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#29045978   2017/10/18 Save this To Up

[Clinicopathologic features of infant dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor: a case report and literature review].

Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT) has traditionally been viewed as rare benign tumors that present with seizure widely considered curable with surgery alone. Most DNTs occur in childhood and young adults. However, rare reported cases occur in infants. This paper reported an infant case of DNT and its diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment, molecular features and prognosis based on the review of current literatures. The age onset of this patient was only 11 months old. The clinical manifestations were partial seizures and the imaging data untypical; CT and MRI were all supportive of astrocytoma. Typical glioneuronal element histologic features could be seen, which contained oligodendrocyte-like cells attached to bundles of axons and neurons floating in a myxoid interstitial fluid. Meanwhile, some atypical regions could also be seen. These atypical regions showed a mixture of oligodendrocyte-like cells and neurons without a myxoid interstitial fluid, which were easily misdiagnosed. The BRAF(V600E) mutation was not detected. This patient had a good response to drug therapy. Totally surgical resection of the tumor was conducted. The patient had been seizures free for 6 months. In conclusion, DNT is a rare and well prognostic tumor (WHO grade I), which most often arise in children in the setting of medically refractory epilepsy. The most common tumor location was temporal. Because clinical symptoms, imaging and histological features of DNT and other low-grade gliomas broadly overlap such as ganglioglioma, pilocytic astrocytomas and oligodendroglioma et al., differential diagnosis should be made carefully. The glioneuronal element was the histopathological hallmark of DNT. In addition, some untypical regions should also be called attention. Although BRAF(V600E) mutation didn't exist in this case, it played a role in differential diagnosis because it has been previously recorded that BRAF(V600E) mutation was a common feature of DNT. Infant patients have their own characteristics. For example, drug therapy worked well and the imaging data was untypical. Doctors should improve the understanding of this disease to avoid unnecessary radiotherapy or chemotherapy.

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#29045967   2017/10/18 Save this To Up

[Early surgical treatment of multi-segmet intramedullary cervical spinal cord ependymoma].

To investigate the early clinical treatment and prognosis of multi-segment intramedullary cervical ependymoma.

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#29045907   2017/10/18 Save this To Up

Reactive Neutrophil Responses Dependent on the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase c-MET Limit Cancer Immunotherapy.

Inhibitors of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-MET are currently used in the clinic to target oncogenic signaling in tumor cells. We found that concomitant c-MET inhibition promoted adoptive T cell transfer and checkpoint immunotherapies in murine cancer models by increasing effector T cell infiltration in tumors. This therapeutic effect was independent of tumor cell-intrinsic c-MET dependence. Mechanistically, c-MET inhibition impaired the reactive mobilization and recruitment of neutrophils into tumors and draining lymph nodes in response to cytotoxic immunotherapies. In the absence of c-MET inhibition, neutrophils recruited to T cell-inflamed microenvironments rapidly acquired immunosuppressive properties, restraining T cell expansion and effector functions. In cancer patients, high serum levels of the c-MET ligand HGF correlated with increasing neutrophil counts and poor responses to checkpoint blockade therapies. Our findings reveal a role for the HGF/c-MET pathway in neutrophil recruitment and function and suggest that c-MET inhibitor co-treatment may improve responses to cancer immunotherapy in settings beyond c-MET-dependent tumors.

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#29045906   2017/10/18 Save this To Up

CTLA-4(+)PD-1(-) Memory CD4(+) T Cells Critically Contribute to Viral Persistence in Antiretroviral Therapy-Suppressed, SIV-Infected Rhesus Macaques.

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses viral replication in HIV-infected individuals but does not eliminate the reservoir of latently infected cells. Recent work identified PD-1(+) follicular helper T (Tfh) cells as an important cellular compartment for viral persistence. Here, using ART-treated, SIV-infected rhesus macaques, we show that CTLA-4(+)PD-1(-) memory CD4(+) T cells, which share phenotypic markers with regulatory T cells, were enriched in SIV DNA in blood, lymph nodes (LN), spleen, and gut, and contained replication-competent and infectious virus. In contrast to PD-1(+) Tfh cells, SIV-enriched CTLA-4(+)PD-1(-) CD4(+) T cells were found outside the B cell follicle of the LN, predicted the size of the persistent viral reservoir during ART, and significantly increased their contribution to the SIV reservoir with prolonged ART-mediated viral suppression. We have shown that CTLA-4(+)PD-1(-) memory CD4(+) T cells are a previously unrecognized component of the SIV and HIV reservoir that should be therapeutically targeted for a functional HIV-1 cure.

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#29045903   2017/10/18 Save this To Up

HpARI Protein Secreted by a Helminth Parasite Suppresses Interleukin-33.

Infection by helminth parasites is associated with amelioration of allergic reactivity, but mechanistic insights into this association are lacking. Products secreted by the mouse parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus suppress type 2 (allergic) immune responses through interference in the interleukin-33 (IL-33) pathway. Here, we identified H. polygyrus Alarmin Release Inhibitor (HpARI), an IL-33-suppressive 26-kDa protein, containing three predicted complement control protein (CCP) modules. In vivo, recombinant HpARI abrogated IL-33, group 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) and eosinophilic responses to Alternaria allergen administration, and diminished eosinophilic responses to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, increasing parasite burden. HpARI bound directly to both mouse and human IL-33 (in the cytokine's activated state) and also to nuclear DNA via its N-terminal CCP module pair (CCP1/2), tethering active IL-33 within necrotic cells, preventing its release, and forestalling initiation of type 2 allergic responses. Thus, HpARI employs a novel molecular strategy to suppress type 2 immunity in both infection and allergy.

