Search results for: mTOR Inhibitor, Ku 0063794
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Inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway activates autophagy and compensatory Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signalling in prostate cancer.The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is frequently activated in advanced prostate cancer, due to loss of the tumour suppressor PTEN, and is an important axis for drug development. We have assessed the molecular and functional consequences of pathway blockade by inhibiting AKT and mTOR kinases either in combination or as individual drug treatments. In established prostate cancer cell lines, a decrease in cell viability and in phospho-biomarker expression was observed. Although apoptosis was not induced, a G1 growth arrest was observed in PTEN null LNCaP cells, but not in BPH1 or PC3 cells. In contrast, when the AKT inhibitor AZD7328 was applied to patient-derived prostate cultures that retained expression of PTEN, activation of a compensatory Ras/MEK/ERK pathway was observed. Moreover, whilst autophagy was induced following treatment with AZD7328, cell viability was less affected in the patient-derived cultures than in cell lines. Surprisingly, treatment with a combination of both AZD7328 and two separate MEK1/2 inhibitors further enhanced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in primary prostate cultures. However, it also induced irreversible growth arrest and senescence.treatment of a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) of prostate cancer with a combination of AZD7328 and the mTOR inhibitor KU-0063794, significantly reduced tumour frequency upon re-engraftment of tumour cells. The results demonstrate that single agent targeting of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway triggers activation of the Ras/MEK/ERK compensatory pathway in near-patient samples. Therefore, blockade of one pathway is insufficient to treat prostate cancer in man.
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Differential mTOR pathway profiles in bladder cancer cell line subtypes to predict sensitivity to mTOR inhibition.Molecular classification of bladder cancer has been increasingly proposed as a potential tool to predict clinical outcomes and responses to chemotherapy. Here we focused on mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition as a chemotherapeutic strategy and characterized the expression profile of mTOR signaling targets in representative bladder cancer cell lines from basal, luminal, and either basal/luminal ("non-type") molecular subtypes.
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Reprogramming induced by isoliquiritigenin diminishes melanoma cachexia through mTORC2-AKT-GSK3β signaling.Isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a member of the flavonoids, is known to have anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. The effect of ISL on reprogramming in cancer cells, however, remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the effect of ISL on reprogramming in human melanoma A375 cells. ISL (15 μg/ml) significantly inhibited A375 cell proliferation, anchorage independent cell proliferation and G2/M cell cycle arrest after ISL exposure for 24 h. However, there were no significant changes in apoptosis rate. Terminal differentiation indicators (melanin content, melanogenesis mRNA expression, tyrosinase (TYR) activity) were all up-regulated by ISL treatment. In ISL-treated cells, glucose uptake, lactate levels and mRNA expression levels of GLUT1 and HK2 were significantly decreased, and accompanied by an increase in O2 consumption rate (OCR) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) deficiency. Protein expression levels of mTORC2-AKT-GSK3β signaling pathway components (mTOR, p-mTOR, RICTOR, p-AKT, p-GSK3β) decreased significantly after ISL treatment. Co-treatment of ISL and the mTOR-specific inhibitor Ku-0063794 had a synergistic effect on the inhibition of proliferation, and increased melanin content and TYR activity. Glucose uptake and lactate levels decreased more significantly than treatment with ISL alone. These findings indicate that ISL induced reprogramming in A375 melanoma cells by activating mTORC2-AKT-GSK3β signaling.
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mTOR inhibitors rescue premature lethality and attenuate dysregulation of GABAergic/glutamatergic transcription in murine succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD), a disorder of GABA metabolism.Recent studies have identified a role for supraphysiological gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the regulation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), a protein kinase with pleiotropic roles in cellular development and homeostasis, including integration of growth factors and nutrient sensing and synaptic input in neurons (Lakhani et al. 2014; Vogel et al. 2015). Aldehyde dehydrogenase 5a1-deficient (aldh5a1) mice, the murine orthologue of human succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD), manifest increased GABA that disrupts mitophagy and increases mitochondria number with enhanced oxidant stress. Treatment with the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, significantly attenuates these GABA-related anomalies. We extend those studies through characterization of additional rapamycin analog (rapalog) agents including temsirolimus, dual mTOR inhibitors [Torin 1 and 2 (Tor 1/ Tor 2), Ku-0063794, and XL-765], as well as mTOR-independent autophagy inducers [trehalose, tat-Beclin 1, tacrolimus (FK-506), and NF-449) in aldh5a1mice. Rapamycin, Tor 1, and Tor 2 rescued these mice from premature lethality associated with status epilepticus. XL-765 extended lifespan significantly and induced weight gain in aldh5a1mice; untreated aldh5a1mice failed to increase body mass. Expression profiling of animals rescued with Tor 1/Tor 2 and XL-765 revealed multiple instances of pharmacological compensation and/or correction of GABAergic and glutamatergic receptors, GABA/glutamate transporters, and GABA/glutamate-associated proteins, with Tor 2 and XL-765 showing optimal outcomes. Our studies lay the groundwork for further evaluation of mTOR inhibitors in aldh5a1mice, with therapeutic ramifications for heritable disorders of GABA and glutamate neurotransmission.
