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#29029261   2017/10/13 Save this To Up

Selective Enhancement of Domoic Acid Toxicity in Primary Cultures of Cerebellar Granule Cells by Lowering Extracellular Na+ Concentration.

Domoic acid (DOM) is an excitatory amino acid analog of kainic acid (KA) that acts through glutamic acid (GLU) receptors, inducing a fast and potent neurotoxic response. Here we present evidence for an enhancement of excitotoxicity following exposure of cultured cerebellar granule cells to DOM in the presence of lower than physiological Na+ concentrations. The concentration of DOM that reduced by 50% neuronal survival was ̴ 3 µM in Na+-free conditions and 16 µM in presence of a physiological concentration of extracellular Na+. The enhanced neurotoxic effect of DOM was fully prevented by AMPA/KA receptor antagonist, while NMDA-receptor-mediated neurotoxicity did not seem to be involved, as the absence of extracellular Na+ failed to potentiate GLU excitotoxicity under the same experimental conditions. Lowering of extracellular Na+ concentration to 60 mM eliminated extracellular recording of spontaneous electrophysiological activity from cultured neurons grown on a multi electrode array (MEA), and prevented DOM stimulation of the electrical activity. While changes in the extracellular Na+ concentration did not alter the magnitude of the rapid increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels associated to DOM exposure, they did change significantly the contribution of voltage-sensitive calcium channel (VSCaC) and the recovery time to baseline. The prevention of Ca2+ influx via VSCaC by nifedipine failed to prevent DOM toxicity at any extracellular Na+ concentration, while the reduction of extracellular Ca2+ concentration ameliorated DOM toxicity only in the absence of extracellular Na+, enhancing it in physiological conditions. Our data suggest a crucial role for extracellular Na+ concentration in determining excitotoxicity by DOM.

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#29029205   2017/10/13 Save this To Up

Transcriptome Analysis of the Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Integument.

The insect integument, formed by the cuticle and the underlying epidermis, is essential for insect fitness, regulation of lipid biosynthesis and storage, insect growth and feeding, together with development progress. Its participation in insecticide resistance has also been outlined. Triatoma infestans Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is one of the major vectors of Chagas disease in South America; however, genomic data are scarce. In this study, we performed a transcriptome analysis of the nymph integument in order to identify which genes are expressed and their putative role. Using the 454 GS-FLX sequencing platform, we obtained approximately 144,620 reads from the integument tissue. These reads were assembled into 6,495 isotigs and 8,504 singletons. Based on BLAST similarity searches, about 8,000 transcripts were annotated with known genes, conserved domains, and/or Gene Ontology terms.The most abundant transcripts corresponded to transcription factors and nucleic acid metabolism, membrane receptors, cell signaling, and proteins related to cytoskeleton, transport, and cell energy processes, among others. More than 10% of the transcripts-encoded proteins putatively involved in the metabolism of fatty acids and related components (fatty acid synthases, elongases, desaturases, fatty alcohol reductases), structural integument proteins, and the insecticide detoxification system (among them, cytochrome P450s, esterases, and glutathione transferases). Real-time qPCR assays were used to investigate their putative participation in the resistance mechanism. This preliminary study is the first transcriptome analysis of a triatomine integument, and together with prior biochemical information, will help further understandthe role of the integument in a wide array of mechanisms.

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#29029112   2017/10/13 Save this To Up

Diversity and regulation of intrinsic β-lactamases from non-fermenting and other Gram-negative opportunistic pathogens.

This review deeply addresses for the first time the diversity, regulation and mechanisms leading to mutational overexpression of intrinsic β-lactamases from non-fermenting and other non-Enterobacteriaceae Gram-negative opportunistic pathogens. After a general overview of the intrinsic β-lactamases described so far in these microorganisms, including circa. 60 species and 100 different enzymes, we review the wide array of regulatory pathways of these β-lactamases. They include diverse LysR-type regulators, which control the expression of β-lactamases from relevant nosocomial pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Stenothrophomonas maltophilia or two-component regulators, with special relevance in Aeromonas spp., along with other pathways. Likewise, the multiple mutational mechanisms leading to β-lactamase overexpression and β-lactam resistance development, including AmpD (N-acetyl-muramyl-L-alanine amidase), DacB (PBP4), MrcA (PPBP1A) and other PBPs, BlrAB (two-component regulator) or several lytic transglycosylases among others, are also described. Moreover, we address the growing evidence of a major interplay between β-lactamase regulation, peptidoglycan metabolism and virulence. Finally, we analyse recent works showing that blocking of peptidoglycan recycling (such as inhibition of NagZ or AmpG) might be useful to prevent and revert β-lactam resistance. Altogether, the provided information and the identified gaps should be valuable for guiding future strategies for combating multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens.

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#29028946   2017/10/13 Save this To Up

Mouse Cntnap2 and Human CNTNAP2 ASD Alleles Cell Autonomously Regulate PV+ Cortical Interneurons.

