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#28848360   2017/08/29 Save this To Up

Inactivated probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30 induces complex immune activating, anti-inflammatory, and regenerative markers in vitro.

The aim of this study was to document the immune activating and anti-inflammatory effects of inactivated probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 (Staimune™) cells on human immune cells in vitro.

1990 related Products with: Inactivated probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30 induces complex immune activating, anti-inflammatory, and regenerative markers in vitro.

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#28844471   2017/08/28 Save this To Up

Remodeling T cell compartments during anti-CD3 immunotherapy of type 1 diabetes.

The immunological mechanism(s) of action whereby teplizumab preserves C-peptide levels in the progression of patients with recent onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) is still not well understood. In the present study, we evaluated the kinetics of T cell modulation in peripheral blood following two 14-day courses of teplizumab therapy one year apart in recent onset T1D participants in the AbATE clinical trial. Transient rises in PD-1+Foxp3+ Treg and potentially anergic (CD57-KLRG1-PD-1+) cells in the circulating CD4 T cell compartment were paralleled by more profound increases in circulating CD8 T cells with traits of exhaustion (CD57-KLRG1+PD-1+, TIGIT+KLRG1+, and persistent down-modulation of CD127). The observed phenotypic changes across cell types were associated with favorable response to treatment in the subgroup of study participants that did not develop anti-drug antibodies after the first course of therapy. These findings provide new insights on the duration and complexity of T cell modulation with teplizumab therapy in recent onset T1D, and in addition, suggest that coordinated immune mechanisms of tolerance that favor CD4 Treg function and restrain CD4 non-Treg and CD8 T cell activation may contribute to treatment success.

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#28834699   2017/08/23 Save this To Up

T cell engaging bispecific antibody (T-BsAb): From technology to therapeutics.

Harnessing the power of the human immune system to treat cancer is the essence of immunotherapy. Monoclonal antibodies engage the innate immune system to destroy targeted cells. For the last 30years, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity have been the main mechanisms of anti-tumor action of unconjugated antibody drugs. Efforts to exploit the potentials of other immune cells, in particular T cells, culminated in the recent approval of two T cell engaging bispecific antibody (T-BsAb) drugs, thereby stimulating new efforts to accelerate similar platforms through preclinical and clinical trials. In this review, we have compiled the worldwide effort in exploring T cell engaging bispecific antibodies. Our special emphasis is on the lessons learned, with the hope to derive insights in this fast evolving field with tremendous clinical potential.

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#28826649   2017/08/22 Save this To Up

A new approach to the role of IL-7 and TGF-ß in the in vitro generation of thymus-derived CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells.

Thymus-derived regulatory T cells of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ phenotype develop as a functional, mature population playing an essential role in self-tolerance and immune homeostasis, and exhibiting therapeutic potential to inhibit adverse immune response. Despite intensive research on thymus-derived Tregs, the knowledge about agents involved in their generation, survival, proliferation, and biological functions is still insufficient. In this research we have focused on the role of selected cytokines in previously developed in vitro model based on the application of anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies. We have demonstrated an essential role of IL-7 and TGF-β in the generation of thymus-derived Tregs in the co-culture of thymocytes and JAWS II cells. In addition, in vitro generated Tregs exhibited their suppressive function similarly to Tregs sorted from freshly isolated thymus.

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#28799485   2017/08/11 Save this To Up

Monoclonal Antibodies: A Review.

Over the last three decades, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have made a striking transformation from scientific tools to powerful human therapeutics. Muromonab CD3 a murine MAb, was first FDA approved therapeutic MAb for prevention of kidney transplant rejection. Since its approval in 1986, there has been decline in the further application and approvals until the late 1990s when the first chimeric Mab, Rituximab was approved for the treatment of low grade B cell lymphoma in 1997. With the approval by licensing authorities of chimeric, followed by humanized and then fully human monoclonal antibodies, rate of approval and monoclonal antibodies available in the market for the treatment of various diseases has increased dramatically. As of March 2017, FDA has approved approximately 60 therapeutic MAbs with much more currently under evaluation in various phases of clinical trials. MAbs are approved for the treatment of a diseases belonging to various system like cardiovascular, respiratory, hematology, kidney, immunology and oncology. Mab are approved for the treatment of orphan diseases or indications such as paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria as well as cancers and multiple sclerosis where hundreds of patients are treated and even diseases such as breast cancer, asthma and rheumatoid arthritis where millions are being treated. This review focuses briefly on types, molecular targets, mechanism of actions and therapeutic indications of FDA approved MAb products that are currently on the market.

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#28797042   2017/08/10 Save this To Up

Cytokine production profile in intestinal mucosa of paediatric inflammatory bowel disease.

