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#23895272   2013/07/29 To Up

"Omics" of human sperm: profiling protein phosphatases.

Phosphorylation is a major regulatory mechanism in eukaryotic cells performed by the concerted actions of kinases and phosphatases (PPs). Protein phosphorylation has long been relevant to sperm physiology, from acquisition of motility in the epididymis to capacitation in the female reproductive tract. While the precise kinases involved in the regulation of sperm phosphorylation have been studied for decades, the PPs have only recently received research interest. Tyrosine phosphorylation was first implicated in the regulation of several sperm-related functions, from capacitation to oocyte binding. Only afterwards, in 1996, the inhibition of the serine/threonine-PP phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 (PPP1) by okadaic acid and calyculin-A was shown to initiate motility in caput epididymal sperm. Today, the current mechanisms of sperm motility acquisition based on PPP1 and its regulators are still far from being fully understood. PPP1CC2, specifically expressed in mammalian sperm, has been considered to be the only sperm-specific serine/threonine-PP, while other PPP1 isoforms were thought to be absent from sperm. This article examines the "Omics" of human sperm, and reports, for the first time, the identification of three new serine/threonine-protein PPs, PPP1CB, PPP4C, and PPP6C, in human sperm, together with two tyrosine-PPs, MKP1 and PTP1C. We specifically localized in sperm PPP1CB and PPP1CC2 from the PPP1 subfamily, and PPP2CA, PPP4C, and PPP6C from the PPP2 subfamily of the serine/threonine-PPs. A semi-quantitative analysis was performed to determine the various PPs' differential expression in sperm head and tail. These findings contribute to a comprehensive understanding of human sperm PPs, and warrant further research for their clinical and therapeutic significance.
Margarida Fardilha, Mónica Ferreira, Steven Pelech, Sandra Vieira, Sandra Rebelo, Luís Korrodi-Gregorio, Mário Sousa, Alberto Barros, Vladimiro Silva, Odete A B da Cruz e Silva, Edgar F da Cruz e Silva

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#15298760   // To Up

Effects of chlorella on activities of protein tyrosine phosphatases, matrix metalloproteinases, caspases, cytokine release, B and T cell proliferations, and phorbol ester receptor binding.

A Chlorella powder was screened using 52 in vitro assay systems for enzyme activity, receptor binding, cellular cytokine release, and B and T cell proliferation. The screening revealed a very potent inhibition of human protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity of CD45 and PTP1C with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 0.678 and 1.56 microg/mL, respectively. It also showed a moderate inhibition of other PTPs, including PTP1B (IC(50) = 65.3 microg/mL) and T-cell-PTP (114 microg/mL). Other inhibitory activities and their IC(50) values included inhibition of the human matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) MMP-1 (127 microg/mL), MMP-3 (185 microg/mL), MMP-7 (18.1 microg/mL), and MMP-9 (237 microg/mL) and the human peptidase caspases caspase 1 (300 microg/mL), caspase 3 (203 microg/mL), caspase 6 (301 microg/mL), caspase 7 (291 microg/mL), and caspase 8 (261 microg/mL), as well as release of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 (44.9 microg/mL), IL-2 (14.8 microg/mL), IL-4 (49.2 microg/mL), IL-6 (34.7 microg/mL), interferon-gamma (31.6 microg/mL), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (11 microg/mL) from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Chlorella also inhibited B cell proliferation (16.6 microg/mL) in mouse splenocytes and T cell proliferation (54.2 microg/mL) in mouse thymocytes. The binding of a phorbol ester, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, to its receptors was also inhibited by Chlorella with an IC(50) of 152 microg/mL. These results reveal potential pharmacological activities that, if confirmed by in vivo studies, might be exploited for the prevention or treatment of several serious pathologies, including inflammatory disease and cancer.
Fong-Chi Cheng, Atsui Lin, Jin-Jye Feng, Toru Mizoguchi, Hideo Takekoshi, Hitoshi Kubota, Yoko Kato, Yo Naoki

1198 related Products with: Effects of chlorella on activities of protein tyrosine phosphatases, matrix metalloproteinases, caspases, cytokine release, B and T cell proliferations, and phorbol ester receptor binding.

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#12974981   2003/09/15 To Up

Systematic identification of regulatory proteins critical for T-cell activation.

The activation of T cells, mediated by the T-cell receptor (TCR), activates a battery of specific membrane-associated, cytosolic and nuclear proteins. Identifying the signaling proteins downstream of TCR activation will help us to understand the regulation of immune responses and will contribute to developing therapeutic agents that target immune regulation.
Peter Chu, Jorge Pardo, Haoran Zhao, Connie C Li, Erlina Pali, Mary M Shen, Kunbin Qu, Simon X Yu, Betty Cb Huang, Peiwen Yu, Esteban S Masuda, Susan M Molineaux, Frank Kolbinger, Gregorio Aversa, Jan de Vries, Donald G Payan, X Charlene Liao

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#12176037   // To Up

Some protein tyrosine phosphatases target in part to lipid rafts and interact with caveolin-1.

