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#29393104   // Save this To Up

Downregulated Expression of TRPV2 in Peripheral Blood Cells following Acute Myocardial Infarction Is Inversely Correlated with Serum Levels of CRP and Troponin I.

We have recently shown that the transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) channel is exclusively upregulated in rat/murine peri-infarct monocytes/macrophages following an acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and that this overexpression might be detrimental for cardiac recovery. We aimed to characterize the expression levels of TRPV2 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of AMI patients relative to individuals with normal coronaries, and to analyze potential associations with inflammatory and cardiac ischemic markers.

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#29331959   // Save this To Up

Probenecid Improves Cardiac Function in Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction In Vivo and Cardiomyocyte Calcium Sensitivity In Vitro.

Transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 is a calcium channel activated by probenecid. Probenecid is a Food and Drug Administration-approved uricosuric drug that has recently been shown to induce positive lusitropic and inotropic effects in animal models through cardiomyocyte transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 activation. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that oral probenecid can improve cardiac function and symptomatology in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and to further elucidate its calcium-dependent effects on myocyte contractility.

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#29326595   // Save this To Up

Thermo-Sensitive TRP Channels: Novel Targets for Treating Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Pain.

Abnormal Cachannel physiology, expression levels, and hypersensitivity to heat have been implicated in several pain states following treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. As members of the Capermeable transient receptor potential (TRP), five of the channels (TRPV1-4 and TRPM2) are activated by different heat temperatures, and two of the channels (TRPA1 and TRPM8) are activated by cold temperature. Accumulating evidences indicates that antagonists of TRPA1 and TRPM8 may protect against cisplatin, oxaliplatin, and paclitaxel-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress, inflammation, cold allodynia, and hyperalgesia. TRPV1 was responsible from the cisplatin-induced heat hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in the sensory neurons. TRPA1, TRPM8, and TRPV2 protein expression levels were mostly increased in the dorsal root (DRG) and trigeminal ganglia by these treatments. There is a debate on direct or oxaliplatin-induced oxidative cold stress dependent TRPA1 and TRPV4 activation in the DRG. Involvement of molecular pathways such as cysteine groups, glutathione metabolism, anandamide, cAMP, lipopolysaccharide, proteinase-activated receptor 2, and mitogen-activated protein kinase were also indicated in the oxaliplatin and paclitaxel-induced cold allodynia. In this review, we summarized results of five temperature-regulated TRP channels (TRPA1, TRPM8, TRPV1, TRPV2, and TRPV4) as novel targets for treating chemotherapy-induced peripheral pain.

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#29317264   // Save this To Up

The genetics of chronic itch: gene expression in the skin of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis patients with severe itch.

To identify itch-related mediators and receptors that are differentially expressed in pruritic skin, we used RNA sequencing to analyze the complete transcriptome in skin from paired itchy, lesional and non-itchy, non-lesional skin biopsies from 25 atopic dermatitis (AD) and 25 psoriasis patients and site-matched biopsies from 30 healthy controls. This analysis identified 18,000 differentially expressed genes common between itchy atopic and psoriatic skin compared to healthy skin. Of those, almost 2,000 genes were differentially expressed between itchy and non-itchy skin in atopic and psoriatic subjects. Overexpression of several genes, such as phospholipase A2 IVD, substance P, Nav1.7, and TRPV1, in itchy skin was positively correlated to itch intensity ratings in both AD and psoriasis. Cytokines such as IL-17A, IL-23A, and IL-31 had elevated gene transcript levels in both itchy atopic and psoriatic skin. However, expression of genes for TRPV2, TRPA1, PAR2, PAR 4, and IL-10 was found to be increased only in pruritic atopic skin, while expression of genes for TRPM8, TRPV3, phospholipase C, and IL-36α/γ was elevated only in pruritic psoriatic skin. This "itchscriptome" analysis will lead to an increased understanding of the molecular mechanisms of chronic pruritus and provide targets for itch treatment irrespective of disease state.

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#29240420   // Save this To Up

Iodine-Promoted Aromatization of p-Menthane-Type Phytocannabinoids.

Treatment with iodine cleanly converts various p-menthane-type phytocannabinoids and their carboxylated precursors into cannabinol (CBN, 1a). The reaction is superior to previously reported protocols in terms of simplicity and substrate range, which includes not only tricyclic tetrahydrocannabinols such as Δ-THC (2a) but also bicyclic phytocannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD, 3a). Lower homologues from the viridin series (2c and 3c, respectively) afforded cannabivarin (CBV), a non-narcotic compound that, when investigated against a series of ionotropic (thermo-TRPs) biological end-points of phytocannabinoids, retained the submicromolar TRPA1-activating and TRPM8-inhibiting properties of CBN, while also potently activating TRPV2. Treatment with iodine provides an easy access to CBN (1a) from crude extracts and side-cuts of the purification of Δ-THC and CBD from respectively narcotic Cannabis sativa (marijuana) and fiber hemp, substantially expanding the availability of this compound and, in the case of fiber hemp, dissecting it from narcotic phytocannabinoids.

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#29093384   // Save this To Up

A Pilot Study of Tranilast for Cardiomyopathy of Muscular Dystrophy.

