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#27117222   2016/08/10 Save this To Up

In Vivo Selection Yields AAV-B1 Capsid for Central Nervous System and Muscle Gene Therapy.

Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors have shown promise as a platform for gene therapy of neurological disorders. Achieving global gene delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) is key for development of effective therapies for many of these diseases. Here we report the isolation of a novel CNS tropic AAV capsid, AAV-B1, after a single round of in vivo selection from an AAV capsid library. Systemic injection of AAV-B1 vector in adult mice and cat resulted in widespread gene transfer throughout the CNS with transduction of multiple neuronal subpopulations. In addition, AAV-B1 transduces muscle, β-cells, pulmonary alveoli, and retinal vasculature at high efficiency. This vector is more efficient than AAV9 for gene delivery to mouse brain, spinal cord, muscle, pancreas, and lung. Together with reduced sensitivity to neutralization by antibodies in pooled human sera, the broad transduction profile of AAV-B1 represents an important improvement over AAV9 for CNS gene therapy.

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#25824290   2015/03/31 Save this To Up

A library of MiMICs allows tagging of genes and reversible, spatial and temporal knockdown of proteins in Drosophila.

Here, we document a collection of ∼7434 MiMIC (Minos Mediated Integration Cassette) insertions of which 2854 are inserted in coding introns. They allowed us to create a library of 400 GFP-tagged genes. We show that 72% of internally tagged proteins are functional, and that more than 90% can be imaged in unfixed tissues. Moreover, the tagged mRNAs can be knocked down by RNAi against GFP (iGFPi), and the tagged proteins can be efficiently knocked down by deGradFP technology. The phenotypes associated with RNA and protein knockdown typically correspond to severe loss of function or null mutant phenotypes. Finally, we demonstrate reversible, spatial, and temporal knockdown of tagged proteins in larvae and adult flies. This new strategy and collection of strains allows unprecedented in vivo manipulations in flies for many genes. These strategies will likely extend to vertebrates.

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#25627687   2015/03/15 Save this To Up

Cardiomyocyte expression and cell-specific processing of procholecystokinin.

Heart muscle cells produce peptide hormones such as natriuretic peptides. Developing hearts also express the gene for the classic intestinal hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) in amounts similar to those in the intestine and brain. However, cardiac expression of peptides other than natriuretic peptides has only been suggested using transcriptional measures or methods, with the post-translational phase of gene expression unaddressed. In this study, we examined the cardiac expression of the CCK gene in adult mammals and its expression at the protein level. Using quantitative PCR, a library of sequence-specific pro-CCK assays, peptide purification, and mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that the mammalian heart expresses pro-CCK in amounts comparable to natriuretic prohormones and processes it to a unique, triple-sulfated, and N-terminally truncated product distinct from intestinal and cerebral CCK peptides. Isoprenaline rapidly stimulated cardiac CCK gene expression in vitro and in vivo, which suggests that the cardiac-specific truncated pro-CCK may have pathophysiological relevance as a new marker of heart failure. The suggestion is confirmed by measurement of plasma from heart failure patients.

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#25358671   2014/12/16 Save this To Up

Differential increases of specific FMR1 mRNA isoforms in premutation carriers.

Over 40% of male and ∼16% of female carriers of a premutation FMR1 allele (55-200 CGG repeats) will develop fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, an adult onset neurodegenerative disorder, while about 20% of female carriers will develop fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency. Marked elevation in FMR1 mRNA transcript levels has been observed with premutation alleles, and RNA toxicity due to increased mRNA levels is the leading molecular mechanism proposed for these disorders. However, although the FMR1 gene undergoes alternative splicing, it is unknown whether all or only some of the isoforms are overexpressed in premutation carriers and which isoforms may contribute to the premutation pathology.

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#24743871   2015/06/04 Save this To Up

Low expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 associated with poor prognosis in human glioma.

To investigate insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) mRNA levels in human glioma and normal brain tissue, and to determine their clinical significance.

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#24308561   2014/03/17 Save this To Up

Serological identification of URGCP as a potential biomarker for glioma.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most frequent human brain tumor and causes dismal outcome. To identify tumor-associated antigens in GBM patients may find potential diagnostic markers and immunotherapeutic targets. In this study, we identified a gene termed URGCP using the serological identification of antigens by recombinant A2B5 positive glioma cDNA library. The gene product of URGCP is immunogenic in GBM after tested in allogenic patients serum screening.

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#24187134   2013/12/16 Save this To Up

Identification of the ubiquitin-like domain of midnolin as a new glucokinase interaction partner.

Glucokinase acts as a glucose sensor in pancreatic beta cells. Its posttranslational regulation is important but not yet fully understood. Therefore, a pancreatic islet yeast two-hybrid library was produced and searched for glucokinase-binding proteins. A protein sequence containing a full-length ubiquitin-like domain was identified to interact with glucokinase. Mammalian two-hybrid and fluorescence resonance energy transfer analyses confirmed the interaction between glucokinase and the ubiquitin-like domain in insulin-secreting MIN6 cells and revealed the highest binding affinity at low glucose. Overexpression of parkin, an ubiquitin E3 ligase exhibiting an ubiquitin-like domain with high homology to the identified, diminished insulin secretion in MIN6 cells but had only some effect on glucokinase activity. Overexpression of the elucidated ubiquitin-like domain or midnolin, containing exactly this ubiquitin-like domain, significantly reduced both intrinsic glucokinase activity and glucose-induced insulin secretion. Midnolin has been to date classified as a nucleolar protein regulating mouse development. However, we could not confirm localization of midnolin in nucleoli. Fluorescence microscopy analyses revealed localization of midnolin in nucleus and cytoplasm and co-localization with glucokinase in pancreatic beta cells. In addition we could show that midnolin gene expression in pancreatic islets is up-regulated at low glucose and that the midnolin protein is highly expressed in pancreatic beta cells and also in liver, muscle, and brain of the adult mouse and cell lines of human and rat origin. Thus, the results of our study suggest that midnolin plays a role in cellular signaling of adult tissues and regulates glucokinase enzyme activity in pancreatic beta cells.

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#23941278   2013/08/28 Save this To Up

Human growth is associated with distinct patterns of gene expression in evolutionarily conserved networks.

A co-ordinated tissue-independent gene expression profile associated with growth is present in rodent models and this is hypothesised to extend to all mammals. Growth in humans has similarities to other mammals but the return to active long bone growth in the pubertal growth spurt is a distinctly human growth event. The aim of this study was to describe gene expression and biological pathways associated with stages of growth in children and to assess tissue-independent expression patterns in relation to human growth.

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#22992986   2012/11/22 Save this To Up

SAGE analysis highlights the putative role of underexpression of ribosomal proteins in GH-secreting pituitary adenomas.

Although the molecular pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas has been assessed by several different techniques, it still remains partially unclear. Ribosomal proteins (RPs) have been recently related to human tumorigenesis, but they have not yet been evaluated in pituitary tumorigenesis.

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#22661486   2012/07/04 Save this To Up

Genome-wide analysis of central corneal thickness in primary open-angle glaucoma cases in the NEIGHBOR and GLAUGEN consortia.

To investigate the effects of central corneal thickness (CCT)-associated variants on primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) risk using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) data from the Glaucoma Genes and Environment (GLAUGEN) and National Eye Institute (NEI) Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration (NEIGHBOR) consortia.

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