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Search results for: MEKK1

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#33619522   2021/02/02 To Up

The receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase CDG1 negatively regulates Arabidopsis pattern-triggered immunity and is involved in AvrRpm1-induced RIN4 phosphorylation.

Arabidopsis CDG1 negatively regulates flg22- and chitin-triggered immunity by promoting FLS2 and CERK1 degradation and is partially required for bacterial effector AvrRpm1-induced RIN4 phosphorylation. Negative regulators play indispensable roles in pattern-triggered immunity in plants by preventing sustained immunity impeding growth. Here, we report Arabidopsis thaliana CONSTITUTIVE DIFFERENTIAL GROWTH1 (CDG1), a receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase VII member, as a negative regulator of bacterial flagellin/flg22- and fungal chitin-triggered immunity. CDG1 can interact with the flg22 receptor FLAGELLIN SENSITIVE2 (FLS2) and chitin co-receptor CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR KINASE1 (CERK1). CDG1 overexpression impairs flg22 and chitin responses by promoting the degradation of FLS2 and CERK1. This process requires the kinase activity of MEK KINASE1 (MEKK1), but not the Plant U-Box (PUB) ubiquitin E3 ligases PUB12 and PUB13. Interestingly, the Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrRpm1 can induce CDG1 to interact with its host target RPM1-INTERACTING PROTEIN4 (RIN4), which depends on the ADP-ribosyl transferase activity of AvrRpm1. CDG1 is capable of phosphorylating RIN4 in vitro at multiple sites including Thr166 and the AvrRpm1-induced Thr166 phosphorylation of RIN4 is diminished in cdg1 null plants. Accordingly, CDG1 knockout attenuates AvrRpm1-induced hypersensitive response and increases the growth of AvrRpm1-secreting bacteria in plants. Unexpectedly, AvrRpm1 can also induce FLS2 depletion, which is fully dependent on RIN4 and partially dependent on CDG1, but does not require the kinase activity of MEKK1. Collectively, this study reveals previously unknown functions of CDG1 in both pattern-triggered immunity and effector-triggered susceptibility in plants.
Qiujiao Yang, Jianhang Guo, Hairuo Zeng, Lahong Xu, Jiao Xue, Shi Xiao, Jian-Feng Li

2592 related Products with: The receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase CDG1 negatively regulates Arabidopsis pattern-triggered immunity and is involved in AvrRpm1-induced RIN4 phosphorylation.

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#33574224   2021/02/11 To Up

Genome sequence and evolution of Betula platyphylla.

Betula L. (birch) is a pioneer hardwood tree species with ecological, economic, and evolutionary importance in the Northern Hemisphere. We sequenced the Betula platyphylla genome and assembled the sequences into 14 chromosomes. The Betula genome lacks evidence of recent whole-genome duplication and has the same paleoploidy level as Vitis vinifera and Prunus mume. Phylogenetic analysis of lignin pathway genes coupled with tissue-specific expression patterns provided clues for understanding the formation of higher ratios of syringyl to guaiacyl lignin observed in Betula species. Our transcriptome analysis of leaf tissues under a time-series cold stress experiment revealed the presence of the MEKK1-MKK2-MPK4 cascade and six additional mitogen-activated protein kinases that can be linked to a gene regulatory network involving many transcription factors and cold tolerance genes. Our genomic and transcriptome analyses provide insight into the structures, features, and evolution of the B. platyphylla genome. The chromosome-level genome and gene resources of B. platyphylla obtained in this study will facilitate the identification of important and essential genes governing important traits of trees and genetic improvement of B. platyphylla.
Su Chen, Yucheng Wang, Lili Yu, Tao Zheng, Sui Wang, Zhen Yue, Jing Jiang, Sapna Kumari, Chunfang Zheng, Haibao Tang, Jun Li, Yuqi Li, Jiongjiong Chen, Wenbo Zhang, Hanhui Kuang, Jon S Robertson, Patrick X Zhao, Huiyu Li, Shengqiang Shu, Yordan S Yordanov, Haijiao Huang, David M Goodstein, Ying Gai, Qi Qi, JiuMeng Min, ChunYan Xu, SongBo Wang, Guan-Zheng Qu, Andrew H Paterson, David Sankoff, Hairong Wei, Guifeng Liu, Chuanping Yang

1966 related Products with: Genome sequence and evolution of Betula platyphylla.