Objective Heart failure is currently the most serious complication of muscular dystrophy. The transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 2 (TRPV2) is a stretch-sensitive Ca channel. In damaged myocytes or cardiomyocytes, TRPV2 translocates to the cytoplasmic membrane and enhances Ca influx, triggering cell damage. Evidence suggests that the inhibition of TRPV2 may be a new therapeutic target in heart failure. We found that tranilast, which is widely used as an anti-allergic drug, inhibits TRPV2. A pilot study was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of tranilast in muscular dystrophy patients with cardiomyopathy. Methods After obtaining informed consent, two muscular dystrophy patients with advanced heart failure took tranilast (300 mg/day) for three months. Blood tests, echocardiography, electrocardiography (ECG), Holter ECG, analyses of the TRPV2 expression in peripheral mononuclear cells, and circulating micro ribonucleic acid profiling were performed to assess the safety and efficacy of tranilast. Results The brain natriuretic peptide levels decreased after treatment. The expression of TRPV2 on the cytoplasmic membrane of peripheral mononuclear cells was enhanced before treatment and was decreased after treatment. Some heart-related micro ribonucleic acids (miR-208a-5p, miR-223-3p) were elevated and then decreased after treatment. Some adverse events, including the potentiation of warfarin, the worsening of renal dysfunction, an increased heart rate and premature ventricular contractions, were observed. Conclusion Tranilast can inhibit TRPV2 and can be effective for treating heart failure, even in patients with muscular dystrophy. Although careful attention is needed, the inhibition of TRPV2 can be a new treatment target for cardiomyopathy. A multi-center trial is planned.

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#28945920   // Save this To Up

Human podocytes express functional thermosensitive TRPV channels.

Heat-sensitive transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels are expressed in various epithelial tissues regulating, among else, barrier functions. Their expression is well established in the distal nephron; however, we have no data about their presence in podocytes. As podocytes are indispensable in the formation of the glomerular filtration barrier, we investigated the presence and function of Ca-permeable TRPV1-4 channels in human podocyte cultures.

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#28905239   // Save this To Up

Expression and distribution of three transient receptor potential vanilloid(TRPV) channel proteins in human odontoblast-like cells.

Odontoblasts have been suggested to contribute to nociceptive sensation in the tooth via expression of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. The TRP channels as a family of nonselective cation permeable channels play an important role in sensory transduction of human. In this study, we examined the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1), transient receptor potential vanilloid-2 (TRPV2) and transient receptor potential vanilloid-3 (TRPV3) channels in native human odontoblasts (HODs) and long-term cultured human dental pulp cells with odontoblast phenotyoe (LHOPs) obtained from healthy wisdom teeth with the use of immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence (IF), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR),western blotting (WB) and immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) assay. LHOPs samples were made into ultrathin sections, mounted on nickel grids, floated of three TRPV antibodies conjugated with 10 nm colloidal gold particles and observed under IEM at 60,000 magnifications. The relative intracellular distributions of these three channels were analyzed quantitatively on IEM images using a robust sampling, stereological estimation and statistical evaluation method. The results of IHC and IF convinced that TRPV1, TRPV2 and TRPV3 channels were expressed in native HODs and (LHOPs). The result of qRT-PCR and WB confirmed that the gene and protein expression of TRPV1, TRPV2, and TRPV3 channels and TRPV1 mRNA are more abundantly expressed than TRPV2 and TRPV3 in HODs (P < 0.05). Quantitative analysis of IEM images showed that the relative intracellular distributions of these three channels are similar, and TRPV1, TRPV2 and TRPV3 proteins were preferential labeled in human odontoblast processes, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum. Thus, HODs could play an important role in mediating pulp thermo-sensation due to the expression of these three TRPV channels. The difference of relative intracellular distributions of three channels suggests that special structures such as processes may have an important role to sensing of the outer stimuli first.

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#28849159   // Save this To Up

Immunolocalization of cannabinoid receptor type 1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, and transient receptor potential vanilloid channels in pterygium.

Cannabinoids, as multi‑target mediators, activate cannabinoid receptors and transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels. There is evidence to support a functional interaction of cannabinoid receptors and TRPV channels when they are coexpressed. Human conjunctiva demonstrates widespread cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1), CB2 and TRPV channel localization. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression profile for cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) and TRPV channels in pterygium, an ocular surface lesion originating from the conjunctiva. Semi‑serial paraffin‑embedded sections from primary and recurrent pterygium samples were immunohistochemically examined with the use of specific antibodies. All of the epithelial layers in 94, 78, 96, 73 and 80% of pterygia cases, exhibited CB1, CB2, TRPV1, TRPV2 and TRPV3 cytoplasmic immunoreactivity, respectively. The epithelium of all pterygia cases (100%) showed strong, mainly nuclear, TRPV4 immunolocalization. In the pterygium stroma, scattered cells demonstrated intense CB2 immunoreactivity, whereas vascular endothelial cells were immunopositive for the cannabinoid receptors and all TRPV channels. Quantitative analyses of the immunohistochemical findings in epithelial cells demonstrated a significantly higher expression level in conjunctiva compared with primary pterygia (P=0.04) for CB1, but not for CB2 (P>0.05). Additionally, CB1 and CB2 were significantly highly expressed in primary pterygia (P=0.01), compared with recurrent pterygia. Furthermore, CB1 expression levels were significantly correlated with CB2 expression levels in primary pterygia (P=0.005), but not in recurrent pterygia (P>0.05). No significant difference was detected for all TRPV channel expression levels between pterygium (primary or recurrent) and conjunctival tissues (P>0.05). A significant correlation between the TRPV1 and TRPV3 expression levels (P<0.001) was detected independently of pterygium recurrence. Finally, TRPV channel expression was identified to be significantly higher than the expression level of cannabinoid receptors in the pterygium samples (P<0.001). The differentiated expression of cannabinoid receptors in combination with the presence of TRPV channels, in primary and recurrent pterygia, imply a potential role of these cannabinoid targets in the underlying mechanisms of pterygium.

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