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Development of an analytical method for separation of phenolic acids by ultra-performance convergence chromatography (UPC) using a column packed with a sub-2-μm particle.

Phenolic acids are important active components of certain Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) and have a wide range of biological effects. Separation and purification of phenolic acids remains challenging due to difficulties with quality control using existing chromatographic methods The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of different chromatographic columns and conditions for the separation of phenolic acids. The BEH column was determined to be optimal, providing efficient separation in the shortest time (17.00 min) using gradient elution with carbon dioxide as the mobile phase, methanol/acetonitrile (70:30, v/v) with 1% TFA as the modifier, and a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Good peak shapes were obtained, and the peak asymmetry values were close to 1.00 for all phenolic acids. The resolution was more than 2.83 for all separated peaks. The developed method was subsequently applied to the determination of phenolic acids in Xanthii Fructus. These results are beneficial for quality control and standardization of herbal drugs using UPC, providing an efficient, rapid and environmentally friendly scientific basis for future analysis of phenolic acids.

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Development of a diagnostic method for Parkinson's disease by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with integrated pulsed amperometric detection.

We developed a diagnostic method for Parkinson's disease by simultaneously analyzing biogenic amines and their metabolites using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with integrated pulsed amperometric detection (RP-HPLC-IPAD) method. Dopamine (DA), 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), and homovanillic acid (HVA) were used as biomarkers to diagnose Parkinson's disease. All target components were detected with good sensitivity using sodium hydroxide (as a post-column eluent). The limit of detection (S/N = 3) and limit of quantification (S/N = 10) of the target components ranged from 0.020 to 2.400 ng and from 0.080 to 8.000 ng, respectively. The coefficients of linear regression ranged from 0.9996 to 1.0000, all inter-day and intra-day precision values were <3.43%, and the average recovery and RSD ranged from 97.55 to 103.60% and 0.22 to 4.79% for mice striatum samples. This method exhibited good selectivity, sensitivity, and reproducibility and can be used directly without any pretreatment steps. Our method will be useful as a tool to diagnose Parkinson's disease.

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The effects of an expected twofold perturbation on able-bodied gait: Trunk flexion and uneven ground surface.

Although alteration in trunk orientation and ground level potentially affects gait pattern individually, it is plausible to examine the interaction effects of such factors.

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Hierarchical CuInS-based heterostructure: Application for photocathodic bioanalysis of sarcosine.

In this study, on the basis of hierarchical CuInS-based heterostructure, a novel cathodic photoelectrochemical (PEC) enzymatic bioanalysis of the sarcosine detection was reported. Specifically, heterostructured CuInS/NiO/ITO photocathode was prepared and sarcosine oxidases (SOx) were integrated for the construction of the enzymatic biosensor. In the bioanalysis, the O-dependent suppression of the cathodic photocurrent can be observed due to the competition between the as-fabricated O-sensitive photocathode and the SOx-catalytic event toward Oreduction. Based on the sarcosine-controlled Oconcentration, a novel photocathodic enzymatic biosensor could be realized for the sensitive and specific sarcosine detection. This work manifested the great potential of CuInS-based heterostructure as a novel platform for future PEC bioanalytical development and also a PEC method for sarcosine detection, which could be easily extended to numerous other enzymatic systems and to our knowledge has not been reported. This work is expected to stimulate more interest in the design and implementation of numerous CuInS-based heterostructured photocathodic enzymatic sensing.

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Microcolumn-based speciation analysis of thallium in soil and green cabbage.