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#33092506   2020/10/22 To Up

Apigenin Inhibits Proliferation, Migration, and the Invasion of human tongue carcinoma Tca8113 Cells through Regulating the MAPK Signaling Pathways.

This study aimed to examine the effects of apigenin (API) on the proliferation, migration, and invasion of human tongue squamous cell carcinoma Tca8113 cells and explore its probable mechanisms.
Yun-Ze Xuan, Li-Zhi Xu, Cheng-Ri Jin, Kang-Juan Yang

2983 related Products with: Apigenin Inhibits Proliferation, Migration, and the Invasion of human tongue carcinoma Tca8113 Cells through Regulating the MAPK Signaling Pathways.

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#32978401   2020/09/25 To Up

A trimeric CrRLK1L-LLG1 complex genetically modulates SUMM2-mediated autoimmunity.

Cell death is intrinsically linked with immunity. Disruption of an immune-activated MAPK cascade, consisting of MEKK1, MKK1/2, and MPK4, triggers cell death and autoimmunity through the nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) protein SUMM2 and the MAPK kinase kinase MEKK2. In this study, we identify a Catharanthus roseus receptor-like kinase 1-like (CrRLK1L), named LETUM2/MEDOS1 (LET2/MDS1), and the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein LLG1 as regulators of mekk1-mkk1/2-mpk4 cell death. LET2/MDS1 functions additively with LET1, another CrRLK1L, and acts genetically downstream of MEKK2 in regulating SUMM2 activation. LET2/MDS1 complexes with LET1 and promotes LET1 phosphorylation, revealing an intertwined regulation between different CrRLK1Ls. LLG1 interacts with the ectodomain of LET1/2 and mediates LET1/2 transport to the plasma membrane, corroborating its function as a co-receptor of LET1/2 in the mekk1-mkk1/2-mpk4 cell death pathway. Thus, our data suggest that a trimeric complex consisting of two CrRLK1Ls LET1, LET2/MDS1, and a GPI-anchored protein LLG1 that regulates the activation of NLR SUMM2 for initiating cell death and autoimmunity.
Yanyan Huang, Chuanchun Yin, Jun Liu, Baomin Feng, Dongdong Ge, Liang Kong, Fausto Andres Ortiz-Morea, Julia Richter, Marie-Theres Hauser, Wen-Ming Wang, Libo Shan, Ping He

1509 related Products with: A trimeric CrRLK1L-LLG1 complex genetically modulates SUMM2-mediated autoimmunity.

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#32839517   2020/08/24 To Up

The malectin-like receptor-like kinase LETUM1 modulates NLR protein SUMM2 activation via MEKK2 scaffolding.

The innate immune system detects pathogen-derived molecules via specialized immune receptors to prevent infections. Plant immune receptors include cell surface-resident pattern recognition receptors (PRRs, including receptor-like kinases (RLKs)), and intracellular nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRs). It remains enigmatic how RLK- and NLR-mediated signalling are connected. Disruption of an immune-activated MEKK1-MKK1/2-MPK4 MAPK cascade activates the NLR SUMM2 via the MAPK kinase kinase MEKK2, leading to autoimmunity. To gain insights into the mechanisms underlying SUMM2 activation, we used an RNA interference-based genetic screen for mekk1 autoimmune suppressors and identified an uncharacterized malectin-like RLK, named LETUM1 (LET1), as a specific regulator of mekk1-mkk1/2-mpk4 autoimmunity via complexing with both SUMM2 and MEKK2. MEKK2 scaffolds LET1 and SUMM2 for protein stability and association, and counter-regulates the F-box protein CPR1-mediated SUMM2 ubiquitination and degradation, thereby regulating SUMM2 accumulation and activation. Our study indicates that malectin-like RLK LET1 senses the perturbance of cellular homoeostasis caused by the deficiency in immune-activated signalling and activates the NLR SUMM2-mediated autoimmunity via MEKK2 scaffolding.
Jun Liu, Yanyan Huang, Liang Kong, Xiao Yu, Baomin Feng, Derui Liu, Baoyu Zhao, Giselle C Mendes, Peiguo Yuan, Dongdong Ge, Wen-Ming Wang, Elizabeth P B Fontes, Pingwei Li, Libo Shan, Ping He

2328 related Products with: The malectin-like receptor-like kinase LETUM1 modulates NLR protein SUMM2 activation via MEKK2 scaffolding.

