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           Search results for: anti-ATM Protein Kinase phospho-ser1981biotin conjugated Antibody   

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#28924009   2017/09/19 Save this To Up

Site-specific regulation of P2X7 receptor function in microglia gates morphine analgesic tolerance.

Tolerance to the analgesic effects of opioids is a major problem in chronic pain management. Microglia are implicated in opioid tolerance, but the core mechanisms regulating their response to opioids remain obscure. By selectively ablating microglia in the spinal cord using a saporin-conjugated antibody to Mac1, we demonstrate a causal role for microglia in the development, but not maintenance, of morphine tolerance in male rats. Increased P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) activity is a cardinal feature of microglial activation, and in this study we found that morphine potentiates P2X7R-mediated Ca(2+) responses in resident spinal microglia acutely isolated from morphine tolerant rats. The increased P2X7R function was blocked in cultured microglia by PP2, a Src family protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor. We identified Src family kinase activation mediated by μ-receptors as a key mechanistic step required for morphine potentiation of P2X7R function. Furthermore, we show by site-directed mutagenesis that tyrosine (Y382-384) within the P2X7R C-terminus is differentially modulated by repeated morphine treatment and has no bearing on normal P2X7R function. Intrathecal administration of a palmitoylated peptide corresponding to the Y382-384 site suppressed morphine-induced microglial reactivity and preserved the antinociceptive effects of morphine in male rats. Thus, site-specific regulation of P2X7R function mediated by Y382-384 is a novel cellular determinant of the microglial response to morphine that critically underlies the development of morphine analgesic tolerance.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTControlling pain is one of the most difficult challenges in medicine and its management is a requirement of a large diversity of illnesses. While morphine and other opioids offer dramatic and impressive relief of pain, their impact is truncated by loss of efficacy (analgesic tolerance). Understanding why this occurs and how to prevent it are of critical importance in improving pain therapy. We uncovered a novel site (Y382-384) within the P2X7 receptor that can be targeted to blunt the development of morphine analgesic tolerance, without affecting normal P2X7 receptor function. Our findings provide a critical missing mechanistic piece - site-specific modulation by Y382-384 - that unifies P2X7R function to the activation of spinal microglia and the development of morphine tolerance.

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#28734845   2017/07/23 Save this To Up

Leveraging Siglec-8 endocytic mechanisms to kill human eosinophils and malignant mast cells.

Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec)-8 is a cell-surface protein expressed selectively on human eosinophils, mast cells, and basophils, making it an ideal target for the treatment of diseases involving these cell types. However, the effective delivery of therapeutic agents to these cells requires an understanding of the dynamics of Siglec-8 surface expression.

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anti CD7 All T cells Reco Human Tonsil Microvascula Mouse Anti-Human CD34 Tar Astra Blue 6GLL, Stain fo Mouse Anti-Human CD94 (Na Anti C Reactive Protein A Epidermal Growth Factor ( Epidermal Growth Factor ( Anti Human, mab TIE 1 ( 8 Active Human Caspase 8100 Active Human Caspase 825 Goat Anti-Human CLCA1 (aa

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#28730477   2017/07/21 Save this To Up

Utilizing the Luminex Magnetic Bead-Based Suspension Array for Rapid Multiplexed Phosphoprotein Quantification.

The study of protein phosphorylation is critical for the advancement of our understanding of cellular responses to external and internal stimuli. Phosphorylation, the addition of phosphate groups, most often occurs on serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues due to the action of protein kinases. This structural change causes the protein to become activated (or deactivated) and enables it in turn to initiate the phosphorylation of other proteins in a cascade, eventually causing cell-wide changes such as apoptosis, cell differentiation, and growth (among others). Cellular phosphoprotein pathway dysregulation by mutation or chromosomal instability can often give the cell a selective advantage and lead to cancer. Obviously the understanding of these systems is of huge importance to the field of oncology.This chapter aims to provide a "how to" manual for one such technology, the 96-well plate-based xMAP(®) platform from Luminex. The system utilizes antibody-bound free-floating magnetic spheres which can easily be removed from suspension via magnetization. There are 100 unique bead sets (moving up to 500 bead sets for the most recent system) identified by the ratio of two dyes coating the microsphere. Each bead set is conjugated to a specific antibody which allows targeted protein extraction from low-concentration lysate solution. Biotinylated secondary antibodies/streptavidin-R-phycoerythrin (SAPE) complexes provide the quantification mechanism for the phosphoprotein of interest.

