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#28811867   2017/08/16 Save this To Up

Modulation of Glutathione Hemostasis by Inhibition of 12/15-Lipoxygenase Prevents ROS-Mediated Cell Death after Hepatic Ischemia and Reperfusion.

Reactive oxygen species- (ROS-) mediated ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) detrimentally impacts liver transplantation and resection. 12/15-Lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX), an antagonistic protein of the glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) signaling cascade, was proven to mediate cell death in postischemic cerebral and myocardial tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of 12/15-LOX inhibition on hepatic IRI.

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#28709835   2017/07/15 Save this To Up

The antimicrobial peptide, human β-defensin-1, potentiates in vitro osteoclastogenesis via activation of the p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases.

Previous studies have demonstrated increased expression and raised levels of human β-defensin (hBD)-1 in gingival tissue and crevicular fluid of patients with chronic periodontitis and peri-implantitis, oral bone-resorbing diseases caused by enhanced osteoclastogenesis. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of hBD-1 on osteoclast formation and function and to elucidate the involved signaling pathway in vitro. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were first incubated with various doses of hBD-1 and cell viability was assayed by MTT. PBMCs were treated with macrophage-colony stimulating factor and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) in the presence or absence of non-toxic doses of hBD-1. In vitro osteoclastogenesis was analyzed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, osteoclast-specific gene expression, and a resorption pit assay. Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) was studied by immunoblotting and specific MAPK inhibitors. HBD-1 potentiated induction of in vitro osteoclastogenesis by RANKL, as shown by significantly increased number of TRAP-positive multinuclear cells and resorption areas on the dentin slices, and further up-regulated expressions of osteoclast-specific genes compared to those by RANKL treatment (p <0.05). However, hBD-1 treatment without RANKL failed to induce formation of osteoclast-like cells. A significant and further increase in transient phosphorylation of the p44/42 MAPKs was demonstrated by hBD-1 co-treatment (p<0.05), consistent with the inhibitory effect by pretreatment with U0126 or PD98059 on hBD-1-enhanced osteoclastogenesis. Collectively, hBD-1 potentiates the induction of in vitro osteoclastogenesis by RANKL via enhanced phosphorylation of the p44/42 MAPKs.

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#28703940   2017/07/13 Save this To Up

Ebselen impairs cellular oxidative state and induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and activation of crucial mitogen-activated protein kinases in pancreatic tumour AR42J cells.

Ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one) is an organoselenium radical scavenger compound, which has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, evidence suggests that this compound could exert deleterious actions on cell physiology. In this study we have analyzed the effect of ebselen on rat pancreatic AR42J cells. Cytosolic free-Ca2(+) concentration ([Ca(2+) ]c ), cellular oxidative status, setting of endoplasmic reticulum stress and phosphorylation of major mitogen-activated protein kinases were analyzed. Our results show that ebselen evoked a concentration-dependent increase in [Ca(2+) ]c . The compound induced an increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species in the mitochondria. We also observed an increase in global cysteine oxidation in the presence of ebselen. In the presence of ebselen an impairment of cholecystokinin-evoked amylase release was noted. Moreover, involvement of the unfolded protein response markers, ER chaperone and signaling regulator GRP78/BiP, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α and X-box binding protein 1 was detected. Finally, increases in the phosphorylation of SAPK/JNK, p38 MAPK and p44/42 MAPK in the presence of ebselen were also observed. Our results provide evidences for an impairment of cellular oxidative state and enzyme secretion, the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress and the activation of crucial mitogen-activated protein kinases in the presence of ebselen. As a consequence ebselen exerts a potential toxic effect on AR42J cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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#28618041   2017/06/15 Save this To Up

Effect of Various Ratios of Co-Cultured ATDC5 Cells and Chondrocytes on the Expression of Cartilaginous Phenotype in Microcavitary Alginate Hydrogel.

