina.

This study evaluated the existence of enteroparasitoses and toxocarosis in children of peripheral (PC) and urban communities (UC) from Mar del Plata city (Argentina) and their associations with socio-environmental conditions. A Parasite Vulnerability Index (PVI) was elaborated using variables such as overcrowding, floor type, drinking water source, wastewater disposal, solid waste disposal, presence of animals and schooling level. The PC evidenced statistically significant higher frequencies of families with high (38.9%) and medium (55.5%) PVI, while in the UC low PVI (93%) was the most frequent. A statistically significant higher frequency of PC children was parasitized (30.2 vs. 14.5%; χ (2) Pearson = 5.21; P < 0.05), presented higher parasite frequencies, specific richness, parasitic loads, and they also evidenced polyparasitism. The Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) showed associations between PC-parasitized children, overcrowding and contact with pets and farm animals. The ELISA test to the specified determination of Toxocara canis IgG was reactive in a statistically significant higher proportion of PC children than the UC (55 vs. 8.5%; χ (2) = 30.5; P < 0.01). The MCA associated PC reactive children, not adequate hand washing, moderate and hypereosinophilia and contact with pets and farm animals. Deficient socio-environmental conditions became children more vulnerable to get enteroparasitoses and toxocarosis in the PC than in the UC.

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#28096863   2017/01/18 Save this To Up

Seroepidemiological Study of Toxocariasis in the Owners of Domestic Cats and Dogs in Mashhad, Northeastern Iran.

Toxocariasis is the clinical terms applied to infection of human with Ascarid nematodes in the order Ascaridida, named Toxocara canis and T. cati. Because in recent years in Iran many people desire to keep pets (cats and dogs), and lacking of seroepidemiological study of toxocariasis in Mashhad, we decided to determine the seroprevalence of toxocariasis among people who own cats and dogs in comparison with control group.

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#27857820   2016/11/18 Save this To Up

Detection of Specific Antibody Reactivity to Toxocara Larval Excretory-secretory Antigens in Asthmatic Patients (5-15 Years).

Humans act as an intermediate host for Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati. Toxocara may be an important risk factor for asthma in humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-Toxocara canis antibody, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in asthmatic patients (aged 5-15 years), referring to a clinic of pulmonary diseases in Arak, Iran.

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#27809350   2016/11/03 Save this To Up

Clinical usefulness of Western blotting and ELISA avidity for the diagnosis of human toxocariasis.

The serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis is difficult. Specific IgGs detected routinely with ELISA based on Toxocara excretory-secretory (TES) antigens often persist for years at an elevated level, which does not allow either the differentiation between an active and persistent infection or monitoring of the effect of treatment. Additionally, false-positive results may occur in co-infections with other helminths due to cross-reactions. We evaluated the usefulness of an IgG avidity index (AI) and a Western blotting (WB) IgG in the diagnosis of patients suspected of Toxocara infection. We studied 138 subjects who were submitted to serological testing two or more times. Confirmation of an infection by WB was achieved in 73.2% of patients. A high AI was obtained in 89.1% of patients, and low AI and borderline AI were found in only 10.9%. Low and borderline values of AI remained at similar levels in subsequent studies over 2-3 years. The results showed the necessity of obligatory verification of all ELISA IgG positive and questionable results by WB. The index of IgG avidity may be helpful in excluding recent infection, but its usefulness in detecting an active phase of invasion requires further research.

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#27778108   2016/10/25 Save this To Up

Seroprevalence of five parasitic pathogens in pregnant women in ten Caribbean countries.

To date, published epidemiological studies of parasitic infections in humans in the Caribbean region are very limited. Here, we report the seroprevalence of five parasitic pathogens, including Ascaris lumbricoides, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Schistosoma mansoni, and Toxocara canis in 435 serum samples collected between 2008 and 2011 from pregnant women in ten Caribbean islands. We tested the serum samples for IgG antibodies against the five parasites by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Among them, 66.2 % were serologically positive for at least one parasite. The most prevalent parasite was G. lamblia (40.5 %), followed by A. lumbricoides (37.9 %), T. canis (14.5 %), E. histolytica (6.7 %), and S. mansoni (3.0 %). Evidence of infections of G. lamblia and A. lumbricoides were detected in all ten Caribbean countries. Seroprevalence estimates significantly differed between countries for A. lumbricoides, E. histolytica, and T. canis (p values <0.001). For S. mansoni, significance was observed by Fisher's exact test (p = 0.013) but not by multiple comparisons. The prevalence of G. lamblia was not significantly different between countries (p = 0.089). A significant negative correlation between the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and overall seroprevalence by country was also observed (Pearson's r = -0.9202, p = 0.0002). The data strongly indicates that neglected parasitic infections remain a significant health burden on people in these countries. Thus, justification has been provided to regional health planners to enhance existing public health surveillance programs on parasitic diseases and to heighten the public's awareness through education and outreach programs on how they can minimize the occurrence of parasitic infections.

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#27698276   2016/10/04 Save this To Up

Human Toxocariasis: Prevalence and Factors Associated with Biosafety in Research Laboratories.

Human toxocariasis is a neglected parasitic disease worldwide. Researchers studying this disease use infectious strains of Toxocara for experiments. Health workers are at risk in the course of their daily routine and must adhere to biosafety standards while carrying out the activities. Researchers on biosafety concerning working with these parasites are insufficient. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of seroprevalence of Toxocara species among health-care research laboratory workers (professors, technicians, and students), and to investigate the risk factors of Toxocara infection associated with laboratory practices. This cross-sectional study involved 74 researchers at two federal universities in southern Brazil from February 2014 to February 2015; 29 researchers manipulated infective strains of Toxocara canis (test group) and 45 did not (control group). Serum samples were examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Epidemiological data were obtained via a questionnaire containing information about laboratory routine, eating behavior, and contact with dogs. The seroprevalence of anti-T. canis IgG was 14.9% (11/74; 13.8% [4/29] in the test group and 15.6% [7/45] in the control group). Most individuals in the test group correctly understood the primary mode of infection; however, 13.8% did not use gloves while manipulating T. canis eggs. Knowledge of biosafety must be well understood by health-care professionals doing laboratory work with biological agents. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the rate of seroprevalence of IgG against Toxocara spp. among professionals and students who handle infective forms of the nematode T. canis.

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