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#28923424   2017/09/19 Save this To Up

Depletion of regulatory T cells by anti-ICOS antibody enhances anti-tumor immunity of tumor cell vaccine in prostate cancer.

ICOS(+)Treg cells exert important immunosuppressive effects in tumor immunity. We adopt a combination approach of ICOS(+)Treg cells depletion with tumor cell vaccine to evaluate anti-tumor immunity in mouse prostate cancer model. Streptavidin (SA)-mGM-CSF surface-modified RM-1 cells were prepared as the vaccine and the mouse subcutaneous prostate tumor model was used to evaluate the immunity. Tumor growth, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were performed to evaluate the therapeutic effects. Our results demonstrated that SA-mGM-CSF vaccine was prepared successfully and tumor growth was inhibited. The tumor size in the combination group was much smaller than that in the vaccine with IgG mAb group. The portions of dendritic cells, CD8(+) and CD4(+)T cells in the mice blood and tumor tissues were increased after treatment with vaccine. There were more immune-suppressing Tregs infiltrated into tumor after treatment with tumor cell vaccine, and ICOS blocking could deplete the infiltrated Tregs, and T lymphocytes increased more dramatically in the combination therapy group. The concentrations of interferon-γ were increased in all vaccine group, the concentrations of Interleukin-10 and Interleukin-4 were much lower in the combination group. Our study demonstrated that ICOS blocking could deplete the tumor-infiltrated ICOS(+)Treg cells. Combining GM-CSF surface-modified RM-1 cell vaccine with Anti-ICOS antibody could induce better antitumor immunity than a vaccine alone.

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#28921203   2017/09/18 Save this To Up

Does intraoperative analgesia modify the immune response in surgical patients?

The effect of epidural analgesia combined with inhalational anesthesia on the perioperative immune response was measured by using two-color analysis for the classification of functional lymphocyte subpopulations. Twenty-eight patients undergoing upper abdominal surgery were divided into four groups: group 1, isoflurane and with N2O group 2, sevoflurane with N2O; group 3, epidural analgesia plus isoflurane with N2O; and group 4, epidural analgesia and sevoflurane with N2O. Peripheral lymphocyte subpopulations were measured before, during, and after the operation by using anti-CD4 and anti-CD8 monoclonal antibodies. Moreover, two-color analysis was performed using two kinds of monoclonal antibodies: anti-CD4 and anti-CD29W, and anti-CD4 and anti-CD45R. A decrease in CD4(+) cells and CD4(+) CD29W(+) cells (helper-inducer T lymphocytes) was observed after the operation in groups 1, 2, and 4. Additionally, stress hormones such as epinephrine (EP), norepinephrine (NE), and cortisol (CO) were measured. EP was increased during and after the operation in groups 1 and 2, and after the operation in group 4, but the level was maintained throughout the study in group 3. In conclusion, prevention of noxious stimuli originating from operative fields by epidural block could prevent the increase in EP and the reduction of helper-inducer T cells in patients undergoing upper abdominal surgery.

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#28922396   2017/09/18 Save this To Up

Biochemical and immunological characterization of a novel monoclonal antibody against mouse leukotriene B4 receptor 1.

Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) receptor 1 (BLT1) is a G protein-coupled receptor expressed in various leukocyte subsets; however, the precise expression of mouse BLT1 (mBLT1) has not been reported because a mBLT1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) has not been available. In this study, we present the successful establishment of a hybridoma cell line (clone 7A8) that produces a high-affinity mAb for mBLT1 by direct immunization of BLT1-deficient mice with mBLT1-overexpressing cells. The specificity of clone 7A8 was confirmed using mBLT1-overexpressing cells and mouse peripheral blood leukocytes that endogenously express BLT1. Clone 7A8 did not cross-react with human BLT1 or other G protein-coupled receptors, including human chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4. The 7A8 mAb binds to the second extracellular loop of mBLT1 and did not affect LTB4 binding or intracellular calcium mobilization by LTB4. The 7A8 mAb positively stained Gr-1-positive granulocytes, CD11b-positive granulocytes/monocytes, F4/80-positive monocytes, CCR2-high and CCR2-low monocyte subsets in the peripheral blood and a CD4-positive T cell subset, Th1 cells differentiated in vitro from naïve CD4-positive T cells. This mAb was able to detect Gr-1-positive granulocytes and monocytes in the spleens of naïve mice by immunohistochemistry. Finally, intraperitoneal administration of 7A8 mAb depleted granulocytes and monocytes in the peripheral blood. We have therefore succeeded in generating a high-affinity anti-mBLT1 mAb that is useful for analyzing mBLT1 expression in vitro and in vivo.

