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#27400475   2016/07/12 Save this To Up

Uric acid lowering effect of Tibetan Medicine RuPeng15 powder in animal models of hyperuricemia.

To evaluate the influence of the Tibetan medicine RuPeng15 powder (RPP15) on uric acid levels, and explore its possible mechanisms of action in hyperuricemic animal models.

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Fatty acid free heat sho Fatty acid free heat sho Fatty acid free heat sho Fatty acid free heat sho GST Inhibitor 2 (Ethacryn Oleanolic Acid; Appearanc Oleanolic Acid; Appearanc Alkaline Phospatase (ALP) α-Acetamino-α-carboxy-( N-Acetyl-2-O-(5-bromo-1H- (1R,3S)-1-(1,3-Benzodioxo (1S,3S)-1-(1,3-Benzodioxo

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#24299944   2013/12/04 Save this To Up

Increased oxidative stress and xanthine oxidase activity in human ruptured cerebral aneurysms.

Recent studies have suggested that oxidative stress may be involved in the development of arterial aneurysms. Xanthine oxidase is implicated in the generation of reactive oxygen species under pathological conditions in the cardiovascular system, and increased xanthine oxidase activity has been reported in human aortic aneurysms. We, therefore, studied the changes of xanthine oxidase activity and oxidative stress in human ruptured cerebral aneurysms. Six cerebral aneurysmal samples were obtained during surgery. Normal arteries of the similar size (one superficial temporal artery, four uterine arteries and three right gastroepiploic arteries) were used as controls. The xanthine oxidase activity was measured with a commercial assay kit, and its expression was localized by immunohistochemistry. The xanthine oxidase activity was significantly increased in aneurysms by 4.1 fold (P<0.05) compared to control arteries. This was accompanied by an elevated malondialdehyde (MDA) level (8.3±5.1 versus 2.9±0.7 nmol/g protein, mean ±SD, P<0.05), a marker of oxidative stress. Immunohistochemistry established that xanthine oxidase was mainly expressed in infiltrating inflammatory cells. Our study indicates that xanthine oxidase may have an important role in the increased oxidative stress in ruptured cerebral aneurysms. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of XO-derived reactive oxygen species in the development and rupture of cerebral aneurysms.

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#17077533   2006/11/01 Save this To Up

Antioxidant activity of a novel extract from bamboo grass (AHSS) against ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat small intestine.

Production of free radical species in cells and body tissues is known to cause many pathological disorders. Therefore, free radical scavengers play an important role in the prevention of various human diseases. Bamboo grass, Sasa senanensis, is a native Japanese plant. Sasa has been used for medicine in Japan for many centuries. In this study, we investigated the antioxidative activity of Absolutely Hemicellulose Senanensis (AHSS), a novel extract from Sasa. In the first part of this study, we found that AHSS has antioxidant activities by the assay using superoxide anion-2-methyl-6-methoxyphenylethynylimidazopyrazynone (MPEC) reaction kit. We then confirmed its antioxidative activity using a rat ischemia and subsequent reperfusion (I/R) injury model. Breakdown of the intestinal wall caused by intestinal I/R was attenuated by pretreatment with AHSS. Moreover, AHSS inhibited the production of lipid peroxide by intestinal I/R. AHSS could be an important source of ingredients for use in functional foods and other applications.

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#16437741   2006/01/26 Save this To Up

Effect and mechanism of total saponin of Dioscorea on animal experimental hyperuricemia.

In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of Total Saponin of Dioscorea (TSD) on animal experimental hyperuricemia. Mouse and rat hyperuricemic models were made by orally administering yeast extract paste once a day (30 and 20 g/kg, respectively), for 7 days. Yeast would disturb normal purine metabolism by increasing xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity and generating large quantities of uric acid. This model is similar to human hyperuricemia, which is induced by high-protein diets, due to a purine and nucleic acid metabolic disturbance. Another mouse hyperuricemia model was generated by intraperitoneal injection once with uric acid 250 mg/kg or potassium oxonate 300 mg/kg. Potassium oxonate, a urate oxidase inhibitor, can raise the serum uric acid level by inhibiting the decomposition of uric acid. Likewise, injecting uric acid can also increase serum uric acid concentration. The concentration of uric acid in serum or urine was detected by the phosphotungstic acid method, and the activity of XOD was assayed by a test kit. The results showed that TSD (240, 120 and 60 mg/kg, ig) could significantly lower the level of serum uric acid in hyperuricemic mice. TSD (120 and 60 mg/kg, ig) could also lower the level of serum uric acid in hyperuricemic rats, reduce the activity of XOD in the serum and liver of hyperuricemic rats, and increase the level of urine uric acid concentration as well as 24-hour total uric acid excretion. In conclusion, TSD possesses a potent anti-hyperuricemic effect on hyperuricemic animals, and the mechanism may be relevant in accelerating the excretion and decreasing the production of uric acid.

