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#28345356   2017/03/27 Save this To Up

Dysregulation of Tissue Factor, Thrombin-Activatable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor, and Fibrinogen in Patients Undergoing Total Joint Arthroplasty.

Total joint arthroplasty (TJA) of the hip or knee (THA, TKA) has become an increasingly common procedure. While TJA is a successful treatment for individuals experiencing degenerative joint diseases, it is well known that one of the most common perioperative complications of TJA is deep venous thrombosis (DVT). To profile tissue factor (TF), microparticle-tissue factor (MP-TF), thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), and fibrinogen levels in patients undergoing TJA to determine potential preexisting Hemostatic dysregulation. De-identified blood samples were obtained from patients undergoing TJA 1 day pre- and 1 day postprocedure. Plasma samples were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits for fibrinogen, TAFI, TF, and MP-TF; fibrinogen levels were also assessed using a clot-based activity assay. In comparison with healthy controls, there were significant increases of fibrinogen and MP-TF levels, while there were significant decreases in TF and TAFI levels in the preoperative and postoperative patients. Comparing the pre versus postoperative patients, no significant differences were found; interestingly, however, surgical intervention exacerbated the changes found in the preoperative samples compared to the controls. The results of this study confirm that patients undergoing TJA have preexisting alterations in the fibrinolytic system. Surgical intervention tended to exacerbate these changes. The alterations observed in this study may provide insight as to why TJA is associated with higher rates of DVT and thromboembolism.

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#28344983   2017/03/27 Save this To Up

Effects of bile acids on human airway epithelial cells: implications for aerodigestive diseases.

Gastro-oesophageal reflux and aspiration have been associated with chronic and end-stage lung disease and with allograft injury following lung transplantation. This raises the possibility that bile acids may cause lung injury by damaging airway epithelium. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bile acid challenge using the immortalised human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B). The immortalised human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) was cultured. A 48-h challenge evaluated the effect of individual primary and secondary bile acids. Post-challenge concentrations of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor were measured using commercial ELISA kits. The viability of the BEAS-2B cells was measured using CellTiter-Blue and MTT assays. Lithocholic acid, deoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid were successfully used to stimulate cultured BEAS-2B cells at different concentrations. A concentration of lithocholic acid above 10 μmol·L(-1) causes cell death, whereas deoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid above 30 μmol·L(-1) was required for cell death. Challenge with bile acids at physiological levels also led to a significant increase in the release of IL-8 and IL6 from BEAS-2B. Aspiration of bile acids could potentially cause cell damage, cell death and inflammation in vivo. This is relevant to an integrated gastrointestinal and lung physiological paradigm of chronic lung disease, where reflux and aspiration are described in both chronic lung diseases and allograft injury.

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ENZYMATIC ASSAY KITS (CH LIVER DISEASES Total Bile LIVER DISEASES Total Bile Mouse Anti-Human Fibrobla Mouse Anti-Human Fibrobla Anti C Reactive Protein A Bone Morphogenetic Protei Epidermal Growth Factor ( Epidermal Growth Factor ( Fibroblast Growth Factor Fibroblast Growth Factor Growth Differentiation Fa

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#28343818   2017/03/27 Save this To Up

Comparative performances of serologic and molecular assays for detecting HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 in patients infected with HIV-1.

The present study evaluated several techniques currently available (commercial kits and in-house assays) for diagnosing human T lymphotropic viruses types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/-2) in two groups of patients enrolled at HIV/AIDS specialized care services in São Paulo: Group 1 (G1), n=1608, 1237 male/371 female, median age 44.3 years old, majority using highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); G2, n=1383, 930 male/453 female, median age of 35.6 years old, majority HAART naïve. Enzyme immunoassays [(EIA) Murex and Gold ELISA] were employed for HTLV-1/-2 screening; Western blotting (WB), INNO-LIA (LIA), real-time PCR pol (qPCR), and nested-PCR-RFLP (tax) were used to confirm infection. Samples were considered HTLV-1/-2 positive when there was reactivity using at least one of the four confirmatory assays. By serological screening, 127/2991 samples were positive or borderline, and HTLV infection was confirmed in 108 samples (three EIA-borderline): 56 HTLV-1 [G1 (27)+G2 (29)]; 45 HTLV-2 [G1 (21)+G2 (24)]; one HTLV-1+HTLV-2 (G2); six HTLV [G1 (2)+G2 (4)]. Although there were differences in group characteristics, HTLV-1/-2 prevalence was similar [3.1% (G1) and 4.2% (G2), p=0.113]. The overall sensitivities of LIA, WB, qPCR, and PCR-RFLP were 97.2%, 82.4%, 68.9%, and 68.4%, respectively, with some differences among groups, likely due to the stage of HTLV infection and/or HAART duration. Indeterminate immunoblotting results were detected in G2, possibly due to the seroconversion period. Negative results in molecular assays could be explained by the use of HAART, the occurrence of defective provirus and/or the low circulating proviral load. In conclusion, when determining the HTLV infection, the findings highlight the need to consider the blood samples with borderline results in screening assays. Out of the tested assays, LIA was the assay of choice for detecting HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 in HIV-1-infected patients.

