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#28636440   2017/06/21 To Up

Effects of Time to Start Training After Acute Patellar Tendon Enthesis Injuries on Healing of the Injury in a Rabbit Model.

A patellar tendon injury is a common injury in sports. The optimal time to start training after an acute, proximal patellar enthesis injury is still unclear.

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#28634564   2017/06/21 To Up

PAX8 Distinguishes Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Mimicking Sarcoma.

PAX8 is important for embryogenesis of the thyroid, Müllerian system, and upper urinary/renal tract, and expression of PAX8 has been described in carcinomas from each of these sites. The sensitivity and specificity of the polyclonal PAX8 antibody in a large cohort of epithelial tumors as well as lymphomas have been previously determined, the latter because polyclonal PAX8 is known to be immunoreactive in nonneoplastic B-cell lymphocytes which are often used as the positive internal control for immunohistochemistry. In this case report, PAX8 was a diagnostic clue for revising a previous diagnosis of unclassified high grade sarcoma to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. This case report demonstrates a pitfall for PAX8 immunoreactivity and acts as a reminder that lymphoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of a PAX8 positive, epithelial cell marker negative tumor of unknown primary origin.

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#28634589   2017/06/21 To Up

HLA Class Ia and Ib Polyreactive Anti-HLA-E IgG2a Monoclonal Antibodies (TFL-006 and TFL-007) Suppress Anti-HLA IgG Production by CD19+ B Cells and Proliferation of CD4+ T Cells While Upregulating Tregs.

The anti-HLA-E IgG2a mAbs, TFL-006 and TFL-007, reacted with all HLA-I antigens, similar to the therapeutic preparations of IVIg. Indeed, IVIg lost its HLA reactivity, when its HLA-E reactivity was adsorbed out. US-FDA approved IVIg to reduce antibodies in autoimmune diseases. But the mechanism underlying IVIg-mediated antibody reduction could not be ascertained due to the presence of other polyclonal antibodies. In spite of it, the cost prohibitive high or low IVIg is administered to patients waiting for donor organ and for allograft recipients for lowering antiallograft antibodies. A mAb that could mimic IVIg in lowering Abs, with defined mechanism of action, would be highly beneficial for patients. Demonstrably, the anti-HLA-E mAbs mimicked several functions of IVIg relevant to suppressing the antiallograft Abs. The mAbs suppressed activated T cells and anti-HLA antibody production by activated B cells, which were dose-wise superior to IVIg. The anti-HLA-E mAb expanded CD4+, CD25+, and Foxp(3)+ Tregs, which are known to suppress T and B cells involved in antibody production. These defined functions of the anti-HLA-E IgG2a mAbs at a level superior to IVIg encourage developing their humanized version to lower antibodies in allograft recipients, to promote graft survival, and to control autoimmune diseases.

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Mouse Anti-Human CD19 (pa Mouse Anti-Human CD19 (pa anti CD45 RA B cells, T c Anti C Reactive Protein A Human Cord Blood CD34+ Ce Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cell 129 Mouse Embryonic Stem anti CD38 Hematopoietic p superSf9-1 insect cells Sf21 insect cells superSf9-2 insect cells superSf9-3 insect cells

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#28635559   2017/06/21 To Up

Purification of antibody against Ara h 2 by a homemade immunoaffinity chromatography column.

Antibodies are used extensively in numerous applications both in vivo and in vitro. To purify anti-Ara h 2 polyclonal antibody, a homemade immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) column method was established. The properties of homemade column were compared with those of the mAb affinity protein G (MPG) agarose high flow, a commercially available column successfully used in capturing polyclonal antibodies. During antibody purification from rabbits' antiserum against Ara h 2, the column capacity, recovery, and purification factor were characterized for IAC and MPG. The homemade IAC could separate the corresponding antibody with higher specificity and lower cost but with lower recovery and column capacity than those of MPG. Thus, the homemade IAC is a specific, inexpensive, and suitable method that can be used for various laboratory purifications.

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#28618219   2017/06/15 To Up

Hierarchical Microspheres Constructed from Chitin Nanofibers Penetrated Hydroxyapatite Crystals for Bone Regeneration.