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#15202488   2004/06/18 Save this To Up

Xanthine oxidase inhibition by 1,3-dipropyl-8-sulfophenylxanthine (DPSPX), an antagonist of adenosine receptors.

Xanthine oxidase (XO), an enzyme involved in purine metabolism, is a source of either oxidants (superoxide radical) or antioxidants (uric acid). Interference with XO activity can lead to oxidative stress, thus contributing to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The adenosine receptors antagonist, 1,3-dipropyl-8-sulfophenylxanthine (DPSPX), induces hypertension and cardiovascular injury in rats. Since DPSPX is a xanthine, we aimed at evaluating DPSPX's influence on XO activity to ascertain its contribution to DPSPX-induced hypertension. The activity of isolated XO in the presence of DPSPX was evaluated spectrophotometrically. Serum and urinary uric acid levels of DPSPX-treated rats were measured using a commercial kit. DPSPX inhibited XO activity in a concentration-dependent manner and reduced rat serum and urinary uric acid levels. It can be concluded that: DPSPX is an inhibitor of XO; decreased generation of uric acid may lead to oxidative stress, thus contributing to endothelial dysfunction and vascular morphological changes in DPSPX-treated rats.

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#12163806   2002/08/06 Save this To Up

Sesame oil attenuates multiple organ failure and increases survival rate during endotoxemia in rats.

To investigate the effects and the possible mechanism of sesame oil on multiple organ failure induced by lipopolysaccharide in rats.

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#9747937   1998/11/10 Save this To Up

Superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant status of larvae and adults of Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Haemonchus contortus and Ostertagia circumcincta.

Superoxide dismutase (SOD), a cytosolic enzyme that is specific for scavenging superoxide radicals, is involved in protective mechanism(s) in tissue injury following oxidative processes and phagocytosis. The presence of SOD activity in larval and adult Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Haemonchus contortus and Ostertagia circumcincta was examined using a xanthine-xanthine oxidase assay and by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and non-denaturing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE followed by specific enzyme staining. Total antioxidant status was determined using the Randox Laboratories kit. The infective larval stages (L3) of the three species contained 8-10 times more activity than the corresponding adults. SOD activity from adult parasites was sensitive to KCN and SDS and may therefore belong to a Cu/Zn and Mn class of enzymes. SOD from the larvae was sensitive only to KCN, suggesting that it may belong to a Cu/Zn class of enzymes. Insignificant interspecies variation was observed when SOD isozyme profiles of larvae were compared. PAGE showed at least five bands of SOD activity with molecular weights of between 18 and 205 kDa. Examination of total antioxidant status showed that non-enzymatic antioxidant potential was also present, but only in the infective larvae. The level of antioxidants in the three genera of larvae studied was similar and amounted to about 0.33-1.07 microM/mg of protein.

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Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Androgen Receptor (Ab 650 AZD-3514 Mechanisms: Andr 17β-Acetoxy-2α-bromo-5 (5α,16β)-N-Acetyl-16-[2 (5α,16β)-N-Acetyl-16-ac 5α-N-Acetyl-2'H-androst- 5α-N-Acetyl-2'H-androst- 3-O-Acetyl 5,14-Androstad

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#6099057   1985/03/29 Save this To Up

Reevaluation of assay methods and establishment of kit for superoxide dismutase activity.

Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was measured by seven assay methods. The nitrite method was found to be the best for our SOD assay kit. This method was then modified to give better sensitivity and minimize interference by coexisting protein, a factor which has been previously ignored. Hydroxylamine or its O-sulfonic acid, xanthine oxidase, hypoxanthine, EDTA, and the sample were incubated with or without KCN at pH 8.2, 37 degrees C, for 30 min. Diazo dye-forming reagent was added and the absorption was measured at 550 nm. Human plasma and erythrocyte lysate from healthy adults and Down's syndrome patients were assayed by this SOD kit and by the cytochrome c method. Our kit gave 8.5 times higher sensitivity than the cytochrome c method. This high sensitivity allowed the use of a simple spectrophotometer and, moreover, only one dilution was needed to determine the SOD unit with the help of our formulas. Good recovery, reproducibility, and stability of reagents were demonstrated.

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