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#28544314   2017/05/25 Save this To Up

Low-intensity endurance exercise plus nandrolone decanoate modulates cardiac adiponectin and its receptors.

Vast adverse effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) on athletes' cardiovascular systems have been reported. However, there is still a lack of adequate information regarding the pathways and mechanisms involved. We tested the hypothesis that adiponectin and its receptors in the heart may be affected by long-term use of AASs alongside exercising. Male Wistar rats were randomized into the control (CTL), exercise (EX), nandrolone (Nan), arachis (Arach) group which treated with arachis as vehicle, trained vehicle (EX+Arach) and trained nandrolone (EX+Nan) groups that were treated for 8 weeks. One day after the end of the protocol, animals were sacrificed and their hearts were frozen. TNF-α and adiponectin proteins of hearts were evaluated quantitatively by ELISA kits, and Western blot analysis was used for measuring adiponectin receptor protein expression. TNF-α protein increased significantly in the EX+Nan group (P<.05 vs CTL group). The AdipoR1 protein was significantly higher in the presence of nandrolone alongside exercise (P<.05 vs Nan and EX+Arach groups, P<.01 vs CTL and Arach groups). In addition, AdipoR2 protein enhanced in the EX+Nan group when compared with the other groups (P<.05 vs EX and EX+Arach groups, P<.01 vs CTL, Arach and Nan groups). Chronic nandrolone plus mild endurance exercise may be associated with imbalance in pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines and may induce a positive modulatory effect on cardiac adiporeceptors in rat. Further studies are required before these findings can be generalized to humans.

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#28540255   2017/05/25 Save this To Up

Comparison and validation of ELISA assays for plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 in the horse.

Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plays several important physiological roles, and IGF-related pathways have been implicated in developmental osteochondral disease and endocrinopathic laminitis. This factor is also a downstream marker of growth hormone activity and its peptide mimetics. Unfortunately, previously used assays for measuring equine IGF-1 (radioimmunoassays and ELISAs) are no longer commercially available, and many of the kits on the market give poor results when used on horse samples. The aim of the present study was to compare three different ELISA assays (two human and one horse-specific). Plasma samples from six Standardbreds, six ponies and six Andalusians were used. The human IGF-1 ELISA kit from Immunodiagnostic Systems (IDS) proved to be the most accurate and precise of the three kits; the other two assays gave apparently much lower concentrations, with poor recovery of spiked recombinant human IGF-1 and unacceptably poor intra-assay coefficients of variation (CV). The IDS assay gave an intra-assay CV of 3.59 % and inter-assay CV of 7.31%. Mean percentage recovery of spiked IGF-1 was 88.82%, and linearity and dilutional parallelism were satisfied. The IGF-1 plasma concentrations were 123.21 ±8.24 ng/mL for Standardbreds, 124.95 ±3.69 ng/mL for Andalusians and 174.26 ±1.94 ng/mL for ponies. Therefore of the three assays assessed, the IGF-1 ELISA manufactured by IDS was the most suitable for use with equine plasma samples and may have many useful applications in several different research areas. However, caution should be used when comparing equine studies where different analytical techniques and assays may have been used to measure this growth factor.

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#28534978   2017/05/23 Save this To Up

Demethylzeylasteral ameliorates inflammation in a rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction through inhibiting activation of the NF‑κB pathway.

The present study investigated the pharmacodynamic role and therapeutic mechanism of demethylzeylasteral in the suppression of inflammation in a rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction and reduction in nuclear factor (NF)‑κB pathway activity. The rats in the unilateral ureteral obstruction model were treated with 30‑120 mg/kg demethylzeylasteral for 8 weeks. The activities of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α, interleukin (IL)‑6 and caspase‑3/9, and the protein expression levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)‑2 and intercellular adhesion molecule‑1 (ICAM‑1) and NF‑κB p65 were analyzed using ELISA kits and western blot analyses, respectively. Compared with the rats in the unilateral ureteral obstruction model group, demethylzeylasteral treatment markedly inhibited the increased concentrations of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, urinary protein/creatinine ratio, and concentrations of high‑density lipoprotein and low‑density lipoprotein cholesterol, and prevented kidney damage. In addition, demethylzeylasteral inhibited the levels of TNF‑α andIL‑6 and suppressed the protein expression levels of COX‑2 and ICAM‑1 in the kidneys of the rats in the unilateral ureteral obstruction model. Demethylzeylasteral also significantly suppressed the protein expression of NF‑κB p65. The results of the present study suggested that demethylzeylasteral unilateral ureteral obstruction and inhibited inflammation via inhibiting the activation of COX‑2, ICAM‑1 and NF‑κB p65, and suppressing the activities of caspase‑3/9 in rats with unilateral ureteral obstruction.