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#28912774   2017/09/15 Save this To Up

Therapeutic Antibodies to KIR3DL2 and Other Target Antigens on Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphomas.

KIR3DL2 is a member of the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) family that was initially identified at the surface of natural killer (NK) cells. KIR3DL2, also known as CD158k, is expressed as a disulfide-linked homodimer. Each chain is composed of three immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail containing two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs. Beside its expression on NK cells, it is also found on rare circulating T lymphocytes, mainly CD8(+). Although the KIR gene number varies between haplotype, KIR3DL2 is a framework gene present in all individuals. Together with the presence of genomic regulatory sequences unique to KIR3DL2, this suggests some particular functions for the derived protein in comparison with other KIR family members. Several ligands have been identified for KIR3DL2. As for other KIRs, binding to HLA class I molecules is essential for NK development by promoting phenomena such as licensing and driving NK cell maturation. For KIR3DL2, this includes binding to HLA-A3 and -A11 and to the free heavy chain form of HLA-B27. In addition, KIR3DL2 binds to CpG oligonucleotides (ODN) and ensures their transport to endosomal toll-like receptor 9 that promotes cell activation. These characteristics have implicated KIR3DL2 in several pathologies: ankylosing spondylitis and cutaneous T-cell lymphomas such as Sézary syndrome, CD30(+) cutaneous lymphoma, and transformed mycosis fungoides. Consequently, a new generation of humanized monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against KIR3DL2 has been helpful in the diagnosis, follow-up, and treatment of these diseases. In addition, preliminary clinical studies of a novel targeted immunotherapy for cutaneous T-cell lymphomas using the anti-KIR3DL2 mAb IPH4102 are now underway. In this review, we discuss the various aspects of KIR3DL2 on the functions of CD4(+) T cells and how targeting this receptor helps to develop innovative therapeutic strategies.

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#28895863   2017/09/12 Save this To Up

A monoclonal antibody for detection of intracellular and secreted interleukin-2 in horses.

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a T cell growth factor and major modulator of T helper (Th) cell differentiation. Here, we have developed and characterized a monoclonal antibody to equine IL-2 (anti-IL-2 mAb, clone 158-1). The IL-2 mAb detected rIL-2 by ELISA, intracellular staining and flow cytometry analysis and Western blotting. The IL-2 mAb was also paired with a polyclonal IL-2 detection antibody in both ELISA and a fluorescent bead-based assay. When these two assays were compared using identical reagents there was an improved analytical sensitivity (46pg/ml) and wider linear quantification range (46-100,000pg/ml) of IL-2 quantification using the fluorescent bead assay. Equine rIL-2 standards were expressed in both yeast and mammalian cells but the mammalian cell-expressed rIL-2 standard was found to be most accurate for native IL-2 quantification. Using this system we found that stimulation of equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and ionomycin induced IL-2 secretion most potently. Pokeweed mitogen (PWM) consistently resulted in low amounts of IL-2 from PBMC, while concanavalin A (ConA), phytohemagglutinin-L (PHA-L) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) either marginally stimulated or failed to stimulate IL-2 secretion from equine PBMC. After stimulation of equine PBMC with PMA and ionomycin, IL-2 production was detected in 13.0% (range 7.5-16.8%) of the lymphocytes by flow cytometric analysis. IL-2 expression was mainly stimulated in CD4(+) cells, in a sub-population of CD8(+) cells, and also in CD4-/CD8- cell population. In addition, both IFN-γ(+)/IL-2(+) and IL-4(+)/IL-2(+) producing cells were observed. Testing of serum and colostrum samples from 15 healthy horses showed that IL-2 was not detectable in these samples (<46pg/ml). In summary, the equine IL-2 mAb provides a new tool for the characterization of IL-2 producing equine cells and the quantification of secreted equine IL-2 in sensitive assays.

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#28893913   2017/09/12 Save this To Up

IL17A-deficient mice are highly susceptible to Toxoplasma gondii infection due to excessively induced T. gondii HSP70 and IFN-γ production.