Chitin exists abundantly in crab and shrimp shells as the template of the minerals, which inspired us to mineralize it for fabricating bone grafting materials. In the present work, chitin nanofibrous microspheres were used as the matrix for in situ synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals including microflakes, submicron-needles, and submicron-spheres, which were penetrated by long chitin nanofibers, leading to the hierarchical structure. The shape and size of the HA crystals could be controlled by changing the HA synthesis process. The tight interface adhesion between chitin and HA through the noncovanlent bonds occurred in the composite microspheres, and HAs were homogeneously dispersed and bounded to the chitin nanofibers. In our findings, the inherent biocompatibilities of the both chitin and HA contributed the bone cell adhesion and osteoconduction. Moreover, the chitin microsphere with submicron-needle and submicron-sphere HA crystals remarkably promoted in vitro cell adhesion and in vivo bone healing. It was demonstrated that rabbits with 1.5 cm radius defect were almost cured completely within three months in a growth factor- and cell-free state, as a result of the unique surface microstructure and biocompatibilities of the composite microspheres. The microsphere scaffold displayed excellent biofunctions and an appropriate biodegradability. This work opened up a new avenue to construct natural polymer-based organic-inorganic hybrid microspheres for bone regeneration.

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#28616703   2017/06/15 To Up

Preparation of a biphase composite scaffold and its application in tissue engineering for femoral osteochondral defects in rabbits.

Three-dimensional bioactive scaffolds are useful tools for stem cell implant in tissue-engineering. For chondral and subchondral repair, the chondroinductive and osteoinductive property of a scaffold is a major challenge. The scaffolds that aim to osteogenic differentiation have been well studied. However, cartilage cells can hardly be induced for osteogenesis, and monophase scaffolds cannot ideally repair both cartilage and subchondral defects at the same time.

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#28637001   2017/06/21 To Up

A novel method to generate Salmonella Typhi Ty21a ghosts exploiting the λ phage holin-endolysin system.

Human typhoid fever caused by Salmonella Typhi still poses a severe global disease burden in developing countries despite the availability of commercial vaccines. In this study, we constructed a non-living S. Typhi Ty21a vaccine candidate by employing a lambda (λ) phage-derived holin-endolysin system to efficiently construct bacterial ghosts. The lysis plasmid pJHL464 harbors an R lysis cassette that is stringently regulated by dual promoters containing cI857/λPR and ParaBAD/araC components. The plasmid was introduced into an asd gene-deleted S. Typhi Ty21a strain designated JOL1675. The in vitro expression of endolysin (~17.76 kDa) in the subsequent JOL1675 vaccine construct when grown under lysis inducible conditions was validated by immunoblotting. In scanning electron microscopy analysis, surface transmembrane tunnels and a collapsed body were visualized in the ghosts. Following 48 h of lysis, no viable JOL1675 cells remained, indicating that lysis of all cells was achieved. Subcutaneous immunizations of mice with the JOL1675 ghosts produced significantly increasing titers of serum IgG and vaginal wash secretory IgA antibodies against JOL1675 outer membrane proteins during the observational period. Further, serum collected at 6 weeks post-immunization of rabbits exhibited effective bactericidal activity against wild type S. Typhi in the presence of complement. These data showed that JOL1675 ghosts are highly immunogenic and elicit humoral and mucosal responses expected to correlate with protective immunity against S. typhi. Collectively, our findings support the conclusion that incorporating a λ phage holin-endolysin-mediated lysis construct into S. Typhi is an efficient strategy for developing a novel and safe non-living typhoid vaccine candidate.

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#28347255   2017/03/28 To Up

Inhibition of l-type amino acid transporter 1 activity as a new therapeutic target for cholangiocarcinoma treatment.

Unlike normal cells, cancer cells undergo unlimited growth and multiplication, causing them to require massive amounts of amino acid to support their continuous metabolism. Among the amino acid transporters expressed on the plasma membrane, l-type amino acid transporter-1, a Na(+)-independent neutral amino acid transporter, is highly expressed in many types of human cancer including cholangiocarcinoma. Our previous study reported that l-type amino acid transporter-1 and its co-functional protein CD98 were highly expressed and implicated in cholangiocarcinoma progression and carcinogenesis. Therefore, this study determined the effect of JPH203, a selective inhibitor of l-type amino acid transporter-1 activity, on cholangiocarcinoma cell inhibition both in vitro and in vivo. JPH203 dramatically suppressed [(14)C]l-leucine uptake as well as cell growth in cholangiocarcinoma cell lines along with altering the expression of l-type amino acid transporter-1 and CD98 in response to amino acid depletion. We also demonstrated that JPH203 induced both G2/M and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, as well as reduced the S phase accompanied by altered expression of the proteins in cell cycle progression: cyclin D1, CDK4, and CDK6. There was also cell cycle arrest of the related proteins, P21 and P27, in KKU-055 and KKU-213 cholangiocarcinoma cells. Apoptosis induction, detected by an increase in trypan blue-stained cells along with a cleaved caspase-3/caspase-3 ratio, occurred in JPH203-treated cholangiocarcinoma cells at the highest concentration tested (100 µM). As expected, daily intravenous administration of JPH203 (12.5 and 25 mg/kg) significantly inhibited tumor growth in KKU-213 cholangiocarcinoma cell xenografts in the nude mice model in a dose-dependent manner with no statistically significant change in the animal's body weight and with no differences in the histology and appearance of the internal organs compared with the control group. Our study demonstrates that suppression of l-type amino acid transporter-1 activity using JPH203 might be used as a new therapeutic strategy for cholangiocarcinoma treatment.