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#28528185   2017/05/21 Save this To Up

Simvastatin ameliorate memory deficits and inflammation in clinical and mouse model of Alzheimer's disease via modulating the expression of miR-106b.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) as a neurodegenerative brain disorder is a devastating pathology leading to disastrous cognitive impairments and dementia, and several studies have shown that AD is closely related to the inflammation, so anti-inflammatory treatment may provide therapeutic benefits. In this study, the effect of simvastatin on inflammation was investigated and the underlying mechanisms were explored.

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#28526581   2017/05/20 Save this To Up

A novel mouse model of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome induced by immunization of special peptide fragment with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant.

CP/CPPS is a commonly observed distress in male patients. Because of its little-known etiology, no effective therapy has been developed which has promising outcomes. Therefore, there is a need to develop a valid model which can mimic the etiology of CP/CPPS.

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#28525789   2017/05/19 Save this To Up

Measuring BDNF in saliva using commercial ELISA: Results from a small pilot study.

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a protein often studied in psychiatric populations. Commercial ELISA kits have been validated for measuring BDNF in blood plasma and serum, but blood collection is an invasive method which cannot always be used. The aim of this pilot study was to explore the noninvasive alternative of measuring BDNF in saliva. Three different commercial ELISA kits were used to analyze parallel plasma and saliva samples from six healthy adults. In total 33 plasma and 33 saliva samples were analyzed according to manufacturers' standard protocols. BDNF was successfully measured in plasma in two of the three kits, of which the results correlated highly (rs =.88). BDNF could not be measured reliably in saliva. The results of this pilot study suggest that techniques of commercial BDNF kits may not be ready for noninvasive saliva measurements, which limits the sampling frequency and settings.

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#28523387   2017/05/19 Save this To Up

Seroprevalence of economically important viral pathogens in swine populations of Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence and identify the strains of swine influenza virus (SwIV), as well as the seroprevalence of porcine parvovirus (PPV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2), and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) in pigs in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T). Blood samples (309) were randomly collected from pigs at farms throughout T&T. Serum samples were tested for the presence of antibodies to the aforementioned viruses using commercial ELISA kits, and the circulating strains of SwIV were identified by the hemagglutination inhibition test (HIT). Antibodies against SwIV were detected in 114 out of the 309 samples (37%). Out of a total of 26 farms, 14 tested positive for SwIV antibodies. HI testing revealed high titers against the A/sw/Minnesota/593/99 H3N2 strain and the pH1N1 2009 pandemic strain. Antibodies against PPV were detected in 87 out of the 309 samples (28%), with 11 out of 26 farms testing positive for PPV antibodies. Antibodies against PCV-2 were detected in 205 out of the 309 samples tested (66%), with 25 out of the 26 farms testing positive for PCV-2 antibodies. No antibodies were detected in any of the tested pigs to PRRSV, TGEV, PRCV, or CSFV.

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#28513772   2017/05/17 Save this To Up

Etanercept protects rat cardiomyocytes against hypertrophy by regulating inflammatory cytokines secretion and cell apoptosis.

We aimed to investigate the effect of etanercept, a tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitor, on rat cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and its underlying mechanism. Primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats. The model of rat cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was induced by endothelin, and then treated with different concentrations of etanercept (1, 10, and 50 μM). After treatment, cell counts, viability and cell apoptosis were evaluated. The mRNA levels of myocardial hypertrophy marker genes, including atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-13, were detected by qRT-PCR, and the expressions of apoptosis-related proteins (Bcl-2 and Bax) were measured by western blotting. The protein levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) were determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. In the present study, TNF-α level in cardiomyocytes with hypertrophy was significantly enhanced (P<0.05). Compared to the model group, cell number and viability were significantly increased and ratio of apoptotic cells was reduced by etanercept (P<0.05, P<0.01, or P<0.001). In addition, etanercept remarkably reduced the mRNA levels of ANF, MMP-9 and MMP-13, inhibited the expression of Bax, and increased the expression of Bcl-2 compared to the model group (P<0.05). ELISA results further showed that etanercept lowered the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, LIF and CT-1 but not TGF-β1 compared to the model group (P<0.05). Etanercept may protect rat cardiomyocytes from hypertrophy by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines secretion and cell apoptosis.

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#28511458   2017/05/17 Save this To Up

Maternal and Cord Blood Plasma sEng and TGF-β1 in Patients with Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy: A Pilot Study in a South Indian Population.

Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy (HDP) are one of the most widespread complications of pregnancy that affects both mother and foetus. It has been observed that in Preeclampsia, the release of soluble angiogenic factors from the ischemic placenta into maternal plasma plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis.

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#28509321   2017/05/16 Save this To Up

Evaluation of tissue metalloproteinase inhibitor TIMP-1 and Survivin levels during third trimester pregnancy - a preliminary report.

A proper implantation of trophoblastic cells and an appropriate metalloproteinases activity is required to cause disintegration of basal membranes of cells. The activity of tissue matrix metaloproteinases can be inhibited by their matrix inhibitors - TIMP-s. Survivin is a member of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins family (IAP), that suppresses caspase activation, influences VEGF expression and promotes proliferative action of endothelial cells.

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