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The point-of-care colorimetric detection of the biomarker of phenylamine in the human urine based on Tbfunctionalized metal-organic framework.

Phenylamine has been recognized as one of the most important industrially relevant ingredient and a crucial intermediate in chemical products. Yet, its internal exposure detection in human remains largely elusive due to the lack of potent monitoring method. Hereby this issue is addressed with a probe based on lanthanide functionalized organic-inorganic hybrid material Al(OH)(bpydc) (1) through post-synthetically modified metal-organic framework. The as-synthesized Tb@1 exhibits the strong luminescence of Tboriginated from efficient energy transfer from the ligand, which can sense the biological metabolite p-aminophenol (PAP) of the phenylamine in the human urine. Linear correlation between the integrated fluorescence intensity and the concentration of PAP was investigated, enabling quantitative analysis of PAP in physiologically ranges (0.005-5 mg mL) with low detection limit (5 μg mL). This probe demonstrates excellent sensitivity, high selectivity, good reusability and quick response to PAP. Furthermore, a simple and rapid smartphone-based medical portable test paper was developed, whose quantitative color change can be easily distinguished visually. Hence, the PAP sensing platform can serve as a potential diagnostic tool for home monitoring of PAP.

2358 related Products with: The point-of-care colorimetric detection of the biomarker of phenylamine in the human urine based on Tbfunctionalized metal-organic framework.

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Inkjet printing-based photo-induced electron transfer reaction on parchment paper using riboflavin as a photosensitizer.

In this study, we report the photo-induced electron transfer (PET) on parchment paper using riboflavin as a photo inducer and ultraviolet lamp (362 nm) as the light source. To this end, a conventional inkjet printer equipped with 4 cartridges was used. Parchment paper was found to be a favorable substrate due to its insignificant self-absorption while assisting efficient sample interaction. Upon UV-irradiation, riboflavin generated superoxide anion radical (O) and it was available to interact with superoxide dismutase present on the same spot. A decrease in NBT formazan in the reaction spot indicates increased Oscavenging activity of molecule. It was estimated that the well-plate based-colorimetric method used 12.5 μM (1.25 × 10mole) of riboflavin and 0.25 mM (2.50 × 10mole) of NBT to react with different superoxide dismutase or drug concentrations, while the printing technique consumed 3.19 × 10mole of NBT and 2.98 × 10mole of riboflavin to react with gradient superoxide dismutase or drug concentration. In contrast to the conventional well plate method, inkjet printing-based molecular assay provides automatic delivery in the nanoliter range with precise time, which ensures four-to five-order lower reagent consumption. The inkjet printing-based quantitative measurement specifies the amount of a particular drug/enzyme printed on a surface. Therefore, applicability of inkjet printing technique conjoined radical scavenging assay will be more competent to determine the radical scavenging potential of natural plant products. In addition, this inkjet printing approach offers easy, fast, cost-effective, and less time-consuming method to determine PET reaction on paper.

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Assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions in response to an outbreak of typhoid fever in Neno District, Malawi.

On May 2, 2009 an outbreak of typhoid fever began in rural villages along the Malawi-Mozambique border resulting in 748 illnesses and 44 deaths by September 2010. Despite numerous interventions, including distribution of WaterGuard (WG) for in-home water treatment and education on its use, cases of typhoid fever continued. To inform response activities during the ongoing Typhoid outbreak information on knowledge, attitudes, and practices surrounding typhoid fever, safe water, and hygiene were necessary to plan future outbreak interventions. In September 2010, a survey was administered to female heads in randomly selected households in 17 villages in Neno District, Malawi. Stored household drinking water was tested for free chlorine residual (FCR) levels using the N,N diethyl-p-phenylene diamine colorimetric method (HACH Company, Loveland, CO, USA). Attendance at community-wide educational meetings was reported by 56% of household respondents. Respondents reported that typhoid fever is caused by poor hygiene (77%), drinking unsafe water (49%), and consuming unsafe food (25%), and that treating drinking water can prevent it (68%). WaterGuard, a chlorination solution for drinking water treatment, was observed in 112 (56%) households, among which 34% reported treating drinking water. FCR levels were adequate (FCR ≥ 0.2 mg/L) in 29 (76%) of the 38 households who reported treatment of stored water and had stored water available for testing and an observed bottle of WaterGuard in the home. Soap was observed in 154 (77%) households, among which 51% reported using soap for hand washing. Educational interventions did not reach almost one-half of target households and knowledge remains low. Despite distribution and promotion of WaterGuard and soap during the outbreak response, usage was low. Future interventions should focus on improving water, sanitation and hygiene knowledge, practices, and infrastructure. Typhoid vaccination should be considered.