IL-17A is known to be involved in the host defense against pathogens and pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Previously, we showed that excessive IFN-γ plays an important role in the pathogenesis of lethal effect of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) by inducing anaphylactic responses. In this report, we examine the effects of an IL-17A deficiency on murine host defense against oral T. gondii infection. IL-17A-deficient C57BL/6 (B6) mice exhibited higher mortality than wild type (WT) mice to T. gondii at the acute phase of infection. CD4(+) T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes (mLNs) and ileum of T. gondii-infected IL-17A-deficient mice produced higher levels of IFN-γ than did those in WT mice. In addition, T. gondii HSP70 (T.g.HSP70) expression was also significantly increased in the ileum, mLNs, liver and spleen of infected IL-17A-deficient mice as compared with WT mice. These elevated expressions of T.g.HSP70 and IFN-γ in infected IL-17A-deficient mice were presumably linked to the IL-17A defect since they decreased to WT levels after treatment with recombinant IL-17A. Furthermore, IL-17A-deficient mice were highly susceptible to anaphylactic effect of T.g.HSP70, and acute phase survival of IL-17A-deficient mice was improved by the treatment with anti-T.g.HSP70 monoclonal antibody. These results suggest that IL-17A plays an important role in host survival against T. gondii infection by protecting host from anaphylactic reaction via downregulating T.g.HSP70 and IFN-γ production.

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#28844471   2017/08/28 Save this To Up

Remodeling T cell compartments during anti-CD3 immunotherapy of type 1 diabetes.

The immunological mechanism(s) of action whereby teplizumab preserves C-peptide levels in the progression of patients with recent onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) is still not well understood. In the present study, we evaluated the kinetics of T cell modulation in peripheral blood following two 14-day courses of teplizumab therapy one year apart in recent onset T1D participants in the AbATE clinical trial. Transient rises in PD-1+Foxp3+ Treg and potentially anergic (CD57-KLRG1-PD-1+) cells in the circulating CD4 T cell compartment were paralleled by more profound increases in circulating CD8 T cells with traits of exhaustion (CD57-KLRG1+PD-1+, TIGIT+KLRG1+, and persistent down-modulation of CD127). The observed phenotypic changes across cell types were associated with favorable response to treatment in the subgroup of study participants that did not develop anti-drug antibodies after the first course of therapy. These findings provide new insights on the duration and complexity of T cell modulation with teplizumab therapy in recent onset T1D, and in addition, suggest that coordinated immune mechanisms of tolerance that favor CD4 Treg function and restrain CD4 non-Treg and CD8 T cell activation may contribute to treatment success.

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#28826649   2017/08/22 Save this To Up

A new approach to the role of IL-7 and TGF-ß in the in vitro generation of thymus-derived CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells.

Thymus-derived regulatory T cells of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ phenotype develop as a functional, mature population playing an essential role in self-tolerance and immune homeostasis, and exhibiting therapeutic potential to inhibit adverse immune response. Despite intensive research on thymus-derived Tregs, the knowledge about agents involved in their generation, survival, proliferation, and biological functions is still insufficient. In this research we have focused on the role of selected cytokines in previously developed in vitro model based on the application of anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies. We have demonstrated an essential role of IL-7 and TGF-β in the generation of thymus-derived Tregs in the co-culture of thymocytes and JAWS II cells. In addition, in vitro generated Tregs exhibited their suppressive function similarly to Tregs sorted from freshly isolated thymus.

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#28825137   2017/08/21 Save this To Up

Anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody enhances the protective efficacy of Schistosoma japonicum GST vaccine via inhibition of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells.

The effect of anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody (anti-CD25 mAb) on the protection efficacy of Schistosoma japonicum 26 kDa GST (glutathione-S-transferase) vaccine was evaluated. Mice were immunized with GST before infection with S. japonicum cercariae and then injected with anti-CD25 mAb. The worm reduction rate was promoted from 24.18% in mice with GST immunization to 47.09% in mice with GST plus anti-CD25 mAb. Compared with the control group, the percentages of splenic CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) were significantly lower after administration of anti-CD25 mAb; meanwhile, elevated levels of IFN-γ and IL-2 were secreted by splenocytes. These results indicate that the poor protective efficacy of the GST vaccine against S. japonicum results from the presence of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs, while anti-CD25 mAb can partially block CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs and thus enhance the protective efficacy of the GST vaccine.

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#28810147   2017/08/15 Save this To Up

Macrophage Polarization Contributes to Glioblastoma Eradication by Combination Immunovirotherapy and Immune Checkpoint Blockade.

Glioblastoma is an immunosuppressive, fatal brain cancer that contains glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs). Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) selectively replicates in cancer cells while inducing anti-tumor immunity. oHSV G47Δ expressing murine IL-12 (G47Δ-mIL12), antibodies to immune checkpoints (CTLA-4, PD-1, PD-L1), or dual combinations modestly extended survival of a mouse glioma model. However, the triple combination of anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD-1, and G47Δ-mIL12 cured most mice in two glioma models. This treatment was associated with macrophage influx and M1-like polarization, along with increased T effector to T regulatory cell ratios. Immune cell depletion studies demonstrated that CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells as well as macrophages are required for synergistic curative activity. This combination should be translatable to the clinic and other immunosuppressive cancers.

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