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#28727765   2017/07/20 Save this To Up

Defining the target and the effect of imatinib on the filarial c-Abl homologue.

Previously we demonstrated the micro- and macrofilaricidal properties of imatinib in vitro. Here we use electron and multiphoton microscopy to define the target of imatinib in the adult and microfilarial stages of Brugia malayi and assess the effects of pharmacologically relevant levels of imatinib on the adult parasites.

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#28720505   2017/07/19 Save this To Up

Chemically generated IgG2 bispecific antibodies through disulfide bridging.

Bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) are designed to engage two antigens simultaneously, thus, effectively expanding the ability of antibody-based therapeutics to target multiple pathways within the same cell, engage two separate soluble antigens, bind the same antigen with distinct paratopes, or crosslink two different cell types. Many recombinant BsAb formats have emerged, however, expression and purification of such constructs can often be challenging. To this end, we have developed a chemical strategy for generating BsAbs using native IgG2 architecture. Full-length antibodies can be conjugated via disulfide bridging with linkers bearing orthogonal groups to produce BsAbs. We report that an αHER2/EGFR BsAb was successfully generated by this approach and retained the ability to bind both antigens with no significant loss of potency.

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Viral antibodies, anti-R Signal Transduction Anti HIV1 rev antibody, Monocl HBsAg antibody, Monoclona HBsAg antibody, Monoclona AFP antibody, Monoclonal Rotavirus antibody, Monoc MAP antibody, Monoclonal Adenovirus antibody , Mon Adenovirus antibody, Mono Adenovirus antibody, Mono Adenovirus antibody, Mono

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#28686661   2017/07/07 Save this To Up

Engineering of monobody conjugates for human EphA2-specific optical imaging.

In a previous study, we developed an E1 monobody specific for the tumor biomarker hEphA2 [PLoS ONE (2015) 10(7): e0132976]. E1 showed potential as a molecular probe for in vitro and in vivo targeting of cancers overexpressing hEphA2. In the present study, we constructed expression vectors for E1 conjugated to optical reporters such as Renilla luciferase variant 8 (Rluc8) or enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and purified such recombinant proteins by affinity chromatography in E. coli. E1-Rluc8 and E1-EGFP specifically bound to hEphA2 in human prostate cancer PC3 cells but not in human cervical cancer HeLa cells, which express hEphA2 at high and low levels, respectively. These recombinant proteins maintained >40% activity in mouse serum at 24 h. In vivo optical imaging for 24 h did not detect E1-EGFP signals, whereas E1-Rluc8 showed tumor-specific luminescence signals in PC3 but not in HeLa xenograft mice. E1-Rluc8 signals were detected at 4 h, peaked at 12 h, and were undetectable at 24 h. These results suggest the potential of E1-Rluc8 as an EphA2-specific optical imaging agent.

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NATIVE HUMAN PROLACTIN, P MOUSE ANTI HUMAN CD15, Pr NATIVE HUMAN PROLACTIN, P MOUSE ANTI HUMAN CD19 RPE MOUSE ANTI HUMAN CD15, Pr MOUSE ANTI BOVINE ROTAVIR Bone Morphogenetic Protei Growth Differentiation Fa MOUSE ANTI BORRELIA BURGD Human Neuron-specific eno succinate-CoA ligase, GDP PABP1-dependent poly A-sp

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#28654064   2017/06/27 Save this To Up

Detection and Visualization of DNA Damage-induced Protein Complexes in Suspension Cell Cultures Using the Proximity Ligation Assay.

The DNA damage response orchestrates the repair of DNA lesions that occur spontaneously, are caused by genotoxic stress, or appear in the context of programmed DNA breaks in lymphocytes. The Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated kinase (ATM), ATM- and Rad3-Related kinase (ATR) and the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent Protein Kinase (DNA-PKcs) are among the first that are activated upon induction of DNA damage, and are central regulators of a network that controls DNA repair, apoptosis and cell survival. As part of a tumor-suppressive pathway, ATM and ATR activate p53 through phosphorylation, thereby regulating the transcriptional activity of p53. DNA damage also results in the formation of so-called ionizing radiation-induced foci (IRIF) that represent complexes of DNA damage sensor and repair proteins that accumulate at the sites of DNA damage, which are visualized by fluorescence microscopy. Co-localization of proteins in IRIFs, however, does not necessarily imply direct protein-protein interactions, as the resolution of fluorescence microscopy is limited. In situ Proximity Ligation Assay (PLA) is a novel technique that allows the direct visualization of protein-protein interactions in cells and tissues with unprecedented specificity and sensitivity. This technique is based on the spatial proximity of specific antibodies binding to the proteins of interest. When the interrogated proteins are within ~40 nm an amplification reaction is triggered by oligonucleotides that are conjugated to the antibodies, and the amplification product is visualized by fluorescent labeling, yielding a signal that corresponds to the subcellular location of the interacting proteins. Using the established functional interaction between ATM and p53 as an example, it is demonstrated here how PLA can be used in suspension cell cultures to study the direct interactions between proteins that are integral parts of the DNA damage response.