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KU0063794, a Dual mTORC1 and mTORC2 Inhibitor, Reduces Neural Tissue Damage and Locomotor Impairment After Spinal Cord Injury in Mice.Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic mechanism for the degradation of cytoplasmic constituents in the autophagosomal-lysosomal pathway. This mechanism plays an important role in homeostasis and it is defective in certain diseases. Preceding studies have revealed that autophagy is developing as an important moderator of pathological responses associated to spinal cord injury (SCI) and plays a crucial role in secondary injury initiating a progressive degeneration of the spinal cord. Thus, based on this evidence in this study, we used two different selective inhibitors of mTOR activity to explore the functional role of autophagy in an in vivo model of SCI as well as to determine whether the autophagic process is involved in spinal cord tissue damage. We treated animals with a novel synthetic inhibitor temsirolimus and with a dual mTORC1 and mTORC2 inhibitor KU0063794 matched all with the well-known inhibitor of mTOR the rapamycin. Our results demonstrated that mTOR inhibitors could regulate the neuroinflammation associated to SCI and the results that we obtained evidently demonstrated that rapamycin and temsirolimus significantly diminished the expression of iNOS, COX2, GFAP, and re-established nNOS levels, but the administration of KU0063794 is able to blunt the neuroinflammation better than rapamycin and temsirolimus. In addition, neuronal loss and cell mortality in the spinal cord after injury were considerably reduced in the KU0063794-treated mice. Accordingly, taken together our results denote that the administration of KU0063794 produced a neuroprotective function at the lesion site following SCI, representing a novel therapeutic approach after SCI.
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Autophagy inhibition sensitizes KU-0063794-mediated anti-HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cell activity in vitro and in vivo.Recent studies have indicated that mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling has a critical role in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the current study, we investigated the activity of KU-0063794, a novel mTOR kinase inhibitor, against HepG2 HCC cells. Our results demonstrated that KU-0063794 blocked mTOR complex 1/2 (mTORC1/2) activation, and downregulated mTOR-regulated genes (Cyclin D1 and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α) in HepG2 cells. Consequently, KU-0063794 induced significant anti-survival and pro-apoptotic activities against HepG2 cells. When analyzing the possible KU-0063794-resistance factors, we showed that KU-0063794 induced cyto-protective autophagy activation in HepG2 cells, evidenced by GFP-light chain 3B (LC3B) puncta formation, p62 degradation, Beclin-1 expression and LC3B-I to LC3B-II conversion. Correspondingly, autophagy inhibitors, including bafliomycin A1, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and chloroquine, dramatically enhanced KU-0063794-induced cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells. Further, RNAi knockdown of Beclin-1 also increased KU-0063794 sensitivity in HepG2 cells. In vivo, oral administration of KU-0063794 repressed HepG2 xenograft growth in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, and its activity was further enhanced with co-administration of the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA. In summary, KU-0063794 inhibits HepG2 cell growth in vitro and in vivo, its activity could be further enhanced with autophagy inhibition.