In the recent years, the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has dramatically increased in young subjects, however, the pathogenesis of paediatric IBD is poorly investigated. In this study we aimed to evaluate the cytokine pattern and the phenotype of cytokine producing cells in the intestinal mucosa of paediatric patients affected by Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) and of non-IBD healthy controls (HC). Cytokine (IL-15, TNF-α, INF-γ) production was analyzed at basal condition and after mitogen stimulation either intracellularly by flow cytometry or in intestinal cell culture supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A higher frequency of enterocytes (EpCam+ cells) was observed in UC patients compared to CD or HC. An expansion of enterocytes producing IL-15 and TNF-α were found in IBD patients compared to HC. A marked expression of IL-15 in the intestinal epithelium of IBD patients was further confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Myeloid dendritic (CD11c+) cells producing TNF-α and INF-γ were increased in IBD biopsies. Unexpectedly, only after a strong mitogen stimulus, as phytohaemagglutinin, the frequency of CD3+ cells producing IFN-γ was increased in IBD compared to control intestinal mucosa. Interestingly, functional studies performed on organ cultures of intestinal biopsies with neutralizing anti-IL-15 monoclonal antibody showed a marked reduction of mononuclear cell activation, proliferation of crypt enterocytes, as well as a reduction of TNF-α release in organ culture supernatants. In conclusion, we found that in the gut mucosa of IBD children both enterocytes and dendritic cells produce proinflammatory cytokines. The over-expression of IL-15 by enterocytes in IBD intestine and the reduced IBD inflammation by IL-15 blockage suggests that this cytokine could be a therapeutic target in IBD.

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#28778448   2017/08/05 Save this To Up

Normal intrathecal leukocyte cell number and composition do not decrease the incidence of post-lumbar puncture headache.

The pathogenesis of post-lumbar puncture headache (PLPH) has remained unclear. A beneficial role of CSF cells in the repair of a post-traumatic dural CSF leak has been suggested. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 8weeks of induction therapy with high-dose PF-00547659 on the cellular elements of CNS immune surveillance in patients with active Crohn's Disease and a history of immunosuppressive therapy (Clinicaltrials.govNCT01387594). PF-00547659 is a human monoclonal antibody that binds to mucosal addressin-cell adhesion molecule 1 (MAdCAM-1) on endothelial cells and blocks its interaction with beta7-integrin expressing lymphocytes. The study was executed in three parts or cohorts under two protocols. The incidence of a PLPH was 35% after the initial lumbar puncture, and 26% following the second lumbar puncture. After initiation of PF-00547659 anti-MAdCAM-1 therapy, there was a small and non-significant increase in the numbers of overall CSF leukocytes, and in lymphocyte subsets (CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells). The lymphocyte composition was unaltered by PF-00547659 anti-MAdCAM-1 therapy. Our observations suggest that normal numbers and composition of intrathecal leukocytes do not decrease the incidence of PLPH.

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#28739191   2017/07/25 Save this To Up

Oral treatment with foralumab, a fully human anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody, prevents skin xenograft rejection in humanized mice.

Oral administration of biologics may be a feasible approach for immune therapy that improves drug safety and potentiates mechanisms of tolerance at mucosal barriers. We tested the ability of a fully human non-FcR binding anti-CD3 mAb, foralumab, to prevent skin xenograft rejection in mice with human immune systems. At an intragastric dose of 15μg, the drug could transit through the small bowel. Serum absorption and binding of lymphoid cells was seen and proliferative responses of splenic CD8+ T cells to mitogen were reduced. Five consecutive daily doses, then weekly dosing led to indefinite graft acceptance without depletion of peripheral T cells. Proliferative and cytokine responses to activation of splenocytes with PHA were reduced. The serum levels of IL-10 but not TNF were increased 6days after application of the skin graft. Oral treatment with anti-CD3 mAb may represent a feasible approach for immune modulation.

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#28735186   2017/07/23 Save this To Up

Development of a robust reporter gene assay to measure the bioactivity of anti-PD-1/anti-PD-L1 therapeutic antibodies.

Being regarded as the 'cancer panacea', the anti-PD-1/anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become the R&D focus of biopharmaceutical industries. Several marketed such mAbs have been proved particularly effective in treating various cancers. However, the cell-based bioassay to measure the biological activities of the anti-PD-1/anti-PD-L1 mAbs as the lot release or stability test has been a great challenge to quality control laboratories due to the immunomodulating nature of the mAbs. Here, we describe the development and validation of a reporter gene assay consisting of two-cell systems to measure the bioactivity of the anti-PD-1/anti-PD-L1 mAbs. We have generated two cell lines, the CHO-PD-L1-CD3L cell line that stably expresses PD-L1 and the membrane-anchored anti-CD3 single chain antibody fragment (scFv) named CD3L and the Jurkat-PD-1-NFAT cell line that stably expresses PD-1 and the luciferase gene under the control of the NFAT response elements from the IL-2 promoter. The results show good dose-dependent responsiveness to the mAbs and excellent performance characteristics including specificity, accuracy and precision. The biological relevance of the assay, the passage stability of the two cell lines, and the capability of measuring various anti-PD-1/anti-PD-L1 mAbs render this assay applicable not only in lot release and stability test but also in characterization and development of new anti-PD1/anti-PD-L1 mAbs.

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#28731207   2017/07/21 Save this To Up

Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies for treating acute rejection episodes in kidney transplant recipients.

Registry data shows that the incidence of acute rejection has been steadily falling. Approximately 10% to 35% of kidney recipients will undergo treatment for at least one episode of acute rejection within the first post-transplant year. Treatment options include pulsed steroid therapy, the use of an antibody preparation, the alteration of background immunosuppression, or combinations of these options. Over recent years, new treatment strategies have evolved, and in many parts of the world there has been an increase in use of tacrolimus and mycophenolate and a reduction in the use of cyclosporin and azathioprine use as baseline immunosuppression to prevent acute rejection. There are also global variations in use of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to treat acute rejection. This is an update of a review published in 2006.

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