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#32817551   2020/08/17 To Up

A cryptic tubulin-binding domain links MEKK1 to curved tubulin protomers.

The MEKK1 protein is a pivotal kinase activator of responses to cellular stress. Activation of MEKK1 can trigger various responses, including mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, NF-κB signaling, or cell migration. Notably, MEKK1 activity is triggered by microtubule-targeting chemotherapies, among other stressors. Here we show that MEKK1 contains a previously unidentified tumor overexpressed gene (TOG) domain. The MEKK1 TOG domain binds to tubulin heterodimers-a canonical function of TOG domains-but is unusual in that it appears alone rather than as part of a multi-TOG array, and has structural features distinct from previously characterized TOG domains. MEKK1 TOG demonstrates a clear preference for binding curved tubulin heterodimers, which exist in soluble tubulin and at sites of microtubule polymerization and depolymerization. Mutations disrupting tubulin binding decrease microtubule density at the leading edge of polarized cells, suggesting that tubulin binding may play a role in MEKK1 activity at the cellular periphery. We also show that MEKK1 mutations at the tubulin-binding interface of the TOG domain recur in patient-derived tumor sequences, suggesting selective enrichment of tumor cells with disrupted MEKK1-microtubule association. Together, these findings provide a direct link between the MEKK1 protein and tubulin, which is likely to be relevant to cancer cell migration and response to microtubule-modulating therapies.
Pavel Filipčík, Sharissa L Latham, Antonia L Cadell, Catherine L Day, David R Croucher, Peter D Mace

2649 related Products with: A cryptic tubulin-binding domain links MEKK1 to curved tubulin protomers.

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#32567007   2020/06/21 To Up

Cronobacter sakazakii Infection in Early Postnatal Rats Impaired Contextual-Associated Learning: a Putative Role of C5a-Mediated NF-κβ and ASK1 Pathways.

This study was designed to test whether the Cronobacter sakazakii infection-impaired contextual learning and memory are mediated by the activation of the complement system; subsequent activation of inflammatory signals leads to alternations in serotonin transporter (SERT). To test this, rat pups (postnatal day, PND 15) were treated with either C. sakazakii (10 CFU) or Escherichia coli OP50 (10 CFU) or Luria bertani broth (100 μL) through oral gavage and allowed to stay with their mothers until PND 24. Experimental groups' rats were allowed to explore (PNDs 31-35) and then trained in contextual learning task (PNDs 36-43). Five days after training, individuals were tested for memory retention (PNDs 49-56). Observed behavioural data showed that C. sakazakii infection impaired contextual-associative learning and memory. Furthermore, our analysis showed that C. sakazakii infection activates complement system complement anaphylatoxin (C5a) (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS1)) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase1 (MEKK1). Subsequently, MEKK1 induces pro-inflammatory signals possibly through apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 (ASK-1), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK1/3) and protein kinase B gamma (AKT-3). In parallel, activated nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer B cells (NF-κB) induces interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IFNα-1, which may alter the level of serotonin transporter (SERT). Observed results suggest that impaired contextual learning and memory could be correlated with C5a-mediated NF-κβ and ASK1 pathways.
Ponnusamy Vinay, Christopher Karen, Krishnaswamy Balamurugan, Koilmani Emmanuvel Rajan

1712 related Products with: Cronobacter sakazakii Infection in Early Postnatal Rats Impaired Contextual-Associated Learning: a Putative Role of C5a-Mediated NF-κβ and ASK1 Pathways.

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#32497412   2020/07/03 To Up

Receptor-like kinases MDS1 and MDS2 promote SUMM2-mediated immunity.

Disruption of the MEKK1-MKK1/MKK2-MPK4 kinase cascade leads to activation of immunity mediated by the nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) immune receptor SUMM2, which monitors the phosphorylation status of CRCK3. Here we report that two receptor-like kinases (RLKs), MDS1, and MDS2, function redundantly to promote SUMM2-mediated immunity. Activation of SUMM2-mediated immunity is dependent on MDS1, and to a less extent on MDS2. MDS1 associates with CRCK3 in planta and can phosphorylate CRCK3 in vitro, suggesting that it may target CRCK3 to positively regulate SUMM2-mediated signaling. Our finding highlights a new defense mechanism where RLKs promote NLR-mediated immunity.
Yanan Liu, Xionghui Zhong, Zhibin Zhang, Jiameng Lan, Xingchuan Huang, Hainan Tian, Xin Li, Yuelin Zhang

1732 related Products with: Receptor-like kinases MDS1 and MDS2 promote SUMM2-mediated immunity.