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#28619527   2017/06/16 Save this To Up

Expression of full-length HER2 protein in Sf9 insect cells and its presentation on the surface of budded virus-like particles.

Biomarkers of cancer are often glycosylated membrane receptor proteins present on the cellular surface. In order to develop new antibodies for cancer diagnostics or treatment, it is a main pre-requisite that these target proteins are available in a native conformation. However, membrane receptor proteins are notoriously difficult to produce due to their hydrophobic nature and complex architecture. Here, we used the baculovirus-insect cell expression system to produce budded virus-like particles (VLPs) as the scaffold for the presentation of complex membrane proteins. Since the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is known to be overexpressed in a number of cancers it was chosen as model for a tumor antigen. VLPs displaying full-length HER2 on the surface were produced in Spodoptera frugiperda 9 (Sf9) insect cells and purified by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. The number of secreted particles was quantified by nanoparticle tracking analysis. To confirm the presence of HER2 protein on the surface, VLPs were labeled with gold-conjugated antibodies and analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Functionality of displayed HER2 was investigated by ELISA and a newly established biolayer interferometry based technique. Detection was accomplished using the specific monoclonal antibody Herceptin and filamentous phages displaying a single-chain variable fragment of an anti-HER2 antibody. Significant stronger binding of Herceptin and anti-HER2 phages to HER2-displaying VLPs as compared to control VLPs was demonstrated. Thus, we suggest that Sf9 insect cells are highly feasible for the fast and easy production of various budded VLPs that serve as a platform for full-length membrane receptor presentation.

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#28601810   2017/06/11 Save this To Up

Pattern of ocular involvement in myasthenia gravis with MuSK antibodies.

Myasthenia gravis (MG) with antibodies to the muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) has a characteristic phenotype. Ocular manifestations have not been systematically evaluated.

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#28494030   2017/05/11 Save this To Up

Antibody-nanoparticle conjugates to enhance the sensitivity of ELISA-based detection methods.

Accurate antigen detection is imperative for clinicians to diagnose disease, assess treatment success, and predict patient prognosis. The most common technique used for the detection of disease-associated biomarkers is the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In an ELISA, primary antibodies are incubated with biological samples containing the biomarker of interest. Then, detectible secondary antibodies conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) bind the primary antibodies. Upon addition of a color-changing substrate, the samples provide a colorimetric signal that directly correlates to the targeted biomarker concentration. While ELISAs are effective for analyzing samples with high biomarker content, they lack the sensitivity required to analyze samples with low antigen levels. We hypothesized that the sensitivity of ELISAs could be enhanced by replacing freely delivered primary antibodies with antibody-nanoparticle conjugates that provide excess binding sites for detectible secondary antibodies, ultimately leading to increased signal. Here, we investigated the use of nanoshells (NS) decorated with antibodies specific to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as a model system (EGFR-NS). We incubated one healthy and two breast cancer cell lines, each expressing different levels of EGFR, with EGFR-NS, untargeted NS, or unconjugated EGFR antibodies, as well as detectable secondary antibodies. We found that EGFR-NS consistently increased signal intensity relative to unconjugated EGFR antibodies, with a substantial 13-fold enhancement from cells expressing high levels of EGFR. Additionally, 40x more unconjugated antibodies were required to detect EGFR compared to those conjugated to NS. Our results demonstrate that antibody-nanoparticle conjugates lower the detection limit of traditional ELISAs and support further investigation of this strategy with other antibodies and nanoparticles. Owing to their enhanced sensitivity, we anticipate that nanoparticle-modified ELISAs can be used to detect low levels of biomarkers found in various diseases, such as cancers, tuberculosis, and rheumatoid arthritis, and may ultimately enable earlier diagnosis, better prognostication, and improved treatment monitoring.

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