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Pressure assisted enhancement in superconducting properties of Fe substituted NbSe2 single crystal.

The impact of hydrostatic pressure (P) up to 1 GPa on T c , J c and the nature of the pinning mechanism in FexNbSe2 single crystals have been investigated within the framework of the collective theory. We found that the pressure can induce a transition from the regime where pinning is controlled by spatial variation in the critical transition temperature (δT c ) to the regime controlled by spatial variation in the mean free path (δℓ). Furthermore, T c and low field J c are slightly induced, although the J c drops more rapidly at high fields than at ambient P. The pressure effect enhances the anisotropy and reduces the coherence length, resulting in weak interaction of the vortex cores with the pinning centers. Moreover, the P can induce the density of states, which, in turn, leads to enhance in T c with increasing P. P enhances the T c with the rates of dT c /dP of 0.86, 1.35 and 1.47 K/GPa for FexNbSe2, respectively. The magnetization data are used to establish a vortex phase diagram. The nature of the vortices has been determined from the scaling behaviour of the pinning force density extracted from the J c -H isotherms and demonstrates the point pinning mechanism.

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Endothelial Cell-Derived Von Willebrand Factor, But Not Platelet-Derived, Promotes Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice.

VWF (von Willebrand factor) is synthesized by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes and is known to contribute to atherosclerosis. In vitro studies suggest that platelet-derived VWF (Plt-VWF) is biochemically and functionally different from endothelial cell-derived VWF (EC-VWF). We determined the role of different pools of VWF in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis.

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CELLKINES PLATELET DERIVE PLATELET DERIVED GROWTH F CELLKINES PLATELET DERIVE PLATELET DERIVED GROWTH F Human Stromal Cell-Derive Human Platelet Derived Gr Human Platelet Derived Gr Human Platelet Derived Gr Human Stromal Cell-Derive Mouse Stromal Cell-Derive Mouse Platelet Derived Gr Mouse Platelet Derived Gr

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Finding multiple core-periphery pairs in networks.

With a core-periphery structure of networks, core nodes are densely interconnected, peripheral nodes are connected to core nodes to different extents, and peripheral nodes are sparsely interconnected. Core-periphery structure composed of a single core and periphery has been identified for various networks. However, analogous to the observation that many empirical networks are composed of densely interconnected groups of nodes, i.e., communities, a network may be better regarded as a collection of multiple cores and peripheries. We propose a scalable algorithm to detect multiple nonoverlapping groups of core-periphery structure in a network. We illustrate our algorithm using synthesized and empirical networks. For example, we find distinct core-periphery pairs with different political leanings in a network of political blogs and separation between international and domestic subnetworks of airports in some single countries in a worldwide airport network.

2866 related Products with: Finding multiple core-periphery pairs in networks.

AEE-788 Mechanisms: Multi Inflammation (Human) Quan Inflammation (Human) Quan Inflammation (Human) Quan Inflammation (Mouse) Quan Inflammation (Rat) Quanti Multiple organs tumor and Multiple organ cancer tis Multiple organ cancer and Multiple organ tumor and High density (188 cases 2 High density (188 cases 2

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Reconstruction of a digital core containing clay minerals based on a clustering algorithm.

It is difficult to obtain a core sample and information for digital core reconstruction of mature sandstone reservoirs around the world, especially for an unconsolidated sandstone reservoir. Meanwhile, reconstruction and division of clay minerals play a vital role in the reconstruction of the digital cores, although the two-dimensional data-based reconstruction methods are specifically applicable as the microstructure reservoir simulation methods for the sandstone reservoir. However, reconstruction of clay minerals is still challenging from a research viewpoint for the better reconstruction of various clay minerals in the digital cores. In the present work, the content of clay minerals was considered on the basis of two-dimensional information about the reservoir. After application of the hybrid method, and compared with the model reconstructed by the process-based method, the digital core containing clay clusters without the labels of the clusters' number, size, and texture were the output. The statistics and geometry of the reconstruction model were similar to the reference model. In addition, the Hoshen-Kopelman algorithm was used to label various connected unclassified clay clusters in the initial model and then the number and size of clay clusters were recorded. At the same time, the K-means clustering algorithm was applied to divide the labeled, large connecting clusters into smaller clusters on the basis of difference in the clusters' characteristics. According to the clay minerals' characteristics, such as types, textures, and distributions, the digital core containing clay minerals was reconstructed by means of the clustering algorithm and the clay clusters' structure judgment. The distributions and textures of the clay minerals of the digital core were reasonable. The clustering algorithm improved the digital core reconstruction and provided an alternative method for the simulation of different clay minerals in the digital cores.

