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#25524616   2014/12/19 Save this To Up

Development of an ultra-sensitive immunoassay using affinity maturated antibodies for the measurement of rodent insulin.

The measurement of plasma insulin is important for clinical diagnosis of diabetes, and for preclinical research of metabolic diseases, especially in rodent models used in drug discovery research for type 2 diabetes. Fasting immunoreactive insulin (F-IRI) concentrations are used to calculate the homeostasis model assessment ratio (HOMA-R), an index of insulin sensitivity. However, even the most sensitive commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits cannot measure the very low F-IRI concentrations in normal rats and mice. Therefore, we sought to develop a new rodent insulin ELISA with greater sensitivity for low F-IRI concentrations. Despite repeated efforts, high-affinity antibodies could not be generated by immunizing mice with mouse insulin (self-antigen). Therefore, we generated two weak monoclonal antibodies (13G4 and 26B2), which were affinity maturated and used to develop a highly sensitive ELISA. The measurement range of the sandwich ELISA with the affinity maturated antibodies (13G4m1 and 26B2m1) was 1.5-30000 pg/ml, and its detection limit was at least 10 times lower than those of commercially available kits. In conclusion, we describe the development of a new ultra-sensitive ELISA suitable for measuring very low plasma insulin concentrations in rodents. This ELISA might be very useful in drug discovery research in diabetes.

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#25516743   2014/12/17 Save this To Up

The necessity of confirmatory testing in serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis in iran.

Toxoplasma specific IgM antibodies; the common serologic marker in diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis has its own limitations. Confirmatory testing with other markers, introduced as a complementary tool in distinguish acute and chronic infections is unusual in Iran. In the present study, we investigated the correlation between the results of IgM ELISA, IgA ELISA, and IgG avidity tests in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis to demonstrate the necessity of confirmatory testing in serodiagnosis of infection in the country.

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#25511734   2014/12/16 Save this To Up

Oxytocin is associated with PTSD's anxious arousal symptoms in Chinese male earthquake survivors.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex and severe mental disorder triggered by exposure to an extraordinarily traumatic event. Human and animal studies have implied the functional role of the oxytocin system in the development of PTSD (Cochran, Fallon, Hill, & Frazier, 2013; Koch et al., 2014; Olff, 2012). Specification of the role of the oxytocin system in the emergence and progression of PTSD symptomatology would provide evidence to inform both theory and clinical practice.

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#25498432   2014/12/15 Save this To Up

Comparative study on Toxoplasma infection between Malaysian and Myanmar pregnant women.

Background Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, causes a disease called toxoplasmosis which can sometimes be acquired congenitally by a newborn from an infected mother. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection and its associated risks among 219 and 215 pregnant women from Malaysia and Myanmar, respectively.MethodsAnti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies were screened by using standard commercial ELISA kits. The socio-demographic, obstetrics and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma infection data were compared between the two countries.ResultsThe overall prevalence of Toxoplasma infection in Malaysian pregnant women (42.47%; 95% CI = 36.11-49.09) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than Myanmar pregnant women (30.70%; 95% CI = 27.92-37.16). By univariate analysis, this study identified that age group, education, parity, awareness on toxoplasmosis and consumption of undercooked meat were significantly associated (p < 0.05) with Toxoplasma seropositive Malaysian pregnant women but none of these factors associated with Toxoplasma seropositive Myanmar pregnant women. In comparison using univariate analysis between the two countries, it was found that Toxoplasma seropositive Malaysian pregnant women was associated with aged 30 years and above, secondary or lower-secondary level of education, the third trimester of pregnancy, having one child or more, lacking awareness of toxoplasmosis, absence of bad obstetrics history, having no history of -close contact with cats or soil, -living on a farm and also -consumption of undercooked meat, unpasteurized milk or untreated water. Avidity measurement was used to confirm the stages of Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women who were positive for both IgG and IgM antibodies and found all were infected in the past.ConclusionFrom our study, Toxoplasma screening and its risk measurement in pregnant women is firmly recommended for monitoring purposes and assisting proper management, including diagnosis and treatment during antenatal period. Also, it is necessary to initiate preventive measures for Toxoplasma infection among reproductive-age women in general and seronegative pregnant women in particular. Avidity measurement should be incorporated in Toxoplasma routine screening, especially with the availability of a single serum sample to assist in the diagnosis.

