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#33705517   // To Up

Rickettsia-host interaction: strategies of intracytosolic host colonization.

Bacterial infection is a highly complex biological process involving a dynamic interaction between the invading microorganism and the host. Specifically, intracellular pathogens seize control over the host cellular processes including membrane dynamics, actin cytoskeleton, phosphoinositide metabolism, intracellular trafficking and immune defense mechanisms to promote their host colonization. To accomplish such challenging tasks, virulent bacteria deploy unique species-specific secreted effectors to evade and/or subvert cellular defense surveillance mechanisms to establish a replication niche. However, despite superficially similar infection strategies, diverse Rickettsia species utilize different effector repertoires to promote host colonization. This review will discuss our current understandings on how different Rickettsia species deploy their effector arsenal to manipulate host cellular processes to promote their intracytosolic life within the mammalian host.
Oliver H Voss, M Sayeedur Rahman

2033 related Products with: Rickettsia-host interaction: strategies of intracytosolic host colonization.

100 ul 2.0 ml 100 ul1 mg1 mg50 ug 50 ug 50 ug 50 ug 0.1ml (1mg/ml)100 ul1 mg

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#33611212   2021/01/04 To Up

Small Molecule Compound Nerolidol attenuates Hypertension induced hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats through modulation of Mel-18-IGF-IIR signalling.

Cardiovascular diseases are caused by multitudes of stress factors like hypertension and their outcomes are associated with high mortality and morbidity worldwide. Nerolidol, a naturally occurring sesquiterpene found in several plant species, embodies various pharmacological benefits against numerous health disorders. However, their effects on hypertension induced cardiac complications are not completely understood.
Yueh-Min Lin, Khan Farheen Badrealam, Chia-Hua Kuo, Jayasimharayalu Daddam, Marthandam Asokan Shibu, Kuan-Ho Lin, Tsung-Jung Ho, Vijaya Padma Viswanadha, Wei-Wen Kuo, Chih-Yang Huang

1529 related Products with: Small Molecule Compound Nerolidol attenuates Hypertension induced hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats through modulation of Mel-18-IGF-IIR signalling.

50 ul96tests1 mg50 5ug900 tests

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#33456524   2020/12/17 To Up

DUOX2 participates in skin aging induced by UVB in HSF2 cells by activating NF-κB signaling.

Skin and in particular photoaging or premature aging, are caused by a variety of factors, including hormone imbalance and exposure to ultraviolet radiation. The aim of the present study was to explore the roles of Dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2) and related NF-κB signals in skin photoaging. Cell models of photoaging were constructed by irradiating human skin fibroblast lines (HSF2) with ultraviolet B (UVB) of different doses (0, 15, 30 and 60 mj/cm). The cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) was used to determine cell proliferation. Flow cytometry was used to determine the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). A biochemical method was to determine the content of hydrogen peroxide, and the quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to determine the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), Col-Ⅰ and α-SMA in the cells. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Western blot analysis was performed to determine the expression of DUOX2, p65 and p-p65. The results showed that,UVB irradiation dose- and time-dependently inhibited the proliferation of HSF2 cells. Cellular inflammatory response, ROS production and hydrogen peroxide increase was promoted. Col-Ⅰ and α-SMA were downregulated, MMP2 and MMP9 were upregulated, and the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 was promoted. The above indicators were all reversed by interference with DUOX2. Overexpression of DUOX2 has an effect that is similar to UVB irradiation, but the effects can be significantly weakened by NF-κB inhibitor, NAC. Upregulation of DUOX2 expression plays a crucial role in UVB-induced aging of HSF2 cells. The specific mechanism is related to the promotion of ROS production and cellular inflammatory response and activation of NF-κB signals.
Xiaoqing Xiao, Minghuan Huang, Chunyan Fan, Fuguo Zuo

1508 related Products with: DUOX2 participates in skin aging induced by UVB in HSF2 cells by activating NF-κB signaling.

400 ug2 Pieces/Box50 ul1 mg1.00 flask 50 UG7 inhibitors100 µg

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#33181254   2020/11/09 To Up

Heat shock transcription factor 2 reduces the secretion of IL-1β by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation in ulcerative colitis.

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease with unknown aetiology. As a pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) plays a critical, damaging role in UC. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are important anti-inflammatory factors that maintain intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) homeostasis. Heat shock transcription factor 2 (HSF2) is an important regulator of HSPs. In our previous research, we found that HSF2 is highly expressed in UC, is negatively related to colon inflammation of mice, and inhibits the expression of IL-1β, but the specific mechanism is still unclear. As a product of the NLRP3 inflammasome, the expression of IL-1β is closely related to NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Therefore, we hypothesised that HSF2 affects the secretion of IL-1β by regulating activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. In this study, hsf DSS model mice showed highest levels of expression of the NLRP3 inflammasome and the secretion of IL-1β. In Caco-2 cells, the levels of expression of the NLRP3 inflammasome and the secretion of IL-1β were inhibited by overexpression of HSF2, and inhibited HSF2 increased activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and the secretion of IL-1β. These findings indicated that HSF2 might be an important target for inflammatory modulation in UC.
Fengrui Zhang, Wei Zhao, Jiao Zhou, Wen Wang, Juan Luo, Yuran Feng, Jing Wu, Maojuan Li, Kunhua Wang, Junkun Niu, Yinglei Miao

2625 related Products with: Heat shock transcription factor 2 reduces the secretion of IL-1β by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation in ulcerative colitis.

