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2,6-Bis(benzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine as a potent transmembrane anion transporter.

2,6-Bis(benzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine was shown to exhibit potent anionophoric activity via a process of both Cl(-)/NO3(-) antiport and H(+)/Cl(-) symport. This is in sharp contrast to the finding that its corresponding N-methylated analog exhibited negligible activity and reveals the importance of the imidazolyl-NH fragments in the anion-transport process.

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In vivo imaging method to distinguish acute and chronic inflammation.

Inflammation is a fundamental aspect of many human diseases. In this video report, we demonstrate non-invasive bioluminescence imaging techniques that distinguish acute and chronic inflammation in mouse models. With tissue damage or pathogen invasion, neutrophils are the first line of defense, playing a major role in mediating the acute inflammatory response. As the inflammatory reaction progresses, circulating monocytes gradually migrate into the site of injury and differentiate into mature macrophages, which mediate chronic inflammation and promote tissue repair by removing tissue debris and producing anti-inflammatory cytokines. Intraperitoneal injection of luminol (5-amino-2,3-dihydro-1,4-phthalazinedione, sodium salt) enables detection of acute inflammation largely mediated by tissue-infiltrating neutrophils. Luminol specifically reacts with the superoxide generated within the phagosomes of neutrophils since bioluminescence results from a myeloperoxidase (MPO) mediated reaction. Lucigenin (bis-N-methylacridinium nitrate) also reacts with superoxide in order to generate bioluminescence. However, lucigenin bioluminescence is independent of MPO and it solely relies on phagocyte NADPH oxidase (Phox) in macrophages during chronic inflammation. Together, luminol and lucigenin allow non-invasive visualization and longitudinal assessment of different phagocyte populations across both acute and chronic inflammatory phases. Given the important role of inflammation in a variety of human diseases, we believe this non-invasive imaging method can help investigate the differential roles of neutrophils and macrophages in a variety of pathological conditions.

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In vivo imaging of inflammatory phagocytes.

Inflammation contributes to the pathophysiology of many diseases. In this report, we present noninvasive bioluminescence imaging methods that distinguish acute and chronic inflammation in mouse models. Systemic delivery of luminol (5-amino-2,3-dihydro-1,4-phthalazinedione) enables detection of acute inflammation largely mediated by tissue-infiltrating neutrophils, whose myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity is required for luminol bioluminescence. In contrast, bioluminescence from injection of lucigenin (bis-N-methylacridinium nitrate) closely correlates with late phase and chronic inflammation. Lucigenin bioluminescence is independent of MPO and, instead, requires phagocyte NADPH oxidase (Phox) activity in macrophages. We are able to visualize tissue inflammation resulting from wound healing, bacterial infection, foreign substance implantation, and antitumor immune responses. Given the central role of inflammation in a variety of disorders, we believe these noninvasive imaging methods can help dissect the differential roles of neutrophils and macrophages in a variety of pathological conditions.

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(+/-)-2-Chloropropionic acid elevates reactive oxygen species formation in human neutrophil granulocytes.

(+/-)-2-Chloropropionic acid (2-CPA) is a neurotoxic compound which kills cerebellar granule cells in vivo, and makes cerebellar granule cells in vitro produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). We have studied the effect of 2-CPA on ROS formation in human neutrophil granulocytes in vitro. We found an increased formation of ROS after 2-CPA exposure using three different methods; the fluorescent probe DCFH-DA and the chemiluminescent probes lucigenin and luminol. Four different inhibitors of ROS formation were tested on the cells in combination with 2-CPA to characterize the signalling pathways. The spin-trap s-PBN, the ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 and the antioxidant Vitamin E inhibited the 2-CPA-induced ROS formation completely, while the mitochondrial transition permeability pore blocker cyclosporine A inhibited the ROS formation partly. We also found that 2-CPA induced an increased nitric oxide production in the cells by using the Griess reagent. The level of reduced glutathione, measured with the DTNB assay, was decreased after exposure to high concentrations of 2-CPA. Western blotting analysis showed that 2-CPA exposure led to an elevated phosphorylation of ERK MAP kinase. This phosphorylation was inhibited by U0126. Based on these experiments it seems like the mechanisms for 2-CPA induced toxicity involves ROS formation and is similar in neutrophil granulocytes as earlier shown in cerebellar granule cells. This also implies that 2-CPA may be immunotoxic.

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Systemic arterial pressure response to two weeks of Tempol therapy in SHR: involvement of NO, the RAS, and oxidative stress.

