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#29049863   2017/10/19 Save this To Up

Reply to: Medication contaminants as a potential cause of anaphylaxis to vincristine: What about drug specific antigens?


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#29049803   2017/10/19 Save this To Up

Prognostic significance of immune-nutritional parameters for surgically resected elderly lung cancer patients: a multicentre retrospective study.

The world's population is rapidly ageing, and the age of patients with lung cancer will increase as well. The prognostic nutritional index, controlling nutritional status and the geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) are useful parameters for evaluating immune-nutritional status. We aimed to perform a multicentre retrospective study to investigate the correlations of these immune-nutritional parameters with postoperative comorbidities or surgical outcomes of elderly patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

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#29049691   2017/10/19 Save this To Up

The advanced lung cancer inflammation index is an independent prognostic factor after surgical resection in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer.

The usefulness of a recently developed advanced lung cancer inflammation index (ALI) has been reported in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small-cell lung cancer. However, no previous studies have examined the prognostic significance of ALI in patients with operable NSCLC. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between ALI and the prognosis of resected NSCLC.

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#29049331   2017/10/19 Save this To Up

HIV dynamics linked to memory CD4+ T cell homeostasis.

The dynamics of latent HIV is linked to infection and clearance of resting memory CD4+ T cells. Infection also resides within activated, non-dividing memory cells and can be impacted by antigen-driven and homeostatic proliferation despite suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). We investigated whether plasma viral level (pVL) and HIV DNA dynamics could be explained by HIV's impact on memory CD4+ T cell homeostasis. Median total, 2-LTR and integrated HIV DNA levels per μL of peripheral blood, for 8 primary (PHI) and 8 chronic HIV infected (CHI) individuals enrolled on a raltegravir (RAL) based regimen, exhibited greatest changes over the 1st year of ART. Dynamics slowed over the following 2 years so that total HIV DNA levels were equivalent to reported values for individuals after 10 years of ART. The mathematical model reproduced the multiphasic dynamics of pVL, and levels of total, 2-LTR and integrated HIV DNA in both PHI and CHI over 3 years of ART. Under these simulations, residual viremia originated from reactivated latently infected cells where most of these cells arose from clonal expansion within the resting phenotype. Since virion production from clonally expanded cells will not be affected by antiretroviral drugs, simulations of ART intensification had little impact on pVL. HIV DNA decay over the first year of ART followed the loss of activated memory cells (120 day half-life) while the 5.9 year half-life of total HIV DNA after this point mirrored the slower decay of resting memory cells. Simulations had difficulty reproducing the fast early HIV DNA dynamics, including 2-LTR levels peaking at week 12, and the later slow loss of total and 2-LTR HIV DNA, suggesting some ongoing infection. In summary, our modelling indicates that much of the dynamical behavior of HIV can be explained by its impact on memory CD4+ T cell homeostasis.

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#29049328   2017/10/19 Save this To Up

CA 19-9 and CA 125 as potential predictors of disease recurrence in resectable lung adenocarcinoma.

Among patients who underwent primary surgery for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), recurrent disease is frequent and cannot be accurately predicted solely from TNM stage and histopathological features. The aim of this study was to examine the association of tumor markers in pre-operative serum with recurrent disease.

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#29049181   2017/10/19 Save this To Up

Recurrent multiple-organ involvement of disseminated alveolar echinococcosis in 3 patients: Case report.

Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a rare but highly malignant form of echinococcosis caused by Echinococcus multilocularis. There have been very few reports on multiple-organ AE, especially AE in bones. Here we report 3 rare cases of disseminated multiple-organ AE from western China and its neighboring areas.

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#29048985   2017/10/19 Save this To Up

Commentary: Impact of meningococcal group B OMV vaccines, beyond their brief.

Meningococcal group B outer membrane vesicle vaccines have been used widely in Cuba, New Zealand, and Brazil. They are immunogenic and initially assessed largely by their ability to induce serum bactericidal activity. Measures of efficacy indicate good protection against homologous strains in older children and adults. Effectiveness appears broader than predicted by immunogenicity and efficacy studies. The recent discovery that meningococcal group B OMVs may protect against the related Neisseria species N.gonorrhoeae suggests more to these interesting antigen collections than meets the eye. Currently there are two OMV-containing group B vaccines available, the new recombinant protein-based Bexsero® developed by Novartis and VA-MENGOC-BC® developed by the Finlay institute in Cuba. Also, a third group B vaccine based on two recombinant factor H binding proteins (Trumenba®, Pfizer), has recently been licenced but it does not include OMV. This commentary explores the population impact that group B OMV vaccines have had on meningococcal and gonorrhoea diseases. Given the heterologous effect against diverse strains of the meningococcus observed in older children and adults, and recent evidence to suggest moderate protection against gonorrhoea, there may be a role for these vaccines in programmes targeting adolescents and groups high at risk for both meningococcal disease and gonorrhoea.

