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#27685937   2016/9/29 Save this To Up

Chemokine CXCL13 expression was up-regulated in Clostridium difficile infection.

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of antibiotic- and healthcare-associated diarrhea. CXCL13 is a well-known CXC chemokine involved in inflammation, but its role in CDI remains unknown. In this study, serum and fecal samplings were collected from 51 CDI patients, 50 diarrhea patients without CDI and 50 healthy control subjects to determine the CXCL13 levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Besides, a mouse model of C. difficile infection was established, and murine serum and colon tissues were collected for detection of CXCL13 expression using quantitative real-time RT-PCR, ELISA, Western blot, or immunohistochemistry. We found that CXCL13 concentration in serum and fecal samples from CDI patients was significantly higher compared with that from diarrhea patients without CDI and that from healthy controls. Elevated serum CXCL13 positively and significantly correlated with blood markers of inflammation and yielded an increased area under the ROC curve of 0.929. In murine C. difficile infection, CXCL13 were also dramatically increased in serum and infected colon tissues at the transcriptional and protein levels. The elevated CXCL13 levels positively and significantly correlated with inflammatory scores. Therefore, CDI is associated with enhanced release of CXCL13. This study indicated that CXCL13 may be pathogenically involved in CDI and served as a potential new biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis in CDI.

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#27685917   2016/9/29 Save this To Up

Circulating and tissue galectin-1 and galectin-3 in colorectal carcinoma: association with clinicopathological parameters, serum CEA, IL-17 and IL23.

Galectins are modulators of many processes critical for tumor progression and metastasis but their clinical significance is still unclear. The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical significance of Galectin-1 and Galectin-3 in the tissue and sera of patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Examined were also their association with serum CEA, IL-17 and IL-23 in CRC patients.

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#27685911   2016/9/29 Save this To Up

Serum leptin levels may have diagnostic and predictive roles in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma treated with gemcitabine-based chemotherapy.

Leptin is a highly pleiotropic adipokine. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA) and leptin relationship is important. Our aim was to investigate the serum levels of leptin in patients with PA, the relationship of leptin with tumor progression and known prognostic parameters and its diagnostic, predictive and prognostic role.

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#27685837   2016/9/29 Save this To Up

CD163 levels, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion of monocytes in children with pulmonary tuberculosis.

Childhood tuberculosis (TB) comprises an important part of the world's TB burden. Monocytes set up the early phase of infection because of innate immune responses. Understanding the changes in monocyte subsets during multisystem infectious diseases may be important for the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the monocyte phenotype together with the cytokine secretion profiles of children with pulmonary tuberculosis.

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#27685790   2016/9/29 Save this To Up

The influence of lipoic acid on caveolin-1-regulated antioxidative enzymes in the mouse model of acute ulcerative colitis.

This study was undertaken to verify if two-weeks treatment of lipoic acid (LA) influence colon damage and pro-inflammatory cytokine synthesis during DSS-induced acute colitis. Moreover, as LA has anti-oxidative properties, we analyzed its influence on the level of antioxidative enzymes, HO-1 and eNOS, and their regulator- caveolin-1.

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#27685787   2016/9/29 Save this To Up

Decitabine and 5-azacitidine both alleviate LPS induced ARDS through anti-inflammatory/antioxidant activity and protection of glycocalyx and inhibition of MAPK pathways in mice.