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#28356536   2017/03/30 To Up

Herpes Simplex Virus 1 UL34 Protein Regulates the Global Architecture of the Endoplasmic Reticulum in Infected Cells.

Upon herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection, the CD98 heavy chain (CD98hc) is redistributed around the nuclear membrane (NM), where it promotes viral de-envelopment during the nuclear egress of nucleocapsids. In this study, we attempted to identify the factor(s) involved in CD98hc accumulation and demonstrated the following: (i) the null mutation of HSV-1 UL34 caused specific dispersion throughout the cytoplasm of CD98hc and the HSV-1 de-envelopment regulators, glycoproteins B and H (gB and gH); (ii) as observed with CD98hc, gB, and gH, wild-type HSV-1 infection caused redistribution of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) markers calnexin and ERp57 around the NM, whereas the UL34-null mutation caused cytoplasmic dispersion of these markers; (iii) the ER markers colocalized efficiently with CD98hc, gB, and gH in the presence and absence of UL34 in HSV-1-infected cells; (iv) at the ultrastructural level, wild-type HSV-1 infection caused ER compression around the NM, whereas the UL34-null mutation caused cytoplasmic dispersion of the ER; and (v) the UL34-null mutation significantly decreased the colocalization efficiency of lamin protein markers of the NM with CD98hc and gB. Collectively, these results indicate that HSV-1 infection causes redistribution of the ER around the NM, with resulting accumulation of ER-associated CD98hc, gB, and gH around the NM and that UL34 is required for ER redistribution, as well as for efficient recruitment to the NM of the ER-associated de-envelopment factors. Our study suggests that HSV-1 induces remodeling of the global ER architecture for recruitment of regulators mediating viral nuclear egress to the NM.IMPORTANCE The ER is an important cellular organelle that exists as a complex network extending throughout the cytoplasm. Although viruses often remodel the ER to facilitate viral replication, information on the effects of herpesvirus infections on ER morphological integrity is limited. Here, we showed that HSV-1 infection led to compression of the global ER architecture around the NM, resulting in accumulation of ER-associated regulators associated with nuclear egress of HSV-1 nucleocapsids. We also identified HSV-1 UL34 as a viral factor that mediated ER remodeling. Furthermore, we demonstrated that UL34 was required for efficient targeting of these regulators to the NM. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that a herpesvirus remodels ER global architecture. Our study also provides insight into the mechanism by which the regulators for HSV-1 nuclear egress are recruited to the NM, where this viral event occurs.

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#28350098   2017/03/28 To Up

SLC3A2 is upregulated in human osteosarcoma and promotes tumor growth through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

Growing evidence indicates that SLC3A2 (solute carrier family 3 member 2) is upregulated and correlates with tumor growth in multiple types of cancers, while the role of SLC3A2 in human osteosarcoma (OS) is rarely discussed. Thus, the aim of the present study was to demonstrate the expression of SLC3A2 in human osteosarcoma and reveal its biological function and the underlying mechanisms. RT-PCR, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to assess the expression of SLC3A2 in OS samples and cell lines. Cell cycle, Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and colony formation assays were used to test the cell survival capacity. To investigate the potential mechanism by which SLC3A2 regulates OS growth, we used a slide-based antibody array. We demonstrated that SLC3A2 was upregulated in OS cell lines as well as OS tissues. High expression of SLC3A2 was correlated with clinical stage and tumor size in OS. Reduced expression of SLC3A2 inhibited OS cell proliferation through G2/M phase arrest. Most importantly, we found that SLC3A2 may regulate OS growth through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. In conclusion, SLC3A2 is upregulated in OS and plays a crucial role in tumor growth. Targeting SLC3A2 may provide a new therapeutic strategy for OS.

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