The present study introduced a direct co-culture of mouse ATDC5 cells and primary porcine chondrocytes into a microcavitary hydrogel, which possessed advantages in promoting the growth of chondrocytes and retaining the phenotype. These two types of cells were encapsulated with gelatin microspheres in alginate hydrogels in either of the three ratios (3:1, 1:1, or 1:3 of ATDC5 cells to chondrocytes) and cultured in chondrogenic medium for 28 days. Simultaneously, the single encapsulation of ATDC5 cells or chondrocytes was set as a control. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), real-time PCR, and immunohistochemistry staining were used to evaluate the effect of various ratios of co-cultured ATDC5 cells and chondrocytes on the expression of the cartilaginous phenotype. The CCK-8 data indicated that the ratio of 3:1 group had an outstanding ability of cell growth. The other results demonstrated that higher the ATDC5 ratios and longer the culture duration, greater the expression of cartilage-specific genes (including type II collagen and aggrecan) and more the synthesized cartilaginous extracellular matrix. Also, the Western blot analysis suggested that p44/42 MAP Kinase was involved in cell proliferation. However, due to the direct co-culture of the two cell types, the underlying mechanism necessitates further investigation. Overall, the co-culture system in microcavitary hydrogel improved the effect of chondrogenesis and exhibited promising strategy for cartilage tissue engineering therapies. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 3607-3615, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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#28604903   2017/06/12 Save this To Up

Antiproliferative activity of 8-methoxypsoralen on DU145 prostate cancer cells under UVA and blue light.

The use of photoactivatable 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) as potential focal treatment towards prostate cancer cells is proposed here. Our results, obtained on isolated DNA and DU145 cells, indicate that blue light, besides UVA, is able to activate 8-MOP. When compared to UVA, blue light irradiation led to a modulation of the extent and the types of 8-MOP-DNA damage, specially cross-links, coupled to a still valuable antiproliferative effect. Our data suggest that the proapototic activity of 8-MOP is related not only to DNA damage and reactive oxygen species generation but also to the modulation of cell signalling pathways. In particular, a different activation of p38 and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases was detected depending on the light wavelengths.

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#28324005   2017/03/21 Save this To Up

Insulin Inhibits Nrf2 Gene Expression via Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein F/K in Diabetic Mice.

Oxidative stress induces endogenous antioxidants via nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), potentially preventing tissue injury. We investigated whether insulin affects renal Nrf2 expression in type 1 diabetes (T1D) and studied its underlying mechanism. Insulin normalized hyperglycemia, hypertension, oxidative stress, and renal injury; inhibited renal Nrf2 and angiotensinogen (Agt) gene expression; and upregulated heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F and K (hnRNP F and hnRNP K) expression in Akita mice with T1D. In immortalized rat renal proximal tubular cells, insulin suppressed Nrf2 and Agt but stimulated hnRNP F and hnRNP K gene transcription in high glucose via p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Transfection with small interfering RNAs of p44/42 MAPK, hnRNP F, or hnRNP K blocked insulin inhibition of Nrf2 gene transcription. Insulin curbed Nrf2 promoter activity via a specific DNA-responsive element that binds hnRNP F/K, and hnRNP F/K overexpression curtailed Nrf2 promoter activity. In hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic mice, renal Nrf2 and Agt expression was downregulated, whereas hnRNP F/K expression was upregulated. Thus, the beneficial actions of insulin in diabetic nephropathy appear to be mediated, in part, by suppressing renal Nrf2 and Agt gene transcription and preventing Nrf2 stimulation of Agt expression via hnRNP F/K. These findings identify hnRNP F/K and Nrf2 as potential therapeutic targets in diabetes.

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#28267559   2017/03/07 Save this To Up

Site-specific neural hyperactivity via the activation of MAPK and PKA/CREB pathways triggers neuronal degeneration in methylmercury-intoxicated mice.

Methylmercury (MeHg) induces site-specific neurotoxicity in the adult brain. In this study, we investigated the site-specific expression of the signaling cascade related to neural activity in a mouse model of MeHg intoxication showing neurodegeneration only in the deep layer of the cerebral cortex, especially layer IV. We performed time course studies of c-fos and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression levels which are proper markers of neural activity. We showed that upregulation of both markers preceded the neuronal degeneration in the cerebral cortex. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the site-specific upregulation of c-fos in the deep layer of the cerebral cortex. Western blot analysis showed that c-fos and BDNF expression was associated with CREB phosphorylation, which was triggered by the activation of the p44/42 MAPK, p38 MAPK and PKA pathways. However, we did not detect any changes in the expression levels of c-fos and BDNF proteins and no signs of neuronal degeneration in the hippocampus and cerebellum, despite the fact that we could detect accumulation of MeHg in these two brain regions. These results suggested an intriguing possibility that MeHg-induced neuronal degeneration was caused by site-specific neural hyperactivity triggered by the activation of MAPK and PKA/CREB pathways followed by c-fos and BDNF upregulation.