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#25495571   2014/12/15 Save this To Up

Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure, Urine CC-16 Levels, and Asthma Outcomes among Chinese Children.

Previous studies have shown the relationship between club cell secretory protein (Clara) (CC-16) and respiratory diseases. However, few studies have explored the associations between urine CC-16 levels and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in children. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether ETS exposure is associated with CC-16 when stratified by asthma status.

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#25494110   2014/12/10 Save this To Up

Serum levels of interleukin-7 and interleukin-8 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with serum levels of interleukin-7 (IL-7) and IL-8, the two cytokines whose associations with HNSCC need more clarifications. Materials and Methods: Commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits were used for the quantification of the cytokines. Sera were collected from 48 untreated patients (36 men and 12 women; mean age: 52.7 ± 9.8 years) and 34 healthy donors (26 men and 8 women; mean age: 53.1 ± 9.0 years). Results: Serum IL-8 level was neither significantly different between HNSCC patients and control individuals nor associated with smoking status, gender, age, tumor location, tumor grade, and stage of the patients (P > 0.05). Regarding IL-7, all control individuals had serum levels below the sensitivity of the kit (3 pg/ml), but nine patients had detectable levels, and that the mean serum IL-7 was significantly higher in the patients compared to the controls (P = 0.008). Conclusions: Serum IL-8 level is not significantly associated with HNSCC. With the sensitivity of the kit we employed, it seems that serum IL-7 levels are specifically elevated in HNSCC patients compared to healthy individuals. Data from other independent studies are required to clarify the possible employment of IL-7 as an HNSCC biomarker.

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#25492659   2014/12/10 Save this To Up

[Effects of atovaquone and astragalus combination on the treatment and IL-2, IL-12, IFN-γ levels on mouse models of acute toxoplasmosis].

Reactivation of Toxoplasma gondii infections and serious clinical manifestations such as encephalitis may develop in immunocompromised subjects and AIDS patients. Different protocols are used for the treatment of toxoplasmosis in high-risk patient groups, however life-long prophylactic therapy against reactivation risk in AIDS patients may lead to several undesired results. Atovaquone is an effective antiprotozoal agent against toxoplasmosis with minor side effects. On the other hand, Astragalus membranaceus root extract (AmE) has been shown to have immunomodulatory and antimicrobial activities, empowering immunity by enhancing proliferation and activation of phagocytic cells mainly macrophages, and inducing Th1 type immune response. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of atovaquone alone and in combination with AmE, in the treatment of toxoplasmosis, and on the levels of IL-2, IL-12 and IFN-γ in experimentally infected mice with T.gondii. For this purpose, four experimental groups, each consisting of eight BALB/c mice, were set with the approval of Ethics Committee for the Animal Experiments. All the mice were infected with 0.5 ml of a suspension containing 2 x 104/ml trophozoites prepared from T.gondii RH strain by intraperitoneal injection. Twenty-four hours after the infection, atovaquone (100 mg/kg/day) was given to atovaquone group, AmE (0.075 mg/g) to astragalus group and atovaquone (100 mg/kg/day) plus AmE (0.075 mg/g) to Atovaquone + Astragalus (Ato + Astra) group by oral gavage. The mice in the fourth group, which was the control group, were all infected but untreated. The above administrations were carried out for seven days. On the 8th day peritoneal fluids of mice were collected under anaesthesia and trophozoite numbers per 1 ml were detected by counting on the Thoma slide. In addition, the heart bloods of mice were drawn and IL-2, IL-12, IFN-γ levels were determined in serum samples by using commercial ELISA kits (eBioscience, Austria). The mean number of trophozoites in Ato + Astra group was found significantly lower than the number of trophozoites in the other three groups (p< 0.05). The number of trophozoites in the atovaquone and astragalus groups were found significantly lower than the number of trophozoites in the control group (p< 0.05). There was a significant increase in IL-2 levels of astragalus group compared with the other three groups, in addition when IL-2 levels of Ato + Astra group were compared with ones in other three groups, a significant decrease was noticed (p< 0.05). There was a definite increase in IL-12 levels of atovaquone, astragalus and the control groups compared to those in Ato + Astra group (p< 0.05). A significant increase was found in IFN-γ levels in atovaquone and Ato + Astra groups compared with those in the control group (p< 0.05). Within the reach of our literature survey, this study was the first research in which the effectiveness of the combination of atovaquone and AmE was investigated in the treatment of acute toxoplasmosis. The results of our study suggested that there might be a synergy between atovaquone and AmE in the treatment of acute toxoplasmosis. In case these results are supported by further studies, atovaquone and AmE combination may have a potential to be used for therapy in immunocompromized patients such as AIDS patients who have a risk for toxoplasmosis.