Human mutations in CNTNAP2 are associated with an array of neuropsychiatric and neurological syndromes, including speech and language disorders, epilepsy, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined Cntnap2's expression and function in GABAergic cortical interneurons (CINs), where its RNA is present at highest levels in chandelier neurons, PV+ neurons and VIP+ neurons. In vivo functions were studied using both constitutive Cntnap2 null mice and a transplantation assay, the latter to assess cell autonomous phenotypes of medial ganglionic eminence (MGE)-derived CINs. We found that Cntnap2 constitutive null mutants had normal numbers of MGE-derived CINs, but had reduced PV+ CINs. Transplantation assays showed that Cntnap2 cell autonomously regulated the physiology of parvalbumin (PV)+, fast-spiking CINs; no phenotypes were observed in somatostatin+, regular spiking, CINs. We also tested the effects of 4 human CNTNAP2 ASD missense mutations in vivo, and found that they impaired PV+ CIN development. Together, these data reveal that reduced CNTNAP2 function impairs PV+ CINs, a cell type with important roles in regulating cortical circuits.

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#29028819   2017/10/13 Save this To Up

The anti-myeloma activity of bone morphogenetic protein 2 predominantly relies on the induction of growth arrest and is apoptosis-independent.

Multiple myeloma (MM), a malignancy of the bone marrow, is characterized by a pathological increase in antibody-producing plasma cells and an increase in immunoglobulins (plasmacytosis). In recent years, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been reported to be activators of apoptotic cell death in neoplastic B cells in MM. Here, we use bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) to show that the "apoptotic" effect of BMPs on human neoplastic B cells is dominated by anti-proliferative activities and cell cycle arrest and is apoptosis-independent. The anti-proliferative effect of BMP2 was analysed in the human cell lines KMS12-BM and L363 using WST-1 and a Coulter counter and was confirmed using CytoTox assays with established inhibitors of programmed cell death (zVAD-fmk and necrostatin-1). Furthermore, apoptotic activity was compared in both cell lines employing western blot analysis for caspase 3 and 8 in cells treated with BMP2 and FasL. Additionally, expression profiles of marker genes of different cell death pathways were analysed in both cell lines after stimulation with BMP2 for 48h using an RT-PCR-based array. In our experiments we observed that there was rather no reduction in absolute cell number, but cells stopped proliferating following treatment with BMP2 instead. The time frame (48-72 h) after BMP2 treatment at which a reduction in cell number is detectable is too long to indicate a directly BMP2-triggered apoptosis. Moreover, in comparison to robust apoptosis induced by the approved apoptotic factor FasL, BMP2 only marginally induced cell death. Consistently, neither the known inhibitor of apoptotic cell death zVAD-fmk nor the necroptosis inhibitor necrostatin-1 was able to rescue myeloma cell growth in the presence of BMP2.

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#29028808   2017/10/13 Save this To Up

Functional characterization of GABAA receptor-mediated modulation of cortical neuron network activity in microelectrode array recordings.

The numerous γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR) subtypes are differentially expressed and mediate distinct functions at neuronal level. In this study we have investigated GABAAR-mediated modulation of the spontaneous activity patterns of primary neuronal networks from murine frontal cortex by characterizing the effects induced by a wide selection of pharmacological tools at a plethora of activity parameters in microelectrode array (MEA) recordings. The basic characteristics of the primary cortical neurons used in the recordings were studied in some detail, and the expression levels of various GABAAR subunits were investigated by western blotting and RT-qPCR. In the MEA recordings, the pan-GABAAR agonist muscimol and the GABABR agonist baclofen were observed to mediate phenotypically distinct changes in cortical network activity. Selective augmentation of αβγ GABAAR signaling by diazepam and of δ-containing GABAAR (δ-GABAAR) signaling by DS1 produced pronounced changes in the majority of the activity parameters, both drugs mediating similar patterns of activity changes as muscimol. The apparent importance of δ-GABAAR signaling for network activity was largely corroborated by the effects induced by the functionally selective δ-GABAAR agonists THIP and Thio-THIP, whereas the δ-GABAAR selective potentiator DS2 only mediated modest effects on network activity, even when co-applied with low THIP concentrations. Interestingly, diazepam exhibited dramatically right-shifted concentration-response relationships at many of the activity parameters when co-applied with a trace concentration of DS1 compared to when applied alone. In contrast, the potencies and efficacies displayed by DS1 at the networks were not substantially altered by the concomitant presence of diazepam. In conclusion, the holistic nature of the information extractable from the MEA recordings offers interesting insights into the contributions of various GABAAR subtypes/subgroups to cortical network activity and the putative functional interplay between these receptors in these neurons.

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IGF-1R Signaling Phospho- Insulin Receptor Phospho- T-Cell Receptor Signaling Interferon-a Receptor Typ Mouse Anti-Human Interleu interleukin 17 receptor C Cell Meter™ Fluorimetri Cell Meter™ Fluorimetri interferon-alpha receptor Primary antibody IL-1RAc Primary antibody IL-1RAc Alkaline Phospatase (ALP)

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#29028618   2017/10/13 Save this To Up

One single standard substance for the simultaneous determination of 17 triterpenes in Ganoderma lingzhi and its related species using high-performance liquid chromatography.

