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#29475214   // Save this To Up

Micro-environment and Intracellular Metabolism Modulation of Adipose Tissue Macrophage Polarization in Relation to Chronic Inflammatory Diseases.

The accumulation and pro-inflammatory polarization of immune cells, mainly macrophages, in adipose tissue (AT) are considered crucial factors for obesity-induced chronic inflammatory diseases.

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Scope and limitations of carbohydrate hydrolysis for de novo glycan sequencing using a hydrogen peroxide/metallopeptide-based glycosidase mimetic.

Acidic hydrolysis is commonly used as a first step to break down oligo- and polysaccharides into monosaccharide units for structural analysis. While easy to set up and amenable to mass spectrometry detection, acid hydrolysis is not without its drawbacks. For example, ring-destruction side reactions and degradation products, along with difficulties in optimizing conditions from analyte to analyte, greatly limits its broad utility. Herein we report studies on a hydrogen peroxide/CuGGH metallopeptide-based glycosidase mimetic design for a more efficient and controllable carbohydrate hydrolysis. A library of methyl glycosides consisting of ten common monosaccharide substrates, along with oligosaccharide substrates, was screened with the artificial glycosidase for hydrolytic activity in a high-throughput format with a robotic liquid handling system. The artificial glycosidase was found to be active towards most screened linkages, including alpha- and beta-anomers, thus serving as a potential alternative method for traditional acidic hydrolysis approaches of oligosaccharides.

2729 related Products with: Scope and limitations of carbohydrate hydrolysis for de novo glycan sequencing using a hydrogen peroxide/metallopeptide-based glycosidase mimetic.

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Efficacy of different strategies to treat root dentin eroded by liquid or gaseous hydrochloric acid associated with brushing abrasion.

This study aims to evaluate how casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) associated with Nd:YAG or Diode laser affects dentin exposed to hydrochloric acid (HCl) with or without tooth brushing.

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Effects of molecular weight of hyaluronic acid on its viscosity and enzymatic activities of lysozyme and peroxidase.

To investigate the effects of the molecular weight of hyaluronic acid on its viscosity and enzymatic activities of lysozyme and peroxidase in solution and on the hydroxyapatite surface.

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Androst-4-ene-3,17-dion-1 Ofloxacin CAS Number [824 Rabbit Serum Against Huma Cytokeratin, High Molecu Cytokeratin, High Molecu Cytokeratin, High Molecu Cytokeratin, High Molecu Cytokeratin, High Molecu Cytokeratin, High Molecu Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Rabbit Anti-Human Androge

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The role of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in ex-vivo examination of human skin burn injury treatment.

Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is one of the most versatile solvents in biological science, therefore it is frequently used as a solvent in biological studies and as a vehicle for drug therapy. DMSO readily penetrates, diffuses through biological membranes and ipso facto increases fluidity of liposomal membranes modelling stratum corneum. Thermal injury is associated with the appearance of lipid peroxidation products in the burned skin. The influence of DMSO on protein structure and stability is concentration and temperature dependant. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of DMSO on human burn wounds and examine the interactions between DMSO and skin surface. The real problem in burn treatment is hypoalbuminemia. At the level of the laboratory studies there was an attempt at answering the question of whether the DMSO will modify the standard serum solution. In the case of the incubation of skin fragments in 1%-100% DMSO, the following findings were reported: modification of the serum, appearance of low molecular weight oligomer bands, disappearance of albumin bands or reconstruction of native serum bands during incubation in antioxidant solutions. The result of the modification is also the exposure of FTIR 1603 and 1046cmbands observed in frozen serum solutions. In the case of modification of the burned skin by DMSO solutions or antioxidants - frequency shifts, an increase in the intensity of amide I band as well as the appearance of the 1601cmband can be specific biomarkers of the tissue regeneration process. In this study the areas 1780-1580cmand 1418-1250cmon the Raman spectra are particularly rich in spectral information.

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Sulfate reduction processes in salt marshes affected by phosphogypsum: Geochemical influences on contaminant mobility.

