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Search results for: ∆2-Androstene-1α,17β-diol� Acetate C21H32O3 CAS: 5846-70-8

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#34297483   2021/07/23 To Up

Revisiting the sex pheromone of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, a new invasive pest in South China.

The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda is a worldwide serious agricultural pest, and recently invades in South China. Sex pheromone can be employed to monitor its population dynamics accurately in the field. However, the pheromone components previously reported by testing different geographic populations and strains are not consistent. On the basis of confirming that the S. frugiperda population from Yunnan province belonged to the corn strain, we analyzed the potential sex pheromone components in the pheromone gland extracts of females using the gas chromatography coupled with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and electroantennography (EAG). The results show that (Z)-9-tetradecenal acetate (Z9-14:Ac), (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-16:Ac), (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate (Z7-12:Ac) or (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate (E7-12:Ac) with a ratio of 100: 15.8: 3.9 induced EAD responses to varying degree: Z9-14:Ac elicited a strong EAD response, Z7-12:Ac or E7-12:Ac elicited a small but clear EAD response, while Z11-16:Ac elicited a weak EAD response. The further single sensillum recording (SSR) showed that Z9-14:Ac and Z7-12:Ac induced dose-dependent activities in two types (A and B) of sensilla in male antennae, respectively, while the sensilla in response to E7-12:Ac and Z11-16:Ac was not recorded. Finally, wind tunnel tests reveal that Z9-14:Ac and Z7-12:Ac are two principal sex pheromone components of the tested population. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Nan-Ji Jiang, Bao-Tong Mo, Hao Guo, Jun Yang, Rui Tang, Chen-Zhu Wang

2105 related Products with: Revisiting the sex pheromone of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, a new invasive pest in South China.

10.1 mg

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#34298332   2021/07/16 To Up

The synergistic effect of rumen cellulolytic bacteria and activated carbon on thermophilic digestion of cornstalk.

To explore the bioaugmentation of rumen cellulolytic bacteria (RCB) and activated carbon (AC) on thermophilic digestion of cornstalk, biochemical methane potential tests were carried out. Adding RCB or AC can improve methane production, while simultaneous existence of AC (10 g/L) and RCB (5%) obtained the best performance. The maximum cellulose degradation rate, methane production rate and methane yield were 66.92%, 32.2 L/(kgVS·d), and 144.9 L/kgVS, which increased by 30.23%, 51.17%, and 20.35% compared with control group. The cellulolytic and fermentative bacteria (Hydrogenispora), syntrophic acetate-oxidizing bacteria (norank_o_MBA03), and hydrogenotrophic Methanothermobacter were crucial for thermophilic digestion of cornstalk. The enhancement of AC was due to the enrichment of Hydrogenispora and Methanothermobacter, while RCB can increase the abundance of cellulolytic bacteria (Halocella and norank_o_M55-D21) and mixotrophic Methanosarcina. The synergetic effect of AC and RCB owing to the enriched cellulolytic bacteria, the enhanced syntrophic acetate oxidation and the concentrated carbon metabolic flow to methane.
Zhijie Xie, Xianghui Meng, Hongxia Ding, Qin Cao, Yichao Chen, Xiaofeng Liu, Dong Li

1616 related Products with: The synergistic effect of rumen cellulolytic bacteria and activated carbon on thermophilic digestion of cornstalk.

5 G100 ml100 IU 2 ml 1000 tests100 25 mg50mg0.1 mg 1 kit(s) 1 ml

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#34213250   // To Up

[Preparation of brazilein from by high performance countercurrent chromatography].