Decitabine (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, DAC) and 5-azacitidine (Aza), an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases, possess a wide range of anti-metabolic and anti-cancer activities. This study examined the effects of DAC and Aza on inflammatory and oxidative injuries, as well as on glycocalyx and MAPK signaling pathways, in a LPS-stimulated ARDS mouse model. Results of ELISA revealed that DAC and Aza significantly inhibited the production of TNF-α and IL-1β and prevented LPS-induced elevation of myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde levels in serum. The W/D ratio of lung and histopathologic examination with hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that DAC and Aza pretreatment substantially improved lung tissue injury. DAC and Aza reduced the level of glycocalyx degradation products (e.g., heparan sulfate and haluronic acid) and protected glycocalyx integrity. Western blot assay demonstrated that DAC and Aza both significantly suppressed LPS-induced activation of the MAPK signaling pathways by blocking the phosphorylation of JNK, ERK and P38 in lung tissues. Bisulfite sequencing PCR and real time-PCR showed that DAC reversed the RASSF1A promoter hypermethylation and furthermore elevated the expression of RASSF1A, which is a tumor suppressor that regulates MAPK signaling pathway. These results suggested that DAC inhibited the MAPK signaling pathway in LPS-induced ARDS mice might via demethylation in RASSF1A promoter region and by restoring its expression. This study highlighted the close relationship between DNA methylation and the development and progression of ARDS.

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#27685649   2016/9/29 Save this To Up

A Field-Deployable Reverse Transcription Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of the Chikungunya Virus.

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus currently transmitted in about 60 countries. CHIKV causes acute flu-like symptoms and in many cases prolonged musculoskeletal and joint pain. Detection of the infection is mostly done using RT-RCR or ELISA, which are not suitable for point-of-care diagnosis.

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#27685606   2016/9/29 Save this To Up

Allergen-Induced Increases in Interleukin-25 and Interleukin-25 Receptor Expression in Mature Eosinophils from Atopic Asthmatics.

Interleukin (IL)-25 plays a pivotal role in type 2 immune responses. In a baseline cross-sectional study, we previously showed that IL-25 plasma levels and IL-25 receptor (IL-25R: IL-17RA, IL-17RB, and IL-17RA/RB) expression on mature blood eosinophils are increased in atopic asthmatics compared to normal nonatopic controls. This study investigated allergen-induced changes in IL-25 and IL-25R expression in eosinophils from asthmatics.

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#27685460   2016/9/29 Save this To Up

A Triple Co-Culture Model of the Human Respiratory Tract to Study Immune-Modulatory Effects of Liposomes and Virosomes.

The respiratory tract with its ease of access, vast surface area and dense network of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) represents an ideal target for immune-modulation. Bio-mimetic nanocarriers such as virosomes may provide immunomodulatory properties to treat diseases such as allergic asthma. In our study we employed a triple co-culture model of epithelial cells, macrophages and dendritic cells to simulate the human airway barrier. The epithelial cell line 16HBE was grown on inserts and supplemented with human blood monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and dendritic cells (MDDCs) for exposure to influenza virosomes and liposomes. Additionally, primary human nasal epithelial cells (PHNEC) and EpCAM+ epithelial progenitor cell mono-cultures were utilized to simulate epithelium from large and smaller airways, respectively. To assess particle uptake and phenotype change, cell cultures were analyzed by flow cytometry and pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations were measured by ELISA. All cell types internalized virosomes more efficiently than liposomes in both mono- and co-cultures. APCs like MDMs and MDDCs showed the highest uptake capacity. Virosome and liposome treatment caused a moderate degree of activation in MDDCs from mono-cultures and induced an increased cytokine production in co-cultures. In epithelial cells, virosome uptake was increased compared to liposomes in both mono- and co-cultures with EpCAM+ epithelial progenitor cells showing highest uptake capacity. In conclusion, all cell types successfully internalized both nanocarriers with virosomes being taken up by a higher proportion of cells and at a higher rate inducing limited activation of MDDCs. Thus virosomes may represent ideal carrier antigen systems to modulate mucosal immune responses in the respiratory tract without causing excessive inflammatory changes.

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#27685442   2016/9/29 Save this To Up

Detection of candidate biomarkers of prostate cancer progression in serum: a depletion-free 3D LC/MS quantitative proteomics pilot study.

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common male cancer in the United Kingdom and we aimed to identify clinically relevant biomarkers corresponding to stage progression of the disease.

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