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#26307092   2015/8/26 Save this To Up

Soluble human leukocyte antigen G5 polarizes differentiation of macrophages toward a decidual macrophage-like phenotype.

What are the actions of soluble human leukocyte antigen G5 (sHLAG5) on macrophage differentiation? SUMMARY ANSWER: sHLAG5 polarizes the differentiation of macrophages toward a decidual macrophage-like phenotype, which could regulate fetomaternal tolerance and placental development. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: sHLAG5 is a full-length soluble isoform of human leukocyte antigen implicated in immune tolerance during pregnancy. Low or undetectable circulating level of sHLAG5 in first trimester of pregnancy is associated with pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia and spontaneous abortion. Decidual macrophages are located in close proximity to invasive trophoblasts, and are involved in regulating fetomaternal tolerance and placental development.

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#26304432   2015/08/25 Save this To Up

Development of a barcode-style lateral flow immunoassay for the rapid semi-quantification of gliadin in foods.

In this work, a barcode-style lateral flow immunoassay is developed using two cut-off values (10 and 50mgkg(-1) gliadin) to provide a semi-quantification for identifying "gluten-free" and "very low gluten" foods, based on the international Codex Alimentarius Standard. This developed assay exhibits favorable specificity in differentiating wheat from seven commonly used grains, with only a slight cross-reaction with barely. The intra-assay and inter-assay CV values of this assay were 1.5-1.7% and 2.5-4.5%, respectively, revealing high reproducibility. In the analysis of 48 food samples, the results of this assay closely agreed with those obtained using AOAC-approved ELISA or strip kits, as the Cohen's kappa coefficients for both comparisons exceeded 0.8. Thus, this developed assay can be used to quickly estimate the gliadin content in foods in order to protect people with wheat allergy or celiac disease from the accidental ingestion of gliadin.

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#26300295   2015/8/24 Save this To Up

Serological and coprological analyses for the diagnosis of Fasciola gigantica infections in bovine hosts from Sargodha, Pakistan.

A serological and coprological survey of fasciolosis was conducted in bovine hosts from the Sargodha district, Pakistan using excretory-secretory (ES) antigens of Fasciola gigantica from cattle and buffaloes. Livers, faecal and blood samples of 146 cattle and 184 buffaloes were collected from slaughterhouses and examined for the presence of any Fasciola in bile ducts and ova in faeces. Serum was separated. ES antigens were prepared by incubating adult Fasciola in phosphate-buffered saline for 6-8 h and then filtering using a 0.22-μm syringe filter. Checkerboard titration was performed and optimum concentrations of antigen and serum were determined. Sero-prevalence was found to be 50.00 and 38.35% in buffalo and cattle, respectively. Using liver examination as the gold standard, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) sensitivity was found to be 100% in both buffalo and cattle as compared with that of coprological examination in buffalo (61.79%) and cattle (54.54%). This indigenous ELISA was also highly specific, with values of 96.84 and 98.90% in buffalo and cattle, respectively. Positive predictive values were calculated as 96.74 and 98.21% in buffalo and cattle, respectively, while negative predictive values were 100%. For the validation of indigenous ELISA in field surveys, faecal and blood samples were collected from six sub-districts (tehsils) in the district of Sargodha. Sera were screened for the presence of anti-fasciola antibodies using both the indigenous and commercial ELISA kits. While both kits were equally sensitive, the indigenous ELISA was found to be more specific. The highest prevalence of fasciolosis was found in December, as ascertained using both serological and coprological examination. Significant differences were found in prevalences of fasciolosis in different sub-districts and age groups, together with feeding and watering systems.

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#26300250   2015/08/24 Save this To Up

[Cold inducible RNA-binding protein inhibits hippocampal neuronal apoptosis under hypothermia by regulating redox system].

In this study, we intend to confirm our hypothesis that cold inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) can inhibit neuronal apoptosis through suppressing the formation of oxygen free radicals under hypothermia. Primary rat hippocampal neurons were isolated and cultured in vitro, and were divided into five groups: (1) normal control group (37 (o)C), (2) cells infected by empty viral vector group, (3) CIRP over-expressed group, (4) CIRP knock-down group, and (5) hypothermia control group. Cells in groups 2-5 were cultured under 32 (o)C, 5% CO2. Apoptosis of hippocampal neurons were detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and flow cytometry; Expression of CIRP was determined by Western blot; Redox-related parameters (T-AOC, GSH-Px, SOD, MDA) were detected by ELISA kits. Results showed that CIRP expression levels were significantly increased (P < 0.01) and the apoptotic rates were significantly decreased (P < 0.01) in hypothermia control group and CIRP over-expressed group when compared with normal control group. On the other hand, the apoptotic rate was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in CIRP knock-down group compared with that in hypothermia control group. The levels of redox parameters in hypothermia control group and CIRP over-expressed group were significantly changed in comparison with those in normal control group, CIRP knock-down group and empty viral vector infected group, respectively (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). These results suggest that up-regulation of CIRP by hypothermia treatment can protect the neuron from apoptosis through suppressing the formation of oxygen free radicals.

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#26298161   2015/8/23 Save this To Up

NZ suppresses TLR4/NF-κB signalings and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages.

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential therapeutic effects of NZ on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells and explore its underlying mechanisms.

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#26293047   2015/08/21 Save this To Up

Primary and Recurrent Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis Closely Link to Serum Soluble Urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator Receptor Levels.