Sulfate reduction and its associated contaminant immobilization in marsh soils supporting a phosphogypsum stack was examined by pore-water and solid analysis, selective extractions, microscopy and sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The negative impact of this stack on estuarine environments is a concerning problem. In the weathering profile, total concentrations of most pollutants increase with depth; instead, dissolved contents in pore-waters increase to middle of the saturated zone but then decrease drastically down to reach the marsh due to sulfide precipitation. Excess of acid-volatile sulfide plus pyritic sulfur over metals bound to the oxidizable fraction indicates that sulfide precipitation is the main mechanism responsible for metal removal in the marsh. Thus, abundant pyrite occurred as framboidal grains, in addition to other minor sulfides of As, Zn and Cu as isolated particles. Moreover, high contents of elemental sulfur were found, which suggest partial sulfide oxidation, but marsh may have capacity to buffer potential release of contaminants. The importance of sulfur species was quantitatively confirmed by XANES, which also supports the accuracy of selective extraction schemes. Accordingly, managing pore-water quality through organic carbon-rich amendments over phosphogypsum stacks could lead to a decrease in contaminant loading of leakages resulting from weathering.

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The role of the N-terminal domain of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1, APE1, in DNA glycosylase stimulation.

The base excision repair (BER) pathway consists of sequential action of DNA glycosylase and apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease necessary to remove a damaged base and generate a single-strand break in duplex DNA. Human multifunctional AP endonuclease 1 (APE1, a.k.a. APEX1, HAP-1, or Ref-1) plays essential roles in BER by acting downstream of DNA glycosylases to incise a DNA duplex at AP sites and remove 3'-blocking sugar moieties at DNA strand breaks. Human 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase (OGG1), methyl-CpG-binding domain 4 (MBD4, a.k.a. MED1), and alkyl-N-purine-DNA glycosylase (ANPG, a.k.a. Aag or MPG) excise a variety of damaged bases from DNA. Here we demonstrated that the redox-deficient truncated APE1 protein lacking the first N-terminal 61 amino acid residues (APE1-NΔ61) cannot stimulate DNA glycosylase activities of OGG1, MBD4, and ANPG on duplex DNA substrates. Electron microscopy imaging of APE1-DNA complexes revealed oligomerization of APE1 along the DNA duplex and APE1-mediated DNA bridging followed by DNA aggregation. APE1 polymerizes on both undamaged and damaged DNA in cooperative mode. Association of APE1 with undamaged DNA may enable scanning for damage; however, this event reduces effective concentration of the enzyme and subsequently decreases APE1-catalyzed cleavage rates on long DNA substrates. We propose that APE1 oligomers on DNA induce helix distortions thereby enhancing molecular recognition of DNA lesions by DNA glycosylases via a conformational proofreading/selection mechanism. Thus, APE1-mediated structural deformations of the DNA helix stabilize the enzyme-substrate complex and promote dissociation of human DNA glycosylases from the AP site with a subsequent increase in their turnover rate.

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Differential effects of short chain fatty acids on endothelial Nlrp3 inflammasome activation and neointima formation: Antioxidant action of butyrate.

Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), a family of gut microbial metabolites, have been reported to promote preservation of endothelial function and thereby exert anti-atherosclerotic action. However, the precise mechanism mediating this protective action of SCFAs remains unknown. The present study investigated the effects of SCFAs (acetate, propionate and butyrate) on the activation of Nod-like receptor pyrin domain 3 (Nlrp3) inflammasome in endothelial cells (ECs) and associated carotid neointima formation. Using a partial ligated carotid artery (PLCA) mouse model fed with the Western diet (WD), we found that butyrate significantly decreased Nlrp3 inflammasome formation and activation in the carotid arterial wall of wild type mice (Asc), which was comparable to the effect of gene deletion of the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein gene (Asc). Nevertheless, both acetate and propionate markedly enhanced the formation and activation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome as well as carotid neointima formation in the carotid arteries with PLCA in Asc, but not Ascmice. In cultured ECs (EOMA cells), butyrate was found to significantly decrease the formation and activation of Nlrp3 inflammasomes induced by 7-ketocholesterol (7-Ket) or cholesterol crystals (CHC), while acetate did not inhibit Nlrp3 inflammasome activation induced by either 7-Ket or CHC, but itself even activated Nlrp3 inflammsomes. Mechanistically, the inhibitory action of butyrate on the Nlrp3 inflammasome was attributed to a blockade of lipid raft redox signaling platforms to produce O2upon 7-Ket or CHC stimulations. These results indicate that SCFAs have differential effects on endothelial Nlrp3 inflammasome activation and associated carotid neointima formation.

