Search results for: p130Cas-associated protein,P140,p140Cap,Rat,Rattus norvegicus,SNAP-25-interacting protein,SNIP,Snip,SRC kinase signaling inhibitor 1,Srcin1
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Hydroxysafflor Yellow A Confers Neuroprotection from Focal Cerebral Ischemia by Modulating the Crosstalk Between JAK2/STAT3 and SOCS3 Signaling Pathways.Natural bioactive compounds have increasingly proved to be promising in evidence- or target-directed treatment or modification of a spectrum of diseases including cerebral ischemic stroke. Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), a major active component of the safflower plant, has drawn more interests in recent year for its multiple pharmacological actions in the treatment of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases. Although the Janus kinase signaling, such as JAK2/STAT3 pathway, has been implicated in the modulation of the disease, the inhibition or activation of the pathway that contributed to the neuronal prevention from ischemic damages remains controversial. In this study, a series of experiments were performed to examine the dose- and therapeutic time window-related pharmacological efficacies of HSYA with emphasis on the HSYA-modulated interaction of JAK2/STAT3 and SOCS3 signaling in the MCAO rats. We found that HSYA treatment significantly rescued the neurological and functional deficits in a dose-dependent manner in the MCAO rats within 3 h after ischemia. HSYA treatment with a dosage of 8 mg/kg or higher markedly downregulated the expression of the JAK2-mediated signaling that was activated in response to ischemic insult, while it also promoted the expression of SOCS3 coordinately. In the subsequent experiments with the use of the JAK2 inhibitor WP1066, we found that the treatment of WP1066 alone or combination of WP1066/HSYA all exhibited inhibitory effects on JAK2-mediated signaling, while there was no influence on the SOCS3 activity of corresponding efficacious data in the MCAO rats, suggesting that excessive activation of JAK2/STAT3 might be necessary for HSYA to provoke SOCS3-negative feedback signaling. Taking together, our study demonstrates that HSYA might modulate the crosstalk between JAK2/STAT3 and SOCS3 signaling pathways that eventually contributed to its therapeutic roles against cerebral ischemic stroke.
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The Biomarker TCONS_00016233 Drives Septic AKI by Targeting the miR-22-3p/AIFM1 Signaling Axis.The prediction of mortality for septic acute kidney injury (AKI) has been assessed by a number of potential biomarkers, including long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). However, the validation of lncRNAs as biomarkers, particularly for the early stages of septic AKI, is still warranted. Our results indicate that the lncRNA TCONS_00016233 is upregulated in plasma of sepsis-associated non-AKI and AKI patients, but a higher cutoff threshold (9.5 × 10, copy number) provided a sensitivity of 71.9% and specificity of 89.6% for the detection of AKI. The plasma TCONS_00016233 was highly correlated with serum creatinine, tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-7 (IGFBP7), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), and urinary TCONS_00016233. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced the expression of lncRNA TCONS_00016233 via the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway in human renal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells. Furthermore, TCONS_00016233 mediates the LPS-induced HK-2 cell apoptosis and the expression of IL-1β and TNF-α. Mechanistically, TCONS_00016233 acts as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) to prevent microRNA (miR)-22-3p-mediated downregulation of the apoptosis-inducing factor mitochondrion-associated 1 (AIFM1). Finally, overexpression of TCONS_00016233 is capable of aggravating the LPS- and cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced septic AKI by targeting the miR-22-3p/AIFM1 axis. Taken together, our data indicate that TCONS_00016233 may serve as an early diagnosis marker for the septic AKI, possibly acting as a novel therapeutic target for septic AKI.
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Transcriptome profiling of tolerogenic dendritic cells conditioned with dual mTOR kinase inhibitor, AZD8055.Dendritic cells (DCs) can initiate and regulate adaptive immunity depending on their maturation status. Many pharmacological and genetic means have been used in the generation of immature/tolerogenic DCs. However, the key factors controlling DCs tolerogenicity remain obscure. In this work, we demonstrated that AZD8055, an ATP-competitive inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), could also lead to a tolerogenic DC phenotype from several lines of evidence, such as suppression of T cell proliferation, promoting the generation of Tregs, and inducing allogeneic T cell apoptosis. Further studies using RNA-seq method identified 430, 1172 and 1436 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between AZD-DCs vs. Control-DCs, LPS-DCs vs. Control-DCs, and AZD-DCs vs. LPS-DCs, respectively. The 5 most differentially expressed transcripts identified by RNA-seq expression profiles were validated by quantitative RT-PCR assays. NF-κB, p38MAPK, the ribosome and PPAR signaling pathways may be involved in the induction of tolerogenic DCs by AZD8055. Functional annotation showed some genes like MGL2, Cadherin-1, 4-1BB, RhoB and Pdpn, were quite different between AZD-DCs and Control-DCs/LPS-DCs, which might be related to the tolerogenic properties of AZD-DCs. Our work provided the potential underlying molecular mechanisms involved in the generation of tolerogenic DCs. Further functional characterization of individual target gene in DC tolerogenicity will help to develop novel therapeutic modalities in circumstances like transplant tolerance induction and autoimmunity.