Due to the difficulty and high cost for the preparation of triterpenes, one single standard for the simultaneous determination of multi-components (SSDMC) with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is an advanced solution for multi-component analysis. Experiments were carried out to investigate the feasibility of SSDMC for the analysis of Ganoderma triterpenes, with external standard method (ESM) compared, and the samples of Ganoderma were classified by the content of Ganoderma triterpenes. The analysis was performed by using a Fortis Speed Core-C18 column (150mm×4.6mm I.D., 2.6μm) at gradient elution of 0.01% glacial acetic acid-water (V/V) and acetonitrile with diode array detection (252nm), at a flow rate of 1mL/min. The results showed that all calibration curves had good linearity (r(2)>0.9999) within test ranges. The LOD and LOQ were lower than 2.52ng and 6.43ng, respectively. The RSD for intra-day and inter-day of the seventeen analytes were less than 3.12% at three levels, and the recoveries were 91.4-103.0%. The contents of other 16 triterpenes were determined with ganoderic acid A by SSDMC, which showed that there were few differences compared with the results obtained by ESM. Moreover, the classification of 25 different species and strains of Ganoderma by using the content of triterpenes intuitively reflected the distinction among Ganoderma. In summary, the developed method could be readily utilized as a method of quality evaluation for Ganoderma triterpenes.

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interleukin 17 receptor C EnzyChrom™ Kinase Assay FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu MOUSE ANTI BOVINE ROTAVIR Human Interleukin-17E (IL Human Interleukin-17F IL- Human Interleukin-17AF He

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#29028614   2017/10/13 Save this To Up

Simultaneous determination of five Alternaria toxins in cereals using QuEChERS-based methodology.

Two analytical approaches, including ultra-high performance liquid chromatograph linked with photo-diode array/fluorescence detector, and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, have been proposed for simultaneous determination of five Alternaria toxins in cereals, which both based on QuEChERS strategy. After QuEChERS extraction and salting out, the collected supernatant was subjected to an extra dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction step prior to quantitative analysis. Response surface methodology based on central composite design was employed to optimize the micro-extraction conditions. During photo-diode array/fluorescence detector method validation, satisfactory analytical characteristics, in terms of selectivity, recovery (72.7%-109.1%), precision (inter-day RSDs <9.6%), sensitivity (limits of quantification ranged from 2.1μgkg(-1) to 120.0μgkg(-1)) and linearity (R(2) all higher than 0.9984), were achieved. Mass spectrometry method was employed as a certified method for accuracy. The two methodologies were successfully applied to 71 samples including three different matrices and the quantitative results were compared. As the result of non-parametric test shown, the established two analytical approach exhibited comparable quantitative accuracy to each other.

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#29028534   2017/10/13 Save this To Up

Discovery of Benzo[g]quinazolin benzenesulfonamide derivatives as dual EGFR/HER2 inhibitors.

An array of some new N-(substituted)-2-((4-oxo-3-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)-3,4-dihydrobenzo[g]quinazolin-2-yl)thio)acetamide 5-19 were synthesized from the starting compound 4-(2-mercapto-4-oxobenzo[g]quinazolin-3(4H)-yl)benzenesulfonamide 4, to be assessed for their cytotoxic activity against A549 lung cancer cell line and to determine their inhibitory effect on EGFR tyrosine kinase enzyme. Compounds 5-19 showed high activity towards A549 cell line with IC50 values of 0.12-8.70 μM. Compounds 6, 12 and 18 were the most potent in this series. These compounds were further screened as dual inhibitors for EGFR/HER2 enzymes in comparison with erlotinib and were found to possess very potent activity. Compound 12 showed the highest activity with IC50 values of 0.06 μM and 0.30 μM towards EGFR and HER2, respectively. Accordingly, the apoptotic effect of the most potent compounds 6, 12 and 18 was investigated and showed a marked increase in the level of caspases-3 by 6, 9 and 8 folds, respectively, compared to the control cells. Moreover, Molecular modeling was performed inside the active site of EGFR, keeping in mind their binding possibilities, bond lengths, angles and energy scores. It was found that the most active compounds demonstrated the best binding scores in the active site of EGFR, which may clarify their high inhibition profile.

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#29028447   2017/10/13 Save this To Up

Complications of Home Enteral Nutrition: Mechanical Complications and Access Issues in the Home Setting.

Home enteral nutrition (HEN) is an essential component in the care of patients with an array of underlying etiologies resulting in the inability to meet caloric needs through volitional intake alone. Although some would include oral nutrition supplementation as HEN, for the purposes of this review, the term is limited to a patient's requiring an enteral access device for the delivery of exogenous nutrients. Complications related to such devices remain a difficult problem in the hospital setting, and these issues are often amplified when encountered in the home setting. Focused multidisciplinary teams and close follow-up are essential in optimizing outcomes for patients receiving HEN, but all healthcare providers should have foundational knowledge regarding commonly encountered complications of HEN access and the initial management of these issues.

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