30 Reactions200ug200ug6 25UG200ug20ug200ug100 ul250ul 0.2 mg

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#33051911   2020/10/14 To Up

Effect of long-term treatment with a mixture of pyrethroids on the expression of genes that govern male germ cell production in rats.

Humans are exposed to pyrethroid-based pesticides through agricultural produce. In this study, male Wistar rats were orally treated for 9 to 12 months with a mixture of pyrethroids that is equivalent to one-fifth (high dose; HD) or one-twenty fifth (low dose; LD) of the amount of pyrethroids present in the cereals and rice consumed by an average Indian. In rats treated for 9 months, the spermatogenesis-associated genes Abp, Ar, Cd9, Dax1, Dazap1, Ddx3y, Gdnf, Gfra1, Grth, Inhb, Ovol1, P1, Plzf, Pygo2, Scf, Tgfb1, Tp1, Tp2, and Vim1 were downregulated in both LD and HD groups. In rats treated for 12 months Gdnf, Hsf2, Inhb, Tgfb1, Thy1, and Ybx2 expression was downregulated in both LD and HD groups. Steroidogenesis-associated genes 17-β-Hsd, Gata4, Hmgcr, Hmgcs1, Pde4b, and Tspo gene expression were reduced in both LD- and HD-treated groups treated for 9 months. In 12-month-treated rats, Creb1 expression decreased in both LD and HD groups. The epigenetic reprogramming-associated genes, Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, Hdac10, Hp1bp3, Kat3a Kat3b, Mch2ta, Ncoa7, and Sirt1 were downregulated in both HD and LD groups of 9-months-treated rats. In rats treated for 12 months, Hdac10, Mch2ta, Ncoa7, and Sirt1 messenger RNA levels decreased in both the HD and LD groups. Thus, we demonstrate that long-term exposure to a mixture of pyrethroids caused aberrations in the transcriptome of factors involved in sperm production and development.
Anandha R Ravula, Suresh Yenugu

1645 related Products with: Effect of long-term treatment with a mixture of pyrethroids on the expression of genes that govern male germ cell production in rats.

0.1 mg 100 ml.100 μg100 μg100ug Lyophilized100 µg1 kit100 μg1 mL

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#32914239   2020/09/10 To Up

Characterization of Grades of HPMCAS Spray Dried Dispersions of Itraconazole Based on Supersaturation Kinetics and Molecular Interactions Impacting Formulation Performance.

The objective was to characterize hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HMPCAS) grades L, M, and H to enhance itraconazole (ITZ) release and permeation from spray dried dispersions (SDDs), and to investigate underpinning molecular ITZ-HPMCAS interactions that differentiated grade performance.
Asmita Adhikari, James E Polli

1111 related Products with: Characterization of Grades of HPMCAS Spray Dried Dispersions of Itraconazole Based on Supersaturation Kinetics and Molecular Interactions Impacting Formulation Performance.

5 G 6 ml Ready-to-use 100ug 25 ml Ready-to-use 500 mg10 mg1 mgTwo 96-Well Microplate Ki1000 tests1 L.0.1 mg 2 ml Ready-to-use

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#32691307   // To Up

Publisher Correction: Increased expression and retention of the secretory chaperone proSAAS following cell stress.

Due to an unfortunate mistake during the production process, the last sentence of the second last paragraph of the Discussion section contains an error as the words 'increases' and 'decreased' were transposed.
Manita Shakya, Taha Yildirim, Iris Lindberg

1763 related Products with: Publisher Correction: Increased expression and retention of the secretory chaperone proSAAS following cell stress.

24 reactions 5 x 50 Pieces/case 1 kit100ug Lyophilized296 wells100.00 ug

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#32657440   2020/07/13 To Up

Altered expression of CYP17A1 and CYP19A1 in undescended testes of dogs with unilateral cryptorchidism.

Cryptorchidism is the most common disorder of sex development in dogs and testosterone plays a crucial role in the inguinal phase of the testes descending into the scrotum. The molecular background of impaired testosterone synthesis in the testes of cryptorchid dogs is poorly elucidated. In this study, we analyzed the expression of four genes involved in testicular steroidogenesis (CYP17A1, CYP19A1, HSD3B2 and HSD17B3) in undescended and contralateral scrotal testes from inguinal unilateral cryptorchid dogs (n = 13) and from the scrotal gonads of normal males (n = 15). We found that transcript level of CYP17A1 was significantly increased in inguinal gonads, while the level of CYP19A1 was decreased. For these two genes, we analyzed the methylation level of single CpG sites in the promoter region localized within putative target sites for testicular transcription factors (NUR77, CREB, CAR and HSF2). A correlation between decreased methylation in the promoter of CYP17A1 and its increased transcript level in undescended gonads was observed, but the change in protein level was not significant. We also resequenced the 5'-flanking region of both genes and two known polymorphic sites, SNP in CYP17A1 and an indel in CYP19A1, were found. However, the distribution of the variants in affected (n = 80) and control (n = 75) dogs was not associated with cryptorchidism. We tentatively conclude that the altered expression of CYP17A1 and CYP19A1 in undescended testes could be caused by their exposure to increased temperature in the body. Furthermore, we showed that the identified polymorphisms cannot be considered markers associated with a predisposition to cryptorchidism.
P Krzeminska, M Stachowiak, M Skrzypski, T Nowak, A Maslak, M Switonski

1418 related Products with: Altered expression of CYP17A1 and CYP19A1 in undescended testes of dogs with unilateral cryptorchidism.

5 G300 units100 μg100 μg5mg2 Pieces/Box100 μg

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