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U0126 protects hippocampal CA1 neurons against forebrain ischemia-induced apoptosis via the ERK1/2 signaling pathway and NMDA receptors.

Cerebral ischemia can trigger the ERK1/2 signaling cascade that enables the brain to adapt to ischemic injury. However, the mechanism of ERK1/2 in ischemic brain injury remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the roles of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway and NMDA receptors in the apoptosis of CA1 pyramidal neurons after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R).

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Comparative studies on osteogenic potential of micro- and nanofibre scaffolds prepared by electrospinning of poly(ε-caprolactone).

The biocompatibility and osteogenic potential of four fibrous scaffolds prepared by electrospinning of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) was studied with MG-63 osteoblast cells. Two different kinds of scaffolds were obtained by adjustment of spinning conditions, which were characterized as nano- or microfibrous. In addition of one nanofibrous, scaffold was made more hydrophilic by blending PCL with Pluronics F 68. Scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and water contact angle measurements. Morphology and growth of MG63 cells seeded on the different scaffolds were investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy after vital staining with fluorescein diacetate and by colorimetric assays. It was found that scaffolds composed of microfibres stipulated better growth conditions for osteoblasts probably by providing a real three-dimensional culture substratum, while nanofibre scaffolds restricted cell growth predominantly to surface regions. Osteogenic activity of cells was determined by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and o-cresolphthalein complexone assay. It was observed that osteogenic activity of cells cultured in microfibre scaffolds was significantly higher than in nanofibre scaffolds regarding ALP activity. Overall, one can conclude that nanofibre scaffold provides better conditions for initial attachment of cells but does not provide advantages in terms of scaffold colonization and support of osteogenic activity compared to scaffolds prepared from microfibres.

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Characterizing the phosphorus forms extracted from soil by the Mehlich III soil test.

Phosphorus (P) can limit crop production in many soils, and soil testing is used to guide fertilizer recommendations. The Mehlich III (M3) soil test is widely used in North America, followed by colorimetric analysis for P, or by inductively coupled plasma-based spectrometry (ICP) for P and cations. However, differences have been observed in M3 P concentrations measured by these methods. UsingP nuclear magnetic resonance (P-NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS), we characterized P forms in M3 extracts. In addition to the orthophosphate that would be detected during colorimetric analysis, several organic P forms were present in M3 extracts that would be unreactive colorimetrically but measured by ICP (molybdate unreactive P, MUP). Extraction of these P forms by M3 was confirmed by P-NMR and MS in NaOH-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid extracts of whole soils and residues after M3 extraction. The most abundant P form in M3 extracts was myo-inositol hexaphosphate (myo-IHP, phytate), a compound that may not contribute to plant-available P if tightly sorbed in soil. Concentrations of myo-IHP and other organic P forms varied among soils, and even among treatment plots on the same soil. Extraction of myo-IHP in M3 appeared to be linked to cations, with substantially more myo-IHP extracted from soils fertilized with alum-treated poultry litter than untreated litter. These results suggest that ICP analysis may substantially over-estimate plant-available P in samples with high MUP concentrations, but there is no way at present to determine MUP concentrations without analysis by both colorimetry and ICP. This study also tested procedures that will improve future soil P-NMR studies, such as treatment of acid extracts, and demonstrated that techniques such as P-NMR and MS are complimentary, each yielding additional information that analysis by a single technique may not provide.

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Hepatoprotective effect of methyl ferulic acid against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in rats.

The present study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of methyl ferulic acid (MFA) against oxidative stress and apoptosis in acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl) in rats, as well as the underlying mechanisms. Sprague Dawley rats were treated with CClafter oral administration of MFA (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) or dimethyl diphenyl bicarboxylate (200 mg/kg) for 7 days. The hepatoprotective effects of MFA were determined by analyzing serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities as well as changes of oxidant parameters. Histopathological analysis was performed to determine the degree of hepatic injury. The mechanisms were investigated by detecting the levels of NADPH oxidase (NOX) trans-membrane subunit NOX4, its ligand p22, as well as caspase3, cleaved caspase3, B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1, reactive oxygen species (ROS), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC), phosphorylated J-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) and p-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) using semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blot analysis and colorimetric assays. MFA treatment significantly decreased serum enzymatic activities of ALT and AST. MFA markedly increased activities of liver superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, and reduced the malondialdehyde concentration. Histopathological examination demonstrated that MFA reduced lipid degeneration, cytoplasmic vacuolization, necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration in the liversof CCl-treated rats. MFA treatment markedly inhibited the expression of inflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-1β. Mechanistic study revealed that MFA decreased the TAC and the levels of ROS and TBARS. Furthermore, MFA treatment led to a reduction of the mRNA and protein expression of NOX4 and p22phox, as well as the protein levels of caspase3, cleaved caspase-3 and Bax, and an upregulation of p-JNK, p-p38 MAPK and Bcl-2 proteins in the liver. The present study demonstrated that MFA has hepatoprotective effects against CCl-induced acute liver damage. MFA has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities and was able to modulate the NOX4/p22/ROS-JNK/p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