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#32467981   // To Up

Arabidopsis SMN2/HEN2, Encoding DEAD-Box RNA Helicase, Governs Proper Expression of the Resistance Gene SMN1/RPS6 and Is Involved in Dwarf, Autoimmune Phenotypes of mekk1 and mpk4 Mutants.

In Arabidopsis thaliana, a mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, MEKK1-MKK1/MKK2-MPK4, is important for basal resistance and disruption of this pathway results in dwarf, autoimmune phenotypes. To elucidate the complex mechanisms activated by the disruption of this pathway, we have previously developed a mutant screening system based on a dwarf autoimmune line that overexpressed the N-terminal regulatory domain of MEKK1. Here, we report that the second group of mutants, smn2, had defects in the SMN2 gene, encoding a DEAD-box RNA helicase. SMN2 is identical to HEN2, whose function is vital for the nuclear RNA exosome because it provides non-ribosomal RNA specificity for RNA turnover, RNA quality control and RNA processing. Aberrant SMN1/RPS6 transcripts were detected in smn2 and hen2 mutants. Disease resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (hopA1), which is conferred by SMN1/RPS6, was decreased in smn2 mutants, suggesting a functional connection between SMN1/RPS6 and SMN2/HEN2. We produced double mutants mekk1smn2 and mpk4smn2 to determine whether the smn2 mutations suppress the dwarf, autoimmune phenotypes of the mekk1 and mpk4 mutants, as the smn1 mutations do. As expected, the mekk1 and mpk4 phenotypes were suppressed by the smn2 mutations. These results suggested that SMN2 is involved in the proper function of SMN1/RPS6. The Gene Ontology enrichment analysis using RNA-seq data showed that defense genes were downregulated in smn2, suggesting a positive contribution of SMN2 to the genome-wide expression of defense genes. In conclusion, this study provides novel insight into plant immunity via SMN2/HEN2, an essential component of the nuclear RNA exosome.
Momoko Takagi, Naoki Iwamoto, Yuta Kubo, Takayuki Morimoto, Hiroki Takagi, Fuminori Takahashi, Takumi Nishiuchi, Keisuke Tanaka, Teruaki Taji, Hironori Kaminaka, Kazuo Shinozaki, Kazuya Akimitsu, Ryohei Terauchi, Ken Shirasu, Kazuya Ichimura

2981 related Products with: Arabidopsis SMN2/HEN2, Encoding DEAD-Box RNA Helicase, Governs Proper Expression of the Resistance Gene SMN1/RPS6 and Is Involved in Dwarf, Autoimmune Phenotypes of mekk1 and mpk4 Mutants.

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#32367035   2020/05/04 To Up

Paternal restraint stress affects offspring metabolism via ATF-2 dependent mechanisms in Drosophila melanogaster germ cells.

Paternal environmental factors can epigenetically influence gene expressions in offspring. We demonstrate that restraint stress, an experimental model for strong psychological stress, to fathers affects the epigenome, transcriptome, and metabolome of offspring in a MEKK1-dATF2 pathway-dependent manner in Drosophila melanogaster. Genes involved in amino acid metabolism are upregulated by paternal restraint stress, while genes involved in glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle are downregulated. The effects of paternal restraint stress are also confirmed by metabolome analysis. dATF-2 is highly expressed in testicular germ cells, and restraint stress also induces p38 activation in the testes. Restraint stress induces Unpaired 3 (Upd3), a Drosophila homolog of Interleukin 6 (IL-6). Moreover, paternal overexpression of upd3 in somatic cells disrupts heterochromatin in offspring but not in offspring from dATF-2 mutant fathers. These results indicate that paternal restraint stress affects metabolism in offspring via inheritance of dATF-2-dependent epigenetic changes.
Ki-Hyeon Seong, Nhung Hong Ly, Yuki Katou, Naoko Yokota, Ryuichiro Nakato, Shinnosuke Murakami, Akiyoshi Hirayama, Shinji Fukuda, Siu Kang, Tomoyoshi Soga, Katsuhiko Shirahige, Shunsuke Ishii

1598 related Products with: Paternal restraint stress affects offspring metabolism via ATF-2 dependent mechanisms in Drosophila melanogaster germ cells.

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