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#29045898   2017/10/18 Save this To Up

Peptidoglycan-Sensing Receptors Trigger the Formation of Functional Amyloids of the Adaptor Protein Imd to Initiate Drosophila NF-κB Signaling.

In the Drosophila immune response, bacterial derived diaminopimelic acid-type peptidoglycan binds the receptors PGRP-LC and PGRP-LE, which through interaction with the adaptor protein Imd leads to activation of the NF-κB homolog Relish and robust antimicrobial peptide gene expression. PGRP-LC, PGRP-LE, and Imd each contain a motif with some resemblance to the RIP Homotypic Interaction Motif (RHIM), a domain found in mammalian RIPK proteins forming functional amyloids during necroptosis. Here we found that despite sequence divergence, these Drosophila cryptic RHIMs formed amyloid fibrils in vitro and in cells. Amyloid formation was required for signaling downstream of Imd, and in contrast to the mammalian RHIMs, was not associated with cell death. Furthermore, amyloid formation constituted a regulatable step and could be inhibited by Pirk, an endogenous feedback regulator of this pathway. Thus, diverse sequence motifs are capable of forming amyloidal signaling platforms, and the formation of these platforms may present a regulatory point in multiple biological processes.

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#29045897   2017/10/18 Save this To Up

Monocyte-Macrophages and T Cells in Atherosclerosis.

Atherosclerosis is an arterial disease process characterized by the focal subendothelial accumulation of apolipoprotein-B-containing lipoproteins, immune and vascular wall cells, and extracellular matrix. The lipoproteins acquire features of damage-associated molecular patterns and trigger first an innate immune response, dominated by monocyte-macrophages, and then an adaptive immune response. These inflammatory responses often become chronic and non-resolving and can lead to arterial damage and thrombosis-induced organ infarction. The innate immune response is regulated at various stages, from hematopoiesis to monocyte changes and macrophage activation. The adaptive immune response is regulated primarily by mechanisms that affect the balance between regulatory and effector T cells. Mechanisms related to cellular cholesterol, phenotypic plasticity, metabolism, and aging play key roles in affecting these responses. Herein, we review select topics that shed light on these processes and suggest new treatment strategies.

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#29045892   2017/10/18 Save this To Up

Wait, Wait … OK Now Go In: iNKT Cells Resolve Liver Inflammation.

Resolution of inflammation is pivotal to restoring tissue homeostasis, yet there is limited understanding of how this process is regulated. In this issue of Immunity, Liew et al. (2017) reveal a critical role for invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells in switching inflammation to tissue repair in an interlukin-4-dependent process.

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#29045844   2017/10/18 Save this To Up

A B Cell Regulome Links Notch to Downstream Oncogenic Pathways in Small B Cell Lymphomas.

Gain-of-function Notch mutations are recurrent in mature small B cell lymphomas such as mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), but the Notch target genes that contribute to B cell oncogenesis are largely unknown. We performed integrative analysis of Notch-regulated transcripts, genomic binding of Notch transcription complexes, and genome conformation data to identify direct Notch target genes in MCL cell lines. This B cell Notch regulome is largely controlled through Notch-bound distal enhancers and includes genes involved in B cell receptor and cytokine signaling and the oncogene MYC, which sustains proliferation of Notch-dependent MCL cell lines via a Notch-regulated lineage-restricted enhancer complex. Expression of direct Notch target genes is associated with Notch activity in an MCL xenograft model and in CLL lymph node biopsies. Our findings provide key insights into the role of Notch in MCL and other B cell malignancies and have important implications for therapeutic targeting of Notch-dependent oncogenic pathways.

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#29045828   2017/10/18 Save this To Up

Prolonged IKKβ Inhibition Improves Ongoing CTL Antitumor Responses by Incapacitating Regulatory T Cells.

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) prevent autoimmunity but limit antitumor immunity. The canonical NF-κB signaling pathway both activates immunity and promotes thymic Treg development. Here, we report that mature Tregs continue to require NF-κB signaling through IκB-kinase β (IKKβ) after thymic egress. Mice lacking IKKβ in mature Tregs developed scurfy-like immunopathology due to death of peripheral FoxP3(+) Tregs. Also, pharmacological IKKβ inhibition reduced Treg numbers in the circulation by ∼50% and downregulated FoxP3 and CD25 expression and STAT5 phosphorylation. In contrast, activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) were resistant to IKKβ inhibition because other pathways, in particular nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATc1) signaling, sustained their survival and expansion. In a melanoma mouse model, IKKβ inhibition after CTL cross-priming improved the antitumor response and delayed tumor growth. In conclusion, prolonged IKKβ inhibition decimates circulating Tregs and improves CTL responses when commenced after tumor vaccination, indicating that IKKβ represents a druggable checkpoint.

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