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#28335612   2017/03/24 Save this To Up

Thrombin Generation in Patients With Suspected Venous Thromboembolism.

Increasing number of patients with clinically suspected venous thromboembolism is referred to radiological departments for definitive diagnosis. A simple assay to exclude the diagnosis and avoid radiological examinations is needed. We have reported correlations between D-dimer and prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 measured in plasma and urine. To further develop an analysis based on urine, more understanding of thrombin generation in these patients is needed. The aim of this study was to compare ex vivo thrombin generation with in vivo markers in plasma and urine in patients with and without venous thromboembolism. Urine and blood samples were collected from patients with suspected venous thromboembolism. Commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits were used to analyze the samples for in vivo thrombin generation. The ex vivo thrombogram parameters were measured by the calibrated automated thrombogram assay. Venous thromboembolism was verified with compression ultrasound of the lower extremity deep veins or with computer tomography of the pulmonary arteries. Venous thromboembolism was diagnosed in 117 of 591 patients, and they had significantly higher levels of urine and plasma prothromin fragment 1 + 2, D-dimer, lag time, time to peak, and endogenous thrombin potential when adjusted for covariates. The pattern of ex vivo and in vivo thrombin generation in patients with suspected venous thromboembolism was comparable when adjusted for covariates. Prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 in plasma and urine reflects thrombin generation ex vivo in the same manner. This indicates that urine may be an alternative substrate to quantify a procoagulant state.

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#28335387   2017/03/24 Save this To Up

Dectin-1-Mediated Pathway Contributes to Fusarium proliferatum-Induced CXCL-8 Release from Human Respiratory Epithelial Cells.

Fusarium species are causative agents of human respiratory disorders and are distributed widely in our environment. Little is known of their interaction with human respiratory epithelial cells, which may contribute to allergic airway responses. In this study, we report on the release of C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL-8) from human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells upon stimulation with Fusarium proliferatum extracts. F. proliferatum-induced cytokine release from BEAS-2B cells was determined by cytokine array and CXCL-8 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Blocking antibodies and signaling pathway inhibitors were employed to delineate cell surface receptors and signaling pathways participating in CXCL-8 release. F. proliferatum extracts induced the release of CXCL-8 in a time-dependent manner. The dectin-1 receptor ligands, curdlan and laminarin, reduced CXCL-8 release. Cells pre-treated with anti-Dectin-1 antibodies (2 µg/mL) decreased CXCL-8 release by 24%. Furthermore, F. proliferatum-stimulated CXCL-8 release was reduced by 32%, 53%-81%, 40% and 26% after BEAS-2B cells were pretreated with activation inhibitors of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk)-piceatannol-, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)-PD98059, U0126, SB202190, SP600125-, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-LY294002-and nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB)-BAY117082-, respectively. These results suggest that Dectin-1-mediated activation of the Syk, MAPKs, PI3K and NF-κB signaling pathways contributes to F. proliferatum-stimulated CXCL-8 release from BEAS-2B cells and provides an important basis for developing novel therapeutic strategies in clinical allergy.

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#28328867   2017/03/22 Save this To Up

Astragaloside IV Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Kidney Injury Through Down-Regulating Cytokines, CCR5 and p-ERK, and Elevating Anti-Oxidative Ability.

BACKGROUND Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) has been shown to prevent ischemia-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rat models of ischemia and reperfusion. However, the effects of AS-IV on AKI during sepsis and endotoxinemia is unclear. The current study aimed to investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of AS-IV on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced AKI. MATERIAL AND METHODS Adult male CD-1 mice were randomly assigned into 6 groups (n=8/group): control group: mice were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with normal saline; LPS group (10 mg/kg, i.p.); low-dose AS-IV (25 mg/kg; gavage for 7 days) + LPS (i.p., 1 hour after last gavage) group; medial-dose AS-IV (50 mg/kg) + LPS group; high-dose AS-IV (100 mg/kg) + LPS group; high-dose AS-IV alone (100 mg/kg; gavage for 7 days) group. Blood samples were collected at 24 hours after LPS injection, and plasma uric acid and BUN were measured with colorimetric detection kits. The concentration of plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin 1β, renal p-extracellular signal-regulated kinases, and urinary albumin were evaluated by ELISA. The expression of CCR5 in renal tissue was evaluated by PCR and Western blotting. Concentrations of glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in renal tissue were also measured. RESULTS AS-IV decreased LPS-stimulated production of blood TNF-α and IL-6, LPS-induced the expression of CCR5, and activation of ERK in the kidneys in a rodent model of endotoxinemia. AS-IV attenuated LPS-caused decreased GSH and increased ROS. It also attenuated LPS-induced increases in plasma uric acid, BUN, and urinary albumin. CONCLUSIONS AS-IV protects against AKI during bacterial endotoxinemia by attenuating expression of cytokines, CCR5, and p-ERK, and elevating anti-oxidative ability.