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Potentiation of Growth Inhibitory Responses of the mTOR Inhibitor Everolimus by Dual mTORC1/2 Inhibitors in Cultured Breast Cancer Cell Lines.The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a vital component of signaling pathways involving PI3K/AKT, is an attractive therapeutic target in breast cancer. Everolimus, an allosteric mTOR inhibitor that inhibits the mTOR functional complex mTORC1, is approved for treatment of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. Other mTOR inhibitors show interesting differences in target specificities: BEZ235 and GSK2126458 are ATP competitive mTOR inhibitors targeting both PI3K and mTORC1/2; AZD8055, AZD2014 and KU-0063794 are ATP competitive mTOR inhibitors targeting both mTORC1 and mTORC2; and GDC-0941 is a pan-PI3K inhibitor. We have addressed the question of whether mTOR inhibitors may be more effective in combination than singly in inhibiting the proliferation of breast cancer cells. We selected a panel of 30 human breast cancer cell lines that included ER and PR positive, HER2 over-expressing, and "triple negative" variants, and determined whether signaling pathway utilization was related to drug-induced inhibition of proliferation. A significant correlation (p = 0.005) was found between everolimus IC50 values and p70S6K phosphorylation, but not with AKT or ERK phosphorylation, consistent with the mTOR pathway being a principal target. We then carried out combination studies with four everolimus resistant triple-negative breast cancer cell lines, and found an unexpectedly high degree of synergy between everolimus and the other inhibitors tested. The level of potentiation of everolimus inhibitory activity (measured by IC50 values) was found to be cell line-specific for all the kinase inhibitors tested. The results suggest that judicious combination of mTOR inhibitors with different modes of action could have beneficial effects in the treatment of breast cancer.
1782 related Products with: Potentiation of Growth Inhibitory Responses of the mTOR Inhibitor Everolimus by Dual mTORC1/2 Inhibitors in Cultured Breast Cancer Cell Lines.AZD-8055 Mechanisms: mTOR Pp-242 Mechanisms: mTORC1 AZD-2014 Mechanisms: mTOR BEZ-235 Mechanisms: PI3K INK-128 Mechanisms: mTORC OSI-027 Mechanisms: mTORC XL-765 (SAR-245409) Mecha BGT-226 Mechanisms: PI3K Breast cancer tissue arra High density breast cance High density (188 cases 2 High density (188 cases 2
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Significance of 4E-binding protein 1 as a therapeutic target for invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.To evaluate the expression of multiple molecular markers involved in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in human muscle-invasive bladder cancer (BC) and to assess the therapeutic efficacies of mTOR inhibitors in human BC KoTCC-1 cells.
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Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 signaling pathway regulates transient receptor potential cation channel 6 in podocytes.Transient receptor potential cation channel 6 (TRPC6) is a nonselective cation channel, and abnormal expression and gain of function of TRPC6 are involved in the pathogenesis of hereditary and nonhereditary forms of renal disease. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying these diseases remain poorly understood, recent investigations revealed that many signaling pathways are involved in regulating TRPC6. We aimed to examine the effect of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex (mTOR complex 1 [mTORC1] or mTOR complex 2 [mTORC2]) signaling pathways on TRPC6 in podocytes, which are highly terminally differentiated renal epithelial cells that are critically required for the maintenance of the glomerular filtration barrier. We applied both pharmacological inhibitors of mTOR and specific siRNAs against mTOR components to explore which mTOR signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of TRPC6 in podocytes. The podocytes were exposed to rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTORC1, and ku0063794, a dual inhibitor of mTORC1 and mTORC2. In addition, specific siRNA-mediated knockdown of the mTORC1 component raptor and the mTORC2 component rictor was employed. The TRPC6 mRNA and protein expression levels were examined via real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot, respectively. Additionally, fluorescence calcium imaging was performed to evaluate the function of TRPC6 in podocytes. Rapamycin displayed no effect on the TRPC6 mRNA or protein expression levels or TRPC6-dependent calcium influx in podocytes. However, ku0063794 down-regulated the TRPC6 mRNA and protein levels and suppressed TRPC6-dependent calcium influx in podocytes. Furthermore, knockdown of raptor did not affect TRPC6 expression or function, whereas rictor knockdown suppressed TRPC6 protein expression and TRPC6-dependent calcium influx in podocytes. These findings indicate that the mTORC2 signaling pathway regulates TRPC6 in podocytes but that the mTORC1 signaling pathway does not appear to exert an effect on TRPC6.
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Increased drug resistance is associated with reduced glucose levels and an enhanced glycolysis phenotype.The testing of anticancer compounds in vitro is usually performed in hyperglycaemic cell cultures, although many tumours and their in vivo microenvironments are hypoglycaemic. Here, we have assessed, in cultures of tumour cells, the effects of reduced glucose levels on resistance to anticancer drugs and investigated the underlying cellular mechanisms.
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