A profile-based search of the SWISS-PROT database reveals that most protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) contain at least one caveolin-1-binding motif. To ascertain if the presence of caveolin-binding motif(s) in PTPs corresponds to their actual localization in caveolin-1-enriched membrane fractions, we performed subcellular fractionating experiments. We found that all tested PTPs (PTP1B, PTP1C, SHPTP2, PTEN, and LAR) are actually localized in caveolin-enriched membrane fractions, despite their distribution in other subcellular sites, too. More than 1/2 of LAR and about 1/4 of SHPTP2 and PTP-1C are localized in caveolin-enriched membrane fractions whereas, in these fractions, PTP-1B and PTEN are poorly concentrated. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments with antibodies specific for each tested PTP demonstrated that all five phosphatases form molecular complexes with caveolin-1 in vivo. Collectively, our findings propose that particular PTPs could perform some of their cellular actions or are regulated by recruitment into caveolin-enriched membrane fractions.
A Caselli, B Mazzinghi, G Camici, G Manao, G Ramponi

2803 related Products with: Some protein tyrosine phosphatases target in part to lipid rafts and interact with caveolin-1.

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#11352822   // To Up

Role of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in acetaldehyde-induced disruption of epithelial tight junctions.

Acetaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity is an important factor in pathogenesis of alcohol-related diseases; however, the mechanism of this toxicity is unknown. We recently showed that acetaldehyde increases epithelial paracellular permeability. We asked whether protein tyrosine phosphorylation via modulation of tyrosine kinases and/or PTPases is a mechanism involved in acetaldehyde-induced disruption of the tight junctions in the Caco-2 cell monolayer. Immunofluorescence localization of occludin and ZO-1 showed disruption of the tight junctions in acetaldehyde-treated cell monolayer. Administration of genistein prevented acetaldehyde-induced permeability. Acetaldehyde increased tyrosine phosphorylation of three clusters of proteins with molecular masses of 30-50, 60-90, and 110-150 kDa; three of these proteins were ZO-1, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin. Acetaldehyde reduced PTPase activity in plasma membrane and soluble fractions, whereas tyrosine kinase activity remained unaffected. Treatment with acetaldehyde resulted in a 97% loss of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)1B activity and a partial reduction of PTP1C and PTP1D activities. These results strongly suggest that acetaldehyde inhibits PTPases to increase protein tyrosine phosphorylation, which may result in disruption of the tight junctions.
K J Atkinson, R K Rao

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#11001933   // To Up

RNA hyperediting and alternative splicing of hematopoietic cell phosphatase (PTPN6) gene in acute myeloid leukemia.

The SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase PTPN6 (SHP-1, PTP1C, HCP) is a 68 kDa cytoplasmic protein primarily expressed in hematopoietic cell development, proliferation and receptor-mediated mitogenic signaling pathways. By means of direct dephosphorylation, it down-regulates a broad spectrum of growth-promoting receptors, including the Kit tyrosine kinase, activated to elicit a prominent cascade of intracellular events by stem cell factor binding. The pivotal contribution of PTPN6 in modulating myeloid cell signaling has been revealed by the finding that shp-1 mutation is responsible for the overexpansion and inappropriate activation of myelomonocytic populations in motheaten (me/me) and motheaten viable (me(v)/me(v)) mice. Association of PTPN6 with c-Kit and negative modulation of the myeloid leukocyte signal transduction pathways prompted us to examine the expression of the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPN6 gene in CD34(+)/CD117(+) blasts from acute myeloid leukemia patients. We identified and cloned cDNAs representing novel PTPN6 mRNA species, derived from aberrant splicing within the N-SH2 domain leading to retention of intron 3. Sequence analysis of cDNA clones revealed multiple A-->G editing conversions. The editing of PTPN6 mRNA mainly occurred as an A-->G conversion of A(7866), which represents the putative branch site in IVS3 of PTPN6 mRNA. Evidence that editing of A(7866) abrogates splicing has been obtained in vitro by using an edited clone and its backward clone generated by site-directed mutagenesis. The level of the aberrant intron-retaining splice variant, evaluated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, was lower in CD117(+)-AML bone marrow mononuclear cells at remission than at diagnosis, suggesting the involvement of post-transcriptional PTPN6 processing in leukemogenesis.
A Beghini, C B Ripamonti, P Peterlongo, G Roversi, R Cairoli, E Morra, L Larizza

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#10407071   // To Up

Amphiphilic and hydrophilic nature of sheep and human platelet phosphotyrosine phosphatase forms.