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Selenium ameliorates cadmium-induced mouse leydig TM3 cell apoptosis via inhibiting the ROS/JNK /c-jun signaling pathway.Despite the well-known acknowledgement of both the toxicity of cadmium (Cd) and the ameliorative effect of selenium (Se), the mechanism of the protective effect of selenium on cadmium-induced Mouse Leydig (TM3) cell apoptosis remains unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is involved in anti-apoptosis of selenium against cadmium in TM3 cells. We found that exposure to cadmium caused evident cytotoxicity, in which cell viability was inhibited, followed by inducement of apoptosis. Moreover, the level of ROS generation was elevated, leading to the phosphorylation of JNK. In addition, following cadmium exposure, the nuclear transcription factor c-jun was significantly activated, which led to increased expression of downstream gene c-jun, resulting in downstream activation of the apoptosis-related protein Caspase3 and upregulation of Cleaved-PARP, as well as inhibition of the anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2. However, pretreatment with selenium remarkably suppressed cadmium-induced TM3 cell apoptosis. Furthermore, the level of ROS declined, and the JNK signaling pathway was blocked. Following this, the gene expression of c-jun decreased while Bcl-2 increased, which was consistent with the effects on proteins, that Caspase3 activity and Cleaved-PARP were inhibited while Bcl-2 level was restored. In order to explain the relationship between molecules of the signaling pathway, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), the ROS inhibitor, and JNK1/2 siRNA were administered, which further indicated the mediatory role of the ROS/JNK/c-jun signaling pathway in regulating anti-apoptosis of selenium against cadmium-induced TM3 cell apoptosis.
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Effects of Ruxolitinib Cream on Pruritus and Quality of Life in Atopic Dermatitis: Results From a Phase 2, Randomized, Dose-Ranging, Vehicle- and Active-Controlled Study.Atopic dermatitis (AD), a chronic, highly pruritic skin disorder, impairs quality of life (QoL). Janus kinase inhibitors suppress inflammatory and pruritus-associated cytokine signaling in AD.
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Evodiamine inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via the Hippo-Yes-Associated Protein signaling pathway.Dysfunction of the Hippo-Yes-Associated Protein (YAP) signaling pathway is known to be associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Evodiamine (Evo), a plant-derived bioactive alkaloid, exerts inhibitory effects on cancer. However, the precise influence of Evo on HCC and its potential effects on Hippo-YAP signaling have yet to be ascertained. Here, the effects of Evo on cell proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated using HCC cell lines (HepG2 and Bel-7402) and nude mice with xenograft tumors. We further investigated whether Evo exerts anti-HCC activity through effects on Hippo-YAP signaling in vitro with the aid of XMU-MP-1, an inhibitor of the key component of this pathway, mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1/2.
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A Phase I Trial of IGF-1R Inhibitor Cixutumumab and mTOR Inhibitor Temsirolimus in Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer.Despite frequent PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue) loss and Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in prostate cancer, the disease is insensitive to single-agent mTOR inhibition. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor inhibition might mitigate the feedback inhibition by Torc1 inhibitors, suppressing downstream Akt activation and, thus, potentiating the antitumor activity of mTOR inhibition.
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Targeted synthetic pharmacotherapy for psoriatic arthritis: state of the art.: In recent years, different studies regarding psoriatic arthritis (PsA) have shown the pathogenetic role of dysfunction of signaling pathways involving the phosphodiesterase-4 enzyme and transcription factors or enzymes belonging to the kinase (JAK)-signal family pathway. These also represent the target of several drugs known as targeted synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (tsDMARDs).: The authors performed a systematic literature search using the PubMed database, as well as through retrieving data from randomized controlled trials, their analysis, and pooled data analysis on the efficacy and safety profile of the PDE4 inhibitor (PDE4i), apremilast, and the inhibitors of JAK (JAKis), tofacitinib, filgotinib, baricitinib, and upadacitinib, in PsA.: In PsA, the PDE4i, apremilast, and the JAKi, tofacitinib, are effective across multiple clinical domains and have an acceptable tolerability profile, thus expanding the treatment options available for PsA patients. Apremilast and tofacitinib show several advantages mainly represented by their oral administration, a fast onset of action, and a short half-life. Data on tsDMARDs in PsA are still limited, and randomized trials and real-life studies are advocated.
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HDAC and MAPK/ERK Inhibitors Cooperate To Reduce Viability and Stemness in Medulloblastoma.Medulloblastoma (MB), which originates from embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) or neural precursors in the developing cerebellum, is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood. Recurrent and metastatic disease is the principal cause of death and may be related to resistance within cancer stem cells (CSCs). Chromatin state is involved in maintaining signaling pathways related to stemness, and inhibition of histone deacetylase enzymes (HDAC) has emerged as an experimental therapeutic strategy to target this cell population. Here, we observed antitumor actions and changes in stemness induced by HDAC inhibition in MB. Analyses of tumor samples from patients with MB showed that the stemness markers BMI1 and CD133 are expressed in all molecular subgroups of MB. The HDAC inhibitor (HDACi) NaB reduced cell viability and expression of BMI1 and CD133 and increased acetylation in human MB cells. Enrichment analysis of genes associated with CD133 or BMI1 expression showed mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK signaling as the most enriched processes in MB tumors. MAPK/ERK inhibition reduced expression of the stemness markers, hindered MB neurosphere formation, and its antiproliferative effect was enhanced by combination with NaB. These results suggest that combining HDAC and MAPK/ERK inhibitors may be a novel and more effective approach in reducing MB proliferation when compared to single-drug treatments, through modulation of the stemness phenotype of MB cells.
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