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N-[[4-[[(4-Amino[1,1'-bip N-[[4-[[(4-Amino[1,1'-bip (1R,3S)-1-(1,3-Benzodioxo (1S,3S)-1-(1,3-Benzodioxo (1S,3S)-1-(1,3-Benzodioxo (1R,3S)-1-(1,3-Benzodioxo [1-(2-Benzyloxymethyl-pyr 3-(R)-[1-(2-(S)-Benzyloxy 3-(R)-[1-(2-(S)-Benzyloxy Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Mouse, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon

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Development of a high-throughput assay for rapid screening of butanologenic strains.

We report a Thermotoga hypogea (Th) alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-dependent spectrophotometric assay for quantifying the amount of butanol in growth media, an advance that will facilitate rapid high-throughput screening of hypo- and hyper-butanol-producing strains of solventogenic Clostridium species. While a colorimetric nitroblue tetrazolium chloride-based assay for quantitating butanol in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation broth has been described previously, we determined that Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc) ADH used in this earlier study exhibits approximately 13-fold lower catalytic efficiency towards butanol than ethanol. Any Sc ADH-dependent assay for primary quantitation of butanol in an ethanol-butanol mixture is therefore subject to "ethanol interference". To circumvent this limitation and better facilitate identification of hyper-butanol-producing Clostridia, we searched the literature for native ADHs that preferentially utilize butanol over ethanol and identified Th ADH as a candidate. Indeed, recombinant Th ADH exhibited a 6-fold higher catalytic efficiency with butanol than ethanol, as measured using the reduction of NADPto NADPH that accompanies alcohol oxidation. Moreover, the assay sensitivity was not affected by the presence of acetone, acetic acid or butyric acid (typical ABE fermentation products). We broadened the utility of our assay by adapting it to a high-throughput microtiter plate-based format, and piloted it successfully in an ongoing metabolic engineering initiative.

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In vitro antioxidant activity and qualitative phytochemical analysis of two Vismia (Hypericaceae) species collected in Los Andes, Venezuela.

Vismia genus is distributed mainly in tropical and subtropical regions of Central, South America and some areas of Africa. According to previous investigations, antioxidant potential of Vismia species might be related to anthrones, anthraquinones, flavonoids and phenol derivatives biosynthesized by these plants. In this investigation, phytochemical screening of Vismia baccifera (VB) from Mérida-Venezuela and Vismia macrophylla (VM) from Táchira-Venezuela methanolic extracts, carried out using various chemical assays, revealed an abundant presence of anthraquinones in both species analyzed. Glycosides were also present while flavones and dehydroflavones were observed abundantly in VB but moderated in VM. Triterpenes were also detected and steroids showed to be abundant in VM but moderate in VB. On the other hand, antioxidant capacity measured by the DPPH assay showed that VM possesses a stronger antioxidant activity than VB with IC50 5.50 µg mL-1. Phenol and flavonoid assays carried out by Folin-Ciocalteu and colorimetric test also revealed that methanol extracts of both species contain high concentrations of these metabolites. A relationship between the antioxidant activity, total phenol and flavonoids content of the extracts analyzed was demonstrated in this investigation since those samples with higher phenolic concentrations showed likewise higher antioxidant activity.

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Colorimetric detection of 1,5-anhydroglucitol based on graphene quantum dots and enzyme-catalyzed reaction.

Early diagnosis of diabetes yields significant clinical benefits. The serum level of 1,5‑anhydroglucitol (1,5‑AG) has been a new biochemical marker for postprandial hyperglycemia. In this study, a simple colorimetric method for 1,5‑AG detection has been designed based on highly efficient peroxidase mimetic activity of GQDs and enzyme-catalyzed reaction. By the catalytic action of pyranose oxidase (PROD), the 1,5‑AG was oxidized to 1,5‑anhydrofuctose and HO. The GQDs in the presence of HOexhibited highly efficient catalytic activity toward the oxidation of 3, 3', 5, 5'‑tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) to a blue colored product. The influence of relevant experimental variables was optimized. A linear relationship of optical signal with the concentration of 1,5‑AG in the range of 20.0-100.0 μg/mL with the regression correlation coefficient of 0.9985 was obtained which could be monitored by colorimetry detection. The limit of detection (LOD) for 1,5‑AG detection was approximately 0.144 μg/mL. All in all, the proposed 1,5‑AG detection system based on GQDs and PROD-catalyzed reaction showed better performances with simple operation, low-cost, higher selectivity.

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