Serum soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is implicated in the pathogenesis of native and recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). It is elevated in two-thirds of subjects with primary FSGS, but not in people with other glomerular diseases that can differentiate FSGS and other glomerular diseases.

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#26290128   2015/8/20 Save this To Up

Evaluation of two commercial PRRSV antibody ELISA kits with samples of known status and singleton reactors.

Two commercial PRRSV ELISA kits (IDEXX and Bionote) were evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity using 476 PRRS-positive serum samples collected from 7 animal challenge experiments and 1,000 PRRS-negative sera. Both ELISA kits exhibited 100% sensitivity with sera collected 14 to 42 days post-infection, and the results from the kits were highly correlated (R(2)=0.9207). The specificity of IDEXX or Bionote kit was 99.9% or 99.7%, respectively. In addition, the Bionote ELISA kit was used to examine 100 sera that were determined to be falsely positive either by IDEXX 2XR or 3XR ELISA, and only 7 of these samples were found to be positive. These results indicate that both ELISA kits exhibited similar levels of sensitivity and specificity and would complement one another for the verification of false-positive samples.

2000 related Products with: Evaluation of two commercial PRRSV antibody ELISA kits with samples of known status and singleton reactors.

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#26286507   2015/08/19 Save this To Up

Advanced Oxidation Protein Products as a Novel Marker of Oxidative Stress in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis.

BACKGROUND Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) are acknowledged as a novel marker of oxidation-mediated protein damage. This study aimed to investigate the plasma levels of AOPPs in postmenopausal osteoporotic women, and to determine the relationship between AOPPs accumulation and lumbar bone mineral destiny (BMD) or bone turnover markers. MATERIAL AND METHODS Lumbar BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Plasma AOPPs levels as a marker of protein oxidation damage and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as a marker of lipid peroxidation were measured by spectrophotometry. The concentrations of 2 specific markers of bone turnover, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase5b, (TRACP 5b) were quantified using ELISA kits. RESULTS We recruited 60 postmenopausal women meeting osteoporosis (OP) diagnostic criteria of World Health Organization (WHO) and 60 postmenopausal women without OP. Plasma levels of AOPPs (P<0.001), BALP (P<0.001) and TRACP 5b (P<0.001) were statistically significantly increased in the postmenopausal osteoporotic women compared with controls, but there was no statistically significant difference in MDA (P=0.124) between the 2 groups. Plasma AOPPs levels were negatively correlated with lumbar BMD and positively correlated with bone turnover markers both in postmenopausal osteoporotic women and in all subjects. However, plasma MDA levels were not correlated with lumbar BMD or bone turnover markers. CONCLUSIONS In postmenopausal osteoporotic women elevated AOPPs is associated with reduced BMD and increased bone turnover markers. Because AOPPs is stable and easy to detect it may be used as a simple plasma marker to predict the severity of postmenopausal OP.

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#26282349   2015/8/22 Save this To Up

The mature/pro nerve growth factor ratio is decreased in the brain of diabetic rats: Analysis by ELISA methods.

Nerve growth factor (NGF) is essential for the survival and functional maintenance of forebrain cholinergic neurons projecting mainly to the cortex and hippocampus. NGF is produced in these brain areas but while mature NGF (mNGF) has a survival/differentiative effect its precursor proNGF elicits apoptosis in cholinergic neurons. Impaired neurotransmission, loss of cholinergic phenotype and abnormal NGF content characterize the cholinergic circuitries in animal models of diabetic encephalopathy (DE). It is not known whether defective production or maturation of NGF could play a key role in cholinergic neurodegeneration in DE. Quantification of the mNGF/proNGF ratio is therefore needed to characterize the development and progression of NGF-related neuronal diseases. In our work, we aimed at developing ELISA methods to measure either mNGF or proNGF tissue concentration; and to define the mNGF/proNGF ratio in the rat cortex and hippocampus during the early stage of streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes. Using commercially available NGF ELISA kits and antibodies, we set up ELISAs for human and rat mNGF and proNGF. We then analyzed the mNGF/proNGF ratio in the cortex and hippocampus of DE rats and found that it decreased in both tissues starting from the fourth week after diabetes induction. In diabetic brain the increase in proNGF involves accumulation of the isoforms with molecular weights of 50 and 34kDa. Our study for the first time specifically quantifies the absolute content of mature and proNGF and the mNGF/proNGF ratio in brain tissues, suggesting that early progression of experimental DE is characterized by defective maturation of NGF.

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#26281592   2015/08/17 Save this To Up

[In vitro anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities of flavans from Ilex centrochinensis].

This study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities of flavans from flex centrochinensis S. Y. Hu in vitro and their structure-activity relationship. LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage was used as inflammatory model. MTT assay for cell availability, Griess reaction for nitric oxide (NO) production, the content of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and PGE, were detected with ELISA kits; DPPH, superoxide anion and hydroxyl free radicals scavenging activities were also investigated. According to the result, all flavans tested exhibited anti-inflammatory effect in different levels. Among them, compounds 1, 3, 4 and 6 showed potent anti-inflammatory effect through the inhibition of NO, TNF-alpha, IL-lp and IL-6, of which 1 was the most effective inhibitor, however, 2 and 5 were relatively weak or inactive. The order of free radical scavenging activities was similar to that of anti-inflammatory activities. Therefore, these results suggest that 3, 4 and 6, especially of 1, were,in part responsible for the anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activity of Ilex centrochinensis. Hydroxyl group at 4'-position of B-ring plays an important role in the anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging capacities.

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