The roles of nitric oxide (NO) and plasma renin activity (PRA) in the depressor response to chronic administration of Tempol in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are not clear. The present study was done to determine the effect of 2 wk of Tempol treatment on blood pressure [mean arterial pressure (MAP)], oxidative stress, and PRA in the presence or absence of chronic NO synthase inhibition. SHR were divided into four groups: control, Tempol (1 mmol/l) alone, nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 4.5 mg x g(-1).day(-1)) alone, and Tempol + L-NAME or 2 wk. With Tempol, MAP decreased by 22%: 191 +/- 3 and 162 +/- 21 mmHg for control and Tempol, respectively (P < 0.05). L-NAME increased MAP by 16% (222 +/- 2 mmHg, P < 0.01), and L-NAME + Tempol abolished the depressor response to Tempol (215 +/- 3 mmHg, P < 0.01). PRA was not affected by Tempol but was increased slightly with L-NAME alone and 4.4-fold with L-NAME + Tempol. Urinary nitrate/nitrite increased with Tempol and decreased with L-NAME and L-NAME + Tempol. Tempol significantly reduced oxidative stress in the presence and absence of L-NAME. In conclusion, in SHR, Tempol administration for 2 wk reduces oxidative stress in the presence or absence of NO, but in the absence of NO, Tempol is unable to reduce MAP. Therefore, NO, but not changes in PRA, plays a major role in the blood pressure-lowering effects of Tempol. These data suggest that, in hypertensive individuals with endothelial damage and chronic NO deficiency, antioxidants may be able to reduce oxidative stress but not blood pressure.

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[Effect of azole derivatives on lucigenin-dependent microsome chemiluminescence].

Both metronidazole and aminotriazole increased while sanazole (drug AK-2123) decreased the NADPH/lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence of liver microsomes of phenobarbital-treated rats. Sanazole strongly inhibited the lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence in the enzyme system of xanthine-xanthine oxidase. Aminotriazole and metronidazole were less potent inhibitors of chemiluminescence less than sanazole. All these azole derivatives did not absorb light in the region of light emission of lucigenin. Both lucigenin and sanazole increased the rate of cytochrome c reduction by microsomes in case of using NADPH as a donor of electrons, whereas no effect of metronidazole and aminotriazole on this rate was found. The sanazole inhibition of lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence could reflect competition between sanazole and lucigenin for electrons in the active centre of flavin reductases. Thus, microsomal NAD(P)H-reductases can be potentially involved in a bioactivation of sanazole. Lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence cannot be used for measuring the modulating action of agents on reactive oxygen species production in the microsomes, but it may be used for luminometrical studies of enzyme complex NAD(P)H-reductases/cytochrome P450 in model systems.

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Age-related increase in mitochondrial superoxide generation in the testosterone-producing cells of Brown Norway rat testes: relationship to reduced steroidogenic function?

Aging in Brown Norway rats is accompanied by the reduced production of testosterone by the Leydig cells, the testicular cells responsible for synthesizing and secreting this essential steroid. As yet, the mechanism by which Leydig cell steroidogenesis is reduced is unknown. Herein we assess the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species by intact Leydig cells isolated from the testes of young and old rats. To this end, Leydig cells were incubated with lucigenin (bis-N-methylacridinium nitrate), a probe that enters cells, localizes to mitochondria, and yields a significant chemiluminescent response following its reaction with intramitochondrial superoxide. Leydig cells from old rats elicited significantly greater lucigenin-derived chemiluminescence (LDCL) than those from young rats. Electron microscopic stereological analysis revealed that the absolute volume of mitochondria in the old cells was reduced from that in the young. These results, taken together, suggest that there are age-related changes in the production of reactive oxygen species by the mitochondria of Leydig cells, with those of old Leydig cells producing significantly greater levels than those of young Leydig cells. The results are consistent with the proposal that mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen may play a role in the irreversible decline in the ability of old Leydig cells to produce testosterone.

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Different kinds of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species were detected in colon and breast tumors.

Several studies have shown the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS; O2*-, hypochlorite, hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide) in carcinogenesis. With certain pathologies, nitric oxide (NO) is formed and can interact with superoxide radical (O2*-) resulting in the propagation of the highly reactive species, peroxynitrite. In order to study the molecular mechanisms underlying the ability of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) to mediate carcinogenesis, we have measured ROS, NO, and peroxynitrite content of cancerous tissues obtained from colon and breast carcinoma cases by chemiluminescence technique. All ROS were significantly increased in cancerous colon tissues with hypochlorite making the most important contribution and suggesting the role of inflammatory cells. NO was also increased and the peroxynitrite concentration was higher in cancerous samples. For breast carcinoma cases, only O2*- was significantly increased. Hypochlorite was not detected excluding the contribution of inflammatory cells. NO concentrations were not significantly different, therefore, ROS might originate by change in the redox state of the tissue.

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