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#28315864   2017/03/19 Save this To Up

Vitamin D Status, Gender Differences, and Cardiometabolic Health Disparities.

Vitamin D deficiency is an unrecognized epidemic found in India and also worldwide. Despite the high prevalence of diabetes among Indians, there is a paucity of data showing the relationship between vitamin D status and cardiometabolic disparities. In this study, we have examined the relationship between vitamin D and cardiometabolic traits in a population from India.

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#28304196   2017/03/17 Save this To Up

A Limited Survey of Dark Chocolate Bars Obtained in the United States for Undeclared Milk and Peanut Allergens.

Undeclared allergens in chocolate products have been responsible for numerous allergen-related recalls in the United States. A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of undeclared milk and peanut in 88 and 78 dark chocolate bars, respectively. Concentrations of milk (as nonfat dry milk) or peanut in three samples of each chocolate product were determined with two milk- or peanut-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. In 75% of the chocolate bar products with a milk advisory statement, milk concentrations were above the limit of quantitation (2.5 μg/g [ppm]), with the majority having concentrations >1,000 ppm. An additional 67% of chocolate bars with a "traces of milk" statement contained 3 to 6,700 ppm of milk. Fifteen percent of chocolates labeled dairy free or lactose free and 25% labeled vegan were positive for milk, all with concentrations >1,000 ppm. Even for chocolates with no reference to milk on the label, 33% of these products contained 60 to 3,400 ppm of milk. The survey of chocolate products for peanuts revealed that 8% of products with an advisory statement contained peanut, with the highest concentration of 550 ppm. All nine chocolates bearing the peanut-free or allergen-free statement were negative for peanut, but 17% of chocolates with no label statement for peanut were positive for peanut at concentrations of 9 to 170 ppm. Evaluation of multiple lots of four chocolate products revealed that milk was consistently present or absent for the products investigated, but mixed results were obtained when multiple lots were tested for peanut. This study indicates that a large proportion of dark chocolate bars contain undeclared milk. The type of advisory statement or the absence of a milk advisory statement on products did not predict the amount or absence of milk protein. In contrast, a lower proportion of chocolates containing undeclared peanut was found. Consumers with food allergies should be cautious when purchasing dark chocolate products, particularly those that have an advisory label statement.

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#28300559   2017/03/16 Save this To Up

Expression, purification and in vitro refolding of the recombinant truncated Saposin like protein 2 antigen for development of diagnosis of human fascioliasis.

Early diagnosis of fascioliasis is critical in prevention of injury to the liver and bile ducts. Saposin-like protein (FhSAP-2) is probably the most ideal antigen of Fasciola hepatica for development of ELISA kits. SAP-2 has a conserved tertiary structure containing three disulfide bonds and conformational epitopes. Therefore, antigenicity of SAP-2 is greatly depends on disulfide bond formation and proper folding. We produced the recombinant truncated SAP-2 (rtSAP-2) in the SHuffle® T7 and Rosetta strain of E. coli, in soluble and insoluble forms, respectively and purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). The refolding process of denatured rtSAP-2 was performed using dialysis and dilution methods in the presence of chemical additives, along with reduced/oxidized glutathione (in-vitro). Physicochemical studies, including non-reducing gel electrophoresis, Ellman's assay, western blotting and ELISA showed the most antigenicity and likely correct folding of rtSAP-2, which was obtained by dialysis method. An IgG ELISA test was developed using rtSAP-2 refolded by dialysis and compared with excretory/secretory products of parasite with 52 positive fascioliasis samples, 79 other parasitic samples and 70 negative controls samples. The results exhibited 100% sensitivity and 98% specificity for rtSAP-2, also, 100% and 95.3% for excretory/secretory (E/S) antigen, respectively. In conclusion, it is suggested that rtSAP-2 with the correct folding could be used as a candidate antigen for detection of human fascioliasis.

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#28292365   2017/03/15 Save this To Up

Serum Neopterin: A Potential Marker for Screening Blood Donors.

To determine serum neopterin levels in blood donors of local population and its association with transfusion transmitted infections.

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