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Bragg solitons in systems with separated nonuniform Bragg grating and nonlinearity.

The existence and stability of quiescent Bragg grating solitons are systematically investigated in a dual-core fiber, where one of the cores is uniform and has Kerr nonlinearity while the other one is linear and incorporates a Bragg grating with dispersive reflectivity. Three spectral gaps are identified in the system, in which both lower and upper band gaps overlap with one branch of the continuous spectrum; therefore, these are not genuine band gaps. However, the central band gap is a genuine band gap. Soliton solutions are found in the lower and upper gaps only. It is found that in certain parameter ranges, the solitons develop side lobes. To analyze the side lobes, we have derived exact analytical expressions for the tails of solitons that are in excellent agreement with the numerical solutions. We have analyzed the stability of solitons in the system by means of systematic numerical simulations. We have found vast stable regions in the upper and lower gaps. The effect and interplay of dispersive reflectivity, the group velocity difference, and the grating-induced coupling on the stability of solitons are investigated. A key finding is that a stronger grating-induced coupling coefficient counteracts the stabilization effect of dispersive reflectivity.

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Formation and relaxation of quasistationary states in particle systems with power-law interactions.

We explore the formation and relaxation of the so-called quasistationary states (QSS) for particle distributions in three dimensions interacting via an attractive radial pair potential V(r→∞)∼1/r^{γ} with γ>0, and either a soft core or hard core regularization at small r. In the first part of the paper, we generalize, for any spatial dimension d≥2, Chandrasekhar's approach for the case of gravity to obtain analytic estimates of the rate of collisional relaxation due to two-body collisions. The resultant relaxation rates indicate an essential qualitative difference depending on the integrability of the pair force at large distances: for γ>d-1, the rate diverges in the large particle number N (mean-field) limit, unless a sufficiently large soft core is present; for γ

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Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanorod Carriers for Paclitaxel Delivery in the Treatment and Imaging of Colon Cancer in Mice.

A multifunctional magnetic drug delivery system was developed and explored as an efficient and less invasive technique to improve colon cancer diagnosis and therapy in mice. In this system, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanorod cores enhanced passive targeting by bandaging a magnet adjacent to the tumor site, whereas pluronic F127 shell acted as the carrier for paclitaxel. The pluronic-conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide cores were prepared using the hydrothermal method. It was found that the initial pluronic concentration exerted a significant effect on the distribution of the diameters and lengths of the nanorods. Despite the variation in pluronic concentrations and dimensions of iron oxide products, all the samples exhibited negligible coercivity and remanence, confirming their superparamagnetic characteristics. The pluronic F127-superparamagnetic iron oxide nanocarriers were then prepared by encapsulation of nanorods into pluronic micelles and assessed for paclitaxel loading. Results showed that paclitaxel was incorporated into the core of the micelles through hydrophobic interactions, and that elevating both paclitaxel concentration and temperature increased the loading efficiency. The therapeutic effect of paclitaxel-loaded nanocarriers was then tested in in vitro and in vivo colon cancer models. Compared to docetaxel, the paclitaxel-loaded magnetic nanocarriers significantly suppressed tumor growth and improved survival time of xenograft mice. The accumulated magnetic nanocarriers inside the tumor also served as a contrast agent and enhanced magnetic resonance imaging localization and visualization of the small tumor.

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A Tumor-Activatable Theranostic Nanomedicine Platform for NIR Fluorescence-Guided Surgery and Combinatorial Phototherapy.

Fluorescence image-guided surgery combined with intraoperative therapeutic modalities has great potential for intraoperative detection of oncologic targets and eradication of unresectable cancer residues. Therefore, we have developed an activatable theranostic nanoplatform that can be used concurrently for two purposes: (1) tumor delineation with real-time near infrared (NIR) fluorescence signal during surgery, and (2) intraoperative targeted treatment to further eliminate unresected disease sites by non-toxic phototherapy. Methods: The developed nanoplatform is based on a single agent, silicon naphthalocyanine (SiNc), encapsulated in biodegradable PEG-PCL (poly (ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ɛ-caprolactone)) nanoparticles. It is engineered to be non-fluorescent initially via dense SiNc packing within the nanoparticle's hydrophobic core, with NIR fluorescence activation after accumulation at the tumor site. The activatable nanoplatform was evaluated in vitro and in two different murine cancer models, including an ovarian intraperitoneal metastasis-mimicking model. Furthermore, fluorescence image-guided surgery mediated by this nanoplatform was performed on the employed animal models using a Fluobeam® 800 imaging system. Finally, the phototherapeutic efficacy of the developed nanoplatform was demonstrated in vivo. Results: Our in vitro data suggest that the intracellular environment of cancer cells is capable of compromising the integrity of self-assembled nanoparticles and thus causes disruption of the tight dye packing inside the hydrophobic cores and activation of the NIR fluorescence. Animal studies demonstrated accumulation of activatable nanoparticles at the tumor site following systemic administration, as well as release and fluorescence recovery of SiNc from the polymeric carrier. It was also validated that the developed nanoparticles are compatible with the intraoperative imaging system Fluobeam® 800, and nanoparticle-mediated image-guided surgery provides successful resection of cancer tumors. Finally, in vivo studies revealed that combinatorial phototherapy mediated by the nanoparticles could efficiently eradicate chemoresistant ovarian cancer tumors. Conclusion: The revealed properties of the activatable nanoplatform make it highly promising for further application in clinical image-guided surgery and combined phototherapy, facilitating a potential translation to clinical studies.