Thallium (Tl) is a toxic trace metal, whose geochemical behavior and biological effects are closely controlled by its chemical speciation in the environment. However, little tends to be known about this speciation of Tl in soil and plant systems that directly affect the safety of food supplies. In this context, the objective of the present study was to elaborate an efficient method to separate and detect Tl(I) and Tl(III) species for soil and plant samples. This method involves the selective adsorption of Tl(I) on microcolumns filled with immobilized oxine, in the presence of DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid), followed by DTPA-enhanced ultrasonic and heating-induced extraction, coupled with ICP-MS detection. The method was characterized by a LOD of 0.037 μg/L for Tl(I) and 0.18 μg/L for Tl(III) in 10  mL samples. With this method, a second objective of the research was to assess the speciation of Tl in pot and field soils and in green cabbage crops. Experimental results suggest that DTPA extracted Tl was mainly present as Tl(I) in soils (>95%). Tl in hyperaccumulator plant green cabbage was also mainly present as Tl(I) (>90%). With respect to Tl uptake in plants, this study provides direct evidence that green cabbage mainly takes up Tl(I) from soil, and transports it into the aboveground organs. In soils, Tl(III) is reduced to Tl(I) even at the surface where the chemical environment promotes oxidation. This observation is conducive to understanding the mechanisms of Tl isotope fractionation in the soil-plant system. Based on geochemical fraction studies, the reducible fraction was the main source of Tl getting accumulated by plants. These results indicate that the improved analytical method presented in this study offers an economical, simple, fast, and sensitive approach for the separation of Tl species present in soils at trace levels.

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Lymphocyte-Related Inflammation and Immune-Based Scores Predict Prognosis of Chordoma Patients After Radical Resection.

The inflammatory microenvironment plays a critical role in the development and progression of malignancies. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of lymphocyte-related inflammation and immune-based prognostic scores in patients with chordoma after radical resection, including the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), monocyte-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), and systemic immune-inflammation index (SII). A total of 172 consecutive patients with chordoma who underwent radical resection were reviewed. R software was used to randomly select 86 chordoma patients as a training set and 86 chordoma patients as a validation set. Potential prognostic factors were also identified, including age, sex, tumor localization, KPS, Enneking stage, tumor size, and tumor metastasis. Overall survival (OS) was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox regression analyses. NLR, PLR, SII, Enneking stage, tumor differentiation and tumor metastasis were identified as significant factors from the univariate analysis in both the training and validation sets and were subjected to multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis. The univariate analysis showed that NLR ≥1.65, PLR ≥121, and SII ≥370×10/L were significantly associated with poor OS. In the multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis, SII, Enneking stage and tumor metastasis were significantly associated with OS. As noninvasive, low-cost, reproducible prognostic biomarkers, NLR, PLR and SII could help predict poor prognosis in patients with chordoma after radical resection. This finding may contribute to the development of more effective tailored therapy according to the characteristics of individual tumors.

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Treatment strategies, outcomes and prognostic factors in 291 patients with secondary CNS involvement by diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Secondary CNS involvement (SCNS) is a profoundly adverse complication of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Evidence from older series indicated a median overall survival (OS) < 6 months; however, data from the immunochemotherapy era are limited.

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Diversity of brain metastases screening and management in non-small cell lung cancer in Europe: Results of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Lung Cancer Group survey.

Brain metastases (BM) are frequent in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, but there is a lack of evidence-based management of this patient group. We aimed to capture a snapshot of routine BM management in Europe to identify relevant research questions for future clinical trials.

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An exploratory study on differences in cumulative plantar tissue stress between healing and non-healing plantar neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers.

Mechanical stress is important in causing and healing plantar diabetic foot ulcers, but almost always studied as peak pressure only. Measuring cumulative plantar tissue stress combines plantar pressure and ambulatory activity, and better defines the load on ulcers. Our aim was to explore differences in cumulative plantar tissue stress between people with healing and non-healing plantar diabetic foot ulcers.

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The effects of low-intensity narrow-band blue-light treatment compared to bright white-light treatment in seasonal affective disorder.

Ever since a new photoreceptor was discovered with a highest sensitivity to 470-490 nm blue light, it has been speculated that blue light has some advantages in the treatment of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) over more traditional treatments. In this study we compared the effects of exposure to narrow-band blue light (BLUE) to those of broad-wavelength white light (BLT) in the treatment of SAD.

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