Brazilein is among the main chemical constituents of . It has diverse pharmacological activities. Modern pharmacological studies have shown that the compound has antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and other pharmacological activities. Brazilein is often used as a stain in various industries. The separation of brazilein by traditional column chromatography will not only result in contamination of the chromatographic column materials, but also lead to loss of the active ingredient. Countercurrent chromatography is an advanced liquid-liquid chromatographic separation technique. It has been widely used for natural product separation and isolation as it offers several advantages, such as low solvent consumption, a highly selective solvent system, and high recoveries. Typical countercurrent chromatography techniques include centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC), high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC), and high performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC). It is well known that choosing a suitable solvent system is vital in countercurrent separation. Therefore, two methods were introduced for choosing a suitable solvent system. One is the generally useful estimation of solvent systems (GUESS) method, which employs thin-layer chromatography (TLC) to identify a suitable solvent system with minimal labor for the rapid purification of target compounds, and another is the Shake-Flash method. The solvent system could be determined by observing the distribution of the sample in the upper and lower phases. Two kinds of solvent systems were screened using the TLC-GUESS and Shake-Flash methods, and tested through the analysis mode of the HPCCC instrument. The results showed that chloroform-methanol-water (4:3:2, v/v/v) was the optimal solvent system for HPCCC separation. A total of 15.2 mg of brazilein and 5.7 mg of caesappanin C were obtained from an ethyl acetate extract with high purities (95.6% and 89.0%, analyzed by HPLC) in one step using the preparation mode of HPCCC, the reversed-phase liquid chromatography mode with the apparatus rotated at 1600 r/min, a flow rate of 10 mL/min, separation temperature of 25℃, and detection wavelength of 285 nm. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and spectrometric analyses. Brazilein stained the solid packing material in the column and was difficult to elute. The results showed that the use of HPCCC for the separation of brazilein can not only prevent the loss of target active ingredients in , but also shorten the separation and purification times and improve the operating efficiency. Therefore, HPCCC can be used for the separation and preparation of other pigment compounds in and other dye plants.
Wenqian He, Qingfei Fan, Lan Zhou, Fengmei Huang, Xian Jiang, Zhi Na, Huabin Hu, Qishi Song

1683 related Products with: [Preparation of brazilein from by high performance countercurrent chromatography].

5ml96 wells (1 kit)1000 assays96 Tests/kit4 Arrays/Slide2 Sample Kit25 6 ml Ready-to-use 100μl

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#34164382   2021/06/07 To Up

Developing Clostridia as Cell Factories for Short- and Medium-Chain Ester Production.

Short- and medium-chain volatile esters with flavors and fruity fragrances, such as ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, and butyl butyrate, are usually value-added in brewing, food, and pharmacy. The esters can be naturally produced by some microorganisms. As ester-forming reactions are increasingly deeply understood, it is possible to produce esters in non-natural but more potential hosts. Clostridia are a group of important industrial microorganisms since they can produce a variety of volatile organic acids and alcohols with high titers, especially butanol and butyric acid through the CoA-dependent carbon chain elongation pathway. This implies sufficient supplies of acyl-CoA, organic acids, and alcohols in cells, which are precursors for ester production. Besides, some Clostridia could utilize lignocellulosic biomass, industrial off-gas, or crude glycerol to produce other branched or straight-chain alcohols and acids. Therefore, Clostridia offer great potential to be engineered to produce short- and medium-chain volatile esters. In the review, the efforts to produce esters from Clostridia via lipase-mediated catalysis and alcohol acyltransferase (AAT)-mediated reaction are comprehensively revisited. Besides, the advantageous characteristics of several Clostridia and clostridial consortia for bio-ester production and the driving force of synthetic biology to clostridial chassis development are also discussed. It is believed that synthetic biotechnology should enable the future development of more effective Clostridia for ester production.
Qingzhuo Wang, Naief H Al Makishah, Qi Li, Yanan Li, Wenzheng Liu, Xiaoman Sun, Zhiqiang Wen, Sheng Yang

1121 related Products with: Developing Clostridia as Cell Factories for Short- and Medium-Chain Ester Production.

100 plates10 plates100 Plates10 Plates100tests25 Tests500 assays100 Tests

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#34098277   2021/05/30 To Up

Mixed-culture biocathodes for acetate production from CO reduction in the microbial electrosynthesis: Impact of temperature.