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#29048978   2017/10/19 Save this To Up

Antitumor effect of oral cancer vaccine with Bifidobacterium delivering WT1 protein to gut immune system is superior to WT1 peptide vaccine.

Despite the revolutionary progress of immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) for cancer immunotherapy, CPIs are effective only in a subset of patients. Combining CPIs and cancer vaccines to achieve better clinical outcomes is a reasonable approach since CPI enhances cancer vaccine-induced tumor-associated antigen (TAA) specific CTL. Among the various TAAs so far identified, WT1 protein is one of the most promising TAAs as a cancer vaccine target. Until now clinical trials of WT1 vaccine have demonstrated only modest clinical efficacy. These WT1 vaccines were based on peptides or dendritic cells (DCs), and there was no oral cancer vaccine. Recently, we developed a WT1 oral cancer vaccine using a recombinant Bifidobacterium displaying WT1 protein, which can efficiently deliver WT1 protein to the gut immune system, and we demonstrated that this oral cancer vaccine had a significant anti-tumor effect in a C1498-WT1 murine leukemia syngeneic tumor model. The WT1 protein displayed in this vaccine consists of about 70% of the WT1 amino acid sequence including multiple known CD4 and CD8 T-cell epitopes of WT1. In this commentary, we introduce our recent data indicating the superior anti-tumor effect of a WT1 oral cancer vaccine delivering WT1 protein to the gut immune system compared to a peptide vaccine.

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#29048936   2017/10/19 Save this To Up

Computed tomography in hypersensitivity pneumonitis: main findings, differential diagnosis and pitfalls.

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a disease with variable clinical presentation in which inflammation in the lung parenchyma is caused by the inhalation of specific organic antigens or low molecular weight substances in genetically susceptible individuals. Alterations of the acute, subacute and chronic forms may eventually overlap, and the diagnosis based on temporality and presence of fibrosis (acute/inflammatory HP vs. chronic HP) seems to be more feasible and useful in clinical practice. Differential diagnosis of chronic HP with other interstitial fibrotic diseases is challenging due to the overlap of the clinical history, and the functional and imaging findings of these pathologies in the terminal stages. Areas covered: This article reviews the essential features of HP with emphasis on imaging features. Moreover, the main methodological limitations of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) interpretation are discussed, as well as new perspectives with volumetric quantitative CT analysis as a useful tool for retrieving detailed and accurate information from the lung parenchyma. Expert commentary: Mosaic attenuation is a prominent feature of this disease, but air trapping in chronic HP seems overestimated. Quantitative analysis has the potential to estimate the involvement of the pulmonary parenchyma more accurately and could correlate better with pulmonary function results.

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#29048935   2017/10/19 Save this To Up

Chimeric antigen receptor-T cell therapy for solid tumors require new clinical regimens.

Chimeric antigen receptor modified T cell (CAR-T) therapy has achieved encouraging breakthroughs in the treatment of hematological malignancies. Nevertheless, this success has not yet been extrapolated to solid tumors. This review focuses on new clinical regimens that could improve the therapeutic efficacy of CAR-T in solid tumors. Areas covered: Herein, the authors reviewed recent clinical trials using CAR-T therapies for the treatment of solid tumors. Specifically, this review covered the following areas: (1) the current status of CAR-T cells in the treatment of solid tumors; (2) the major factors constraining the efficacy of CAR-T cells in solid tumors; and (3) opinions regarding the future of CAR-T as a treatment for solid tumors. Expert commentary: While some recent studies have shown promising results, the ultimate success of CAR-T therapies in solid tumor patients will require the following improvements to clinical regimens: (1) local delivery of CAR-T cells; (2) combination of CAR-T cells with chemotherapeutic drugs to treat metastatic tumors; (3) combination of CAR-T with immune checkpoint inhibitors; (4) combination therapy using CAR-T cells targeting two different antigens; and (5) the use of CAR-T as a strategy to prevent tumor recurrence and metastasis after radical resection.

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