To date, although at least 75 different PTPases (protein-tyrosine-phosphate-phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.48) have been identified, those detected in platelets are rather scarce. Based on previous results from our laboratory, we investigated the existence of new PTPases in platelets. Triton X-114 phase partitioning of Triton X-100-solubilized human and sheep platelet membranes allowed PTPase to be recovered in the detergent-rich (40-35%, respectively) and -poor phases (60-65%, respectively). Sedimentation analyses of both phases from the sheep species revealed hydrophilic 6S and 3.7S, and amphiphilic 7.5S and 10.3S PTPase forms. Sedimentation analyses of human platelet membrane-associated or cytosolic PTPase revealed hydrophilic 6.7S and 4.3S, and amphiphilic 5.5S and 10.8S forms, or hydrophilic 4S, 5.9S and 6.9S forms, respectively. Western blot analysis using monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) against human PTP1B, PTP1C, PTP1D and RPTPalpha (mouse anti-human PTPase MoAbs) showed that RPTPalpha was not present in platelets and that the PTP1C type and PTP1D type (but probably not the PTP1B type) were expressed in sheep species. Immunoblots also revealed that all PTPases detected were mainly membrane-associated, with similar percentages of cellular distribution in both species. All PTPases were mainly recovered in the detergent-poor phases from the Triton X-114 phase partitioning, although PTP1D from human species was also significantly present (30%) in the detergent-rich phase. Additionally, all PTPases sedimented within the same PTPase peak in sucrose gradients (sedimentation coefficients around 4S). These findings indicate that amphiphilic and hydrophilic PTPases different from PTP1B, PTP1C, PTP1D or RPTPalpha, with higher sedimentation coefficients and with higher activity when O-phosphotyrosine or a synthetic peptide phosphorylated on tyrosine were used as substrates, are present in platelets.
A Hernández-Hernández, M Llanillo, M C Rodríguez, F Gómez, J Sánchez-Yagüe

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#9927304   // To Up

Inhibitory and stimulatory effects of somatostatin on two human pancreatic cancer cell lines: a primary role for tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1.

Somatostatin (SS-14) and its structural analogue SMS 201-995 (SMS) are recognized as physiological inhibitors of multiple organs and tissue functions through specific membrane receptors (sst1-sst5). The effects of SS-14 and SMS in the growth control of the pancreatic cancer cell lines MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 were investigated to identify and clarify the intracellular events involved. In PANC-1 cells, SS-14 and SMS caused inhibition of their basal growth, and that stimulated by epidermal growth factor, with a maximal effect at 0.1-1 microM. To understand the inhibitory mechanisms, we investigated the effects of SS-14 and SMS on phosphotyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) activity and, more specifically, that of tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 (PTP1C). SS-14 and SMS caused significant increases in total cellular PTPase activity, and particularly SHP-1, with maximal activation within 1 min. Inhibition of membrane tyrosine kinase and p42 MAP kinase activities was also observed, in response to SS-14 and SMS. In MIA PaCa-2 cells, SS-14 and SMS were associated with a positive growth response at 1-10 nM, after 4 days of culture in serum-free medium. Total cellular PTPase activity was slightly increased, but SHP-1 activity could not be detected; its absence in this cell line was confirmed by Western blot. Membrane tyrosine kinase activities were significantly increased by SS-14 and SMS at concentrations needed for maximal growth. p44/p42, which are constitutively active in this cell line, and p38 activities were not affected by somatostatin. In conclusion, somatostatin can exert different effects on human pancreatic cancer cell growth, depending upon the presence or absence of SHP-1. This enzyme can play a key role in the control of cell proliferation, and its cellular presence may determine the therapeutic potential of somatostatin in the control of cancer cell growth.
N Douziech, E Calvo, Z Coulombe, G Muradia, J Bastien, R A Aubin, A Lajas, J Morisset

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#9598814   // To Up

Profile and differential expression of protein tyrosine phosphatases in mouse pancreatic islet tumor cell lines.

Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) play important roles in cell growth and differentiation of normal and tumor cells. In this study, we analyzed the PTP profile in two pancreatic islet tumor cell lines. Transcripts were isolated from alphaTC-1 (glucagon-secreting) and betaTC-1 (insulin-secreting) cell lines for templates. A pair of degenerative primers, based on the conserved regions of known PTPs, was used to amplify the transcripts by polymerase chain reaction. A total of 1,620 clones was examined by restriction enzyme analysis and cDNA sequencing. Twenty-one PTPs were identified, including nine cytosolic PTPs (TcPTP, P19PTP, PTP1B, PTPMEG, PTP1C, SYP, PTPH1, PTPL1, and PTPD1), nine transmembrane PTPs (PTPdelta, PTPgamma, PTPkappa, DEP-1, IA-2, LAR, PTPalpha, PTPNE3, and PTPepsilon), and three new PTPs--PTPmu-like PTPkappa-like, and IA-2beta. An RNase protection assay demonstrated that some of these PTPs were expressed predominantly in glucagonoma (i.e., PTPdelta and IA-2) and others in insulinoma (i.e., PTP1C, PTPkappa, and PTPNE3) cells. In this report, we present the first profile of PTPs in alpha and beta tumor cell lines.
J Lu, Q Li, G Donadel, A L Notkins, M S Lan

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