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#28256034   2017/03/03 Save this To Up

Platelet factor 4 upregulates matrix metalloproteinase-1 production in gingival fibroblasts.

Periodontitis is a highly prevalent chronic inflammatory disease that causes tooth loss, morbidity and confers an increased risk for systemic disease. Tissue destruction during periodontitis is due in large part to collagen-degrading matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) released by resident cells of the periodontium in response to proinflammatory cytokines. Platelets are immune-competent blood cells with a newly recognized role in chronic inflammation; however, their role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis is undefined. Consequently, the objective of this study was to assess the effect of platelet factor 4 (PF4), a major platelet-derived cytokine, on MMP-1 (collagenase) expression in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs).

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#28233302   2017/02/24 Save this To Up

Suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 gene therapy induces potent antitumor effect in patient-derived esophageal squamous cell carcinoma xenograft mice.

Chronic inflammation is involved in cancer growth in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), which is a highly refractory cancer with poor prognosis. This study investigated the antitumor effect and mechanisms of SOCS1 gene therapy for ESCC. Patients with ESCC showed epigenetics silencing of SOCS1 gene by methylation in the CpG islands. We infected 10 ESCC cells with an adenovirus-expressing SOCS1 (AdSOCS1) to examine the antitumor effect and mechanism of SOCS1 overexpression. SOCS1 overexpression markedly decreased the proliferation of all ESCC cell lines and induced apoptosis. Also, SOCS1 inhibited the proliferation of ESCC cells via multiple signaling pathways including Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p44/42 MAPK). Additionally, we established two xenograft mouse models in which TE14 ESCC cells or ESCC patient-derived tissues (PDX) were subcutaneously implanted. Mice were intra-tumorally injected with AdSOCS1 or control adenovirus vector (AdLacZ). In mice, tumor volumes and tumor weights were significantly lower in mice treated with AdSOCS1 than that with AdLacZ as similar mechanism to the in vitro findings. The Ki-67 index of tumors treated with AdSOCS1 was significantly lower than that with AdLacZ, and SOCS1 gene therapy induced apoptosis. These findings demonstrated that overexpression of SOCS1 has a potent antitumor effect against ESCC both in vitro and in vivo including PDX mice. SOCS1 gene therapy may be a promising approach for the treatment of ESCC.

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#27734932   2016/10/13 Save this To Up

Combined Transcriptomics and Chemical-Genetics Reveal Molecular Mode of Action of Valproic acid, an Anticancer Molecule using Budding Yeast Model.

Valproic acid (VA) is a pharmacologically important histone deacetylase inhibitor that recently garnered attention as an anticancer agent. Since the molecular mechanisms behind the multiple effects of VA are unclear, this study was aimed to unravel the comprehensive cellular processes affected by VA and its molecular targets in vivo using budding yeast as a model organism. Interestingly, genome-wide transcriptome analysis of cells treated with VA showed differential regulation of 30% of the genome. Functional enrichment analysis of VA transcriptome evidenced alteration of various cellular processes including cell cycle, cell wall biogenesis, DNA repair, ion homeostasis, metabolism, stress response, transport and ribosomal biogenesis, etc. Moreover, our genetic screening analysis revealed VA molecular targets belonging to oxidative and osmotic stress, DNA repair, cell wall integrity, and iron homeostasis. Further, our results demonstrated the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) Hog1 (p38) and Slt2 (p44/42) upon VA treatment. Our results also exhibited that VA acts through alteration of mitochondrial, ER architecture and functions. Especially, VA effects were neutralized in cells lacking lipid particles. Altogether, our results deciphered the novel molecular insights and mechanistic links to strengthen our knowledge on diverse cellular effects of VA along with its probable therapeutic targets and detoxification approaches.

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