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#25488821   2014/12/9 Save this To Up

Influenza A Virus Surveillance Based on Pre-Weaning Piglet Oral Fluid Samples.

Influenza A virus (IAV) surveillance using pre-weaning oral fluid samples from litters of piglets was evaluated in four ˜12 500 sow and IAV-vaccinated, breeding herds. Oral fluid samples were collected from 600 litters and serum samples from their dams at weaning. Litter oral fluid samples were tested for IAV by virus isolation, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), RT-PCR subtyping and sequencing. Commercial nucleoprotein (NP) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits and NP isotype-specific assays (IgM, IgA and IgG) were used to characterize NP antibody in litter oral fluid and sow serum. All litter oral fluid specimens (n = 600) were negative by virus isolation. Twenty-five oral fluid samples (25/600 = 4.2%) were qRT-PCR positive based on screening (Laboratory 1) and confirmatory testing (Laboratory 2). No hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene sequences were obtained, but matrix (M) gene sequences were obtained for all qRT-PCR-positive samples submitted for sequencing (n = 18). Genetic analysis revealed that all M genes sequences were identical (GenBank accession no. KF487544) and belonged to the triple reassortant influenza A virus M gene (TRIG M) previously identified in swine. The proportion of IgM- and IgA-positive samples was significantly higher in sow serum and litter oral fluid samples, respectively (P < 0.01). Consistent with the extensive use of IAV vaccine, no difference was detected in the proportion of IgG- and blocking ELISA-positive sow serum and litter oral fluids. This study supported the use of oral fluid sampling as a means of conducting IAV surveillance in pig populations and demonstrated the inapparent circulation of IAV in piglets. Future work on IAV oral fluid diagnostics should focus on improved procedures for virus isolation, subtyping and sequencing of HA and NA genes. The role of antibody in IAV surveillance remains to be elucidated, but longitudinal assessment of specific antibody has the potential to provide information regarding patterns of infection, vaccination status and herd immunity.

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#25485049   2014/12/08 Save this To Up

Chlamydophila pneumoniae Infection Assessment in Children With Adenoid Hypertrophy Concomitant With Rhino Sinusitis.

Since adenoids may act as a reservoir for bacteria, they can cause ear infection, recurrent otitis and recurrent adenotonsillitis. Therefore, adenotonsillectomy is an efficient method for reducing the number and severity of subsequent infections.

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#25480515   2014/12/06 Save this To Up

Tectorigenin inhibits the inflammation of LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice.

In a previous study, the anti-inflammatory effects of tectorigenin were disclosed. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of tectorigenin on acute lung injury using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model were investigated

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