The temperature effect on bioelectrochemical reduction of CO to acetate with a mixed-culture biocathode in the microbial electrosynthesis was explored. The results showed that maximum acetate amount of 525.84 ± 1.55 mg L and fastest acetate formation of 49.21 ± 0.49 mg L d were obtained under mesophilic conditions. Electron recovery efficiency for CO reduction to acetate ranged from 14.50 ± 2.20% to 64.86 ± 2.20%, due to propionate, butyrate and H generation. Mesophilic conditions were demonstrated to be more favorable for biofilm formation on the cathode, resulting in a stable and dense biofilm. At phylum level, the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes phylum in the biofilm remarkably increased under mesophilic conditions, compared with that at psychrophilic and thermophilic conditions. At genus level, the Clostridium, Treponema, Acidithiobacillus, Acetobacterium and Acetoanaerobium were found to be dominated genera in the biofilm under mesophilic conditions, while genera diversity decreased under psychrophilic and thermophilic conditions.
Hou-Yun Yang, Nan-Nan Hou, Yi-Xuan Wang, Jing Liu, Chuan-Shu He, Yi-Ran Wang, Wei-Hua Li, Yang Mu

2448 related Products with: Mixed-culture biocathodes for acetate production from CO reduction in the microbial electrosynthesis: Impact of temperature.

11,000 tests

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#34089701   2021/06/03 To Up

Larvicidal and ovicidal activities of phenyl acetic acid isolated from Streptomyces collinus against Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).

The bio-efficacy of crude ethyl acetate extract, fractions and a compound phenyl acetic acid from the ethyl acetate extract of Streptomyces collinus was evaluated on Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti L. mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). The larvae were exposed to concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 ppm for fractions and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 ppm for compound. After 24 h, the larval mortality was assessed and the LC₅₀ and LC values were calculated. Similarly, per cent ovicidal activity was calculated for eggs after 120 h post treatment for phenyl acetic acid. Among the eleven fractions screened, fraction 7 from the ethyl acetate extract of Streptomyces collinus exhibited good larvicidal activity against both mosquito species. The LC and LC values of fraction 7 were 4.42, 6.23 ppm against Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae and 5.13, 14.51 ppm against Ae. aegypti larvae, respectively. Further, the isolated compound, phenyl acetic acid from fraction 7 recorded 100% larvicidal activity at 2 ppm concentration with LC and LC values of 2.07, 4.87 ppm on Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae and 3.81, 9.87 ppm on Ae. aegypti larvae, respectively. Phenyl acetic acid presented 50.3% and 42.0% ovicidal activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti eggs at 2 ppm concentration after 120 h post treatment. The compound, phenyl acetic acid could be used in mosquito control programme.
Appadurai Daniel Reegan, Pachaiyappan Saravana Kumar, Antony Cruz Asharaja, Chitra Devi, Sithi Jameela, Kedike Balakrishna, Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu

1813 related Products with: Larvicidal and ovicidal activities of phenyl acetic acid isolated from Streptomyces collinus against Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).

25 G10 mg25 mg100ug25 mg25 mg5 G0.1 mg 5 G1 mg20 ml100ug Lyophilized

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#34068455   2021/05/10 To Up

Insecticidal Activities Against and and Corresponding Constituents of Tung Meal from .

The environmental pollution, pesticide resistance, and other associated problems caused by traditional chemical pesticides with limited modes of action make it urgent to seek alternative environmentally-friendly pesticides from natural products. Tung meal, the byproduct of the detoxified (Hemsl.) seed, has been commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer and as a pesticide. However, its active insecticidal extracts and ingredients remain elusive. In the present study, the contact toxicities of tung meal extracts against the agricultural and forest pests like and were examined. Our results showed that ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts showed the strongest toxicity against and , respectively. In order to further explore the chemical profiles of the ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts, UPLC-Q/TOF-MS and GC-MS analyses have been performed, and 20 and 29 compounds were identified from EA and PE extracts, respectively. The present study, for the first time, verified the noteworthy insecticidal activities on the aforementioned agricultural and forest pesticides and revealed the potential active parts and chemical composition, which are conducive to further exploiting the potential of tung meal as a natural plant-derived insecticide for biological control of agricultural and forest pests.
Hui Zhang, Guilin Chen, Shiyou Lü, Lin Zhang, Mingquan Guo

1521 related Products with: Insecticidal Activities Against and and Corresponding Constituents of Tung Meal from .

500 mg25 mg2.5 mg10 mg100ug25 mg 5 G50 ug 5 G100ul1 g96 wells (1 kit)

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#34051197   2021/05/27 To Up

Proteomics reveal biomethane production process induced by carbon nanotube.