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Effects of short-term feeding of different sources of fatty acids in pre-mating diets on reproductive performance and blood metabolites of fat-tailed Iranian Afshari ewes.

The effects of dietary omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids (FAs) in pre-mating diets on reproductive performances and metabolic status of ewes have not been well investigated. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of supplementing different source of FAs on different aspects of reproductive performance of fat-tailed Iranian Afshari ewes. Thirty-two cycling, multiparous Afshari ewes were divided into four groups and fed one of the isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets supplemented with Sunflower oil (SFO), Fish oil (FO), calcium salt of palm oil (CaPO) and/or an equal mixture of SFO + FO (SFOFO). One day after the start of the flushing, the estrous cycles of all ewes were synchronized using 12-day CIDRs. After detecting signs of estrous, all ewes were mated with rams for 2 days. The examination of ovarian follicles was done by a transrectal ultrasonography. After counting all visible follicles, they were classified into 3 classes based on their diameters: small (≤3 mm), medium (3-4 mm) and large (≥4 mm). The results showed that fat sources had no impact on dry matter intake (DMI) and body condition score (BCS) of animals (P > 0.05). Plasma glucose, total cholesterol, and albumin concentrations also were not significantly affected by supplemental fat sources (P > 0.05). Plasma insulin levels were higher at the end of the flushing (on the day of CIDR removal) and the day of mating for ewes on CaPO diet (P < 0.05). Plasma estradiol-17β concentration was greater on the day of mating for ewes fed FO (P < 0.05). Progesterone levels in pregnant ewes fed FO were higher 30 d after mating (11.02 ng/mL; P < 0.05). Dietary treatments had no significant effect on number of small, medium and total follicles as well as the average size of small and medium follicles at the end of the flushing and the day of mating. The number of medium follicles on the day of oestrus (mating) were significantly higher for the ewes fed FO or SFO diets (P < 0.05). Likewise, the mean number and size of large follicles at the end of flushing and the day of oestrus were higher in ewes on FO diet (P < 0.05). Lambing rate and twinning rate increased (P < 0.05) in ewes fed FO or SFO, respectively. In conclusion, supplementation of n-3 PUFA rich FA especially FO in pre-mating diets showed beneficial effects on some indices of reproductive performance of Afshari ewes including lambing and twining rate due to higher number of medium sized follicles and size of the ovulatory (large) follicles at the day of oestrus and increased plasma progesterone levels in pregnant ewes.

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The defensive role of silicon in wheat against stress conditions induced by drought, salinity or cadmium.

In the crust of earth, silicon (Si) is one of the two major elements. For plant growth and development, importance of Si remains controversial due to the widely differences in ability of plants to take up this element. In this paper, pot experiments were done to study Si roles in improving salt, drought or cadmium (Cd) stress tolerance in wheat. Up to full emergence, all pots were watered at 100% field capacity (FC) every other day with nutrient solution without any treatments. Fifteen days after sowing, pots were divided into four plots, each with 40 pots for no stress (control) and three stress treatments; drought (50% FC), salinity (200 mM NaCl) and cadmium (2 mM Cd). For all plots, Si was applied at four levels (0, 2, 4 and 6 mM). Under no stress condition, Si applications increased Si content and improved growth as a result of reduced electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA) and Nacontents. Under stress conditions, Si supplementation conferred higher growth, gas exchange, tissue water and membranes stabilities, and Kcontent, and had limited MDA and Nacontents and EL compared to those obtained without Si. Compared to those without Si, enzyme (e.g., superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase) activity was improved by Si applications, which were linked with elevated antioxidants and osmoprotectants (e.g., free proline, soluble sugars, ascorbic acid and glutathione) contents, might providing antioxidant defense against abiotic stress in wheat. The level of 4 mM Si was most effective for mitigating the salt and drought stress conditions, while 6 mM Si level was most influentially for alleviating the Cd stress condition. These results suggest that Si is beneficial in remarkably affecting physiological phenomena and improving wheat growth under abiotic stress.

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