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Newly discovered Late Triassic Baqing eclogite in central Tibet indicates an anticlockwise West-East Qiangtang collision.

The Triassic eclogite-bearing central Qiangtang metamorphic belt (CQMB) in the northern Tibetan Plateau has been debated whether it is a metamorphic core complex underthrust from the Jinsha Paleo-Tethys or an in-situ Shuanghu suture. The CQMB is thus a key issue to elucidate the crustal architecture of the northern Tibetan Plateau, the tectonics of the eastern Tethys, and the petrogenesis of Cenozoic high-K magmatism. We here report the newly discovered Baqing eclogite along the eastern extension of the CQMB near the Baqing town, central Tibet. These eclogites are characterized by the garnet + omphacite + rutile + phengite + quartz assemblages. Primary eclogite-facies metamorphic pressure-temperature estimates yield consistent minimum pressure of 25 ± 1 kbar at 730 ± 60 °C. U-Pb dating on zircons that contain inclusions (garnet + omphacite + rutile + phengite) gave eclogite-facies metamorphic ages of 223 Ma. The geochemical continental crustal signature and the presence of Paleozoic cores in the zircons indicate that the Baqing eclogite formed by continental subduction and marks an eastward-younging anticlockwise West-East Qiangtang collision along the Shuanghu suture from the Middle to Late Triassic.

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Identification of Poxvirus Genome Uncoating and DNA Replication Factors with Mutually Redundant Roles.

Genome uncoating is essential for replication of most viruses. For poxviruses, the process is divided into two stages: removal of the envelope allowing early gene expression, and breaching of the core wall allowing DNA release, replication and late gene expression. Subsequent studies showed that the host proteasome and the viral D5 protein, which has an essential role in DNA replication, are required for vaccinia virus (VACV) genome uncoating. In a search for additional VACV uncoating proteins, we noted a report that described a defect in DNA replication and late expression when the gene encoding a 68 kDa ankyrin-repeat/F box protein (68k-ank), associated with the cellular SCF ubiquitin ligase complex, was deleted from the attenuated modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA). Here we showed that the formation of DNA pre-replication sites and degradation of viral cores were severely diminished indicating that the 68k-ank deletion mutant had a defect in genome uncoating as well as an additional independent defect in DNA synthesis. Deletion of the 68k-ank homolog of VACV strain WR, however, was without effect suggesting the existence of compensating genes. By inserting VACV genes into a MVA 68k-ank deletion mutant, we discovered that M2, a member of the Poxvirus Immune Evasion (PIE) domain superfamily and a regulator of NF-κB, and that C5, a member of the BTB/kelch superfamily associated with cullin-3-based ligase complexes, independently rescued the 68k-ank deletion phenotype. Thus, poxvirus uncoating and DNA replication are intertwined processes involving at least three viral proteins with mutually redundant functions in addition to D5.IMPORTANCE Poxviruses comprise a family of large DNA viruses that infect vertebrates and invertebrates and cause diseases of medical and zoological importance. Poxviruses, unlike most other DNA viruses, replicate in the cytoplasm and their large genomes usually encode 200 or more proteins with diverse functions. About 90 genes may be essential for chordopoxvirus replication based either on their conservation or individual gene deletion studies. However, this number may underestimate the true number of essential functions because of redundancy. Here we show that anyone of three seemingly unrelated and individually non-essential proteins are required for the incompletely understood processes of genome uncoating and DNA replication, an example of synthetic lethality. Thus, poxviruses appear to have a complex genetic interaction network that has not been fully appreciated and which will require multifactor deletion screens to assess.

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