Biomethane produced by methanogenic archaea is a main greenhouse resource of terrestrial and marine ecosystems, which strongly affects the global environment change. Conductive materials, especially nano-scale, show considerable intervention on biomethane production potential, but the mechanism is still unclear. Herein, we precisely quantified the absolute abundance of Methanosarcina spp. proteins affected by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using tandem mass tag (TMT) proteomics technology. Among the 927 detectable proteins, more than three hundred, 304, showed differential expression. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis on KEGG pathways and GO biological processes revealed a trend of decreased protein synthesis induced by CNTs, suggesting these conductive nanomaterials may replace part of the cell structure and function. Interestingly, increased acetoclastic methanogenesis actually came at the expense of reduced protein synthesis in related pathways. CNTs stimulated biomethane production from acetate by stimulating intracellular redox activity and the -COOH oxidation process. These findings enhanced the understanding of the biomethane production process affected by conductive materials.
Jian Liu, Fanghua Liu, Jiafeng Yu, Quan Wang, Zhenkai Li, Kui Liu, Congmin Xu, Hang Yu, Leilei Xiao

2587 related Products with: Proteomics reveal biomethane production process induced by carbon nanotube.

1KG1 g50 ul5 mg2 g50 mg25 g 1 G50 mg1 kit5 mg

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#34020937   2021/07/13 To Up

Methanogenesis in the Digestive Tracts of the Tropical Millipedes Archispirostreptus gigas (Diplopoda, Spirostreptidae) and Epibolus pulchripes (Diplopoda, Pachybolidae).

Methanogens represent the final decomposition step in anaerobic degradation of organic matter, occurring in the digestive tracts of various invertebrates. However, factors determining their community structure and activity in distinct gut sections are still debated. In this study, we focused on the tropical millipede species Archispirostreptus gigas (Diplopoda, Spirostreptidae) and Epibolus pulchripes (Diplopoda, Pachybolidae), which release considerable amounts of methane. We aimed to characterize relationships between physicochemical parameters, methane production rates, and methanogen community structure in the two major gut sections, midgut and hindgut. Microsensor measurements revealed that both sections were strictly anoxic, with reducing conditions prevailing in both millipedes. Hydrogen concentration peaked in the anterior hindgut of . In both species, the intestinal pH was significantly higher in the hindgut than in the midgut. An accumulation of acetate and formate in the gut indicated bacterial fermentation activities in the digestive tracts of both species. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed a prevalence of spp. (), accompanied by a small fraction of so-far-unclassified "" (), in both species, which suggests that methanogenesis is mostly hydrogenotrophic. We conclude that anoxic conditions, negative redox potential, and bacterial production of hydrogen and formate promote gut colonization by methanogens. The higher activities of methanogens in the hindgut are explained by the higher pH of this compartment and their association with ciliates, which are restricted to this compartment and present an additional source of methanogenic substrates. Methane (CH) is the second most important atmospheric greenhouse gas after CO and is believed to account for 17% of global warming. Methanogens are a diverse group of archaea and can be found in various anoxic habitats, including digestive tracts of plant-feeding animals. Termites, cockroaches, the larvae of scarab beetles, and millipedes are the only arthropods known to host methanogens and emit large amounts of methane. Millipedes are ranked as the third most important detritivores after termites and earthworms, and they are considered keystone species in many terrestrial ecosystems. Both methane-producing and non-methane-emitting species of millipedes have been observed, but what limits their methanogenic potential is not known. In the present study, we show that physicochemical gut conditions and the distribution of symbiotic ciliates are important factors determining CH emission in millipedes. We also found close similarities to other methane-emitting arthropods, which might be associated with their similar plant-feeding habits.
Terézia Horváthová, Vladimír Šustr, Alica Chroňáková, Stanislava Semanová, Kristina Lang, Carsten Dietrich, Tomáš Hubáček, Masoud M Ardestani, Ana C Lara, Andreas Brune, Miloslav Šimek

2524 related Products with: Methanogenesis in the Digestive Tracts of the Tropical Millipedes Archispirostreptus gigas (Diplopoda, Spirostreptidae) and Epibolus pulchripes (Diplopoda, Pachybolidae).

1500IU100.00 ul

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