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#33632301   2021/02/25 To Up

Enhanced contextual fear memory in peroxiredoxin 6 knockout mice is associated with hyperactivation of MAPK signaling pathway.

Fear dysregulation is one of the symptoms found in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients. The functional abnormality of the hippocampus is known to be implicated in the development of such pathology. Peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) belongs to the peroxiredoxin family. This antioxidant enzyme is expressed throughout the brain, including the hippocampus. Recent evidence reveals that PRDX6 plays an important role in redox regulation and the modulation of several signaling molecules involved in fear regulation. Thus, we hypothesized that PRDX6 plays a role in the regulation of fear memory. We subjected a systemic Prdx6 knockout (Prdx6) mice to trace fear conditioning and observed enhanced fear response after training. Intraventricular injection of lentivirus-carried mouse Prdx6 into the 3rd ventricle reduced the enhanced fear response in these knockout mice. Proteomic analysis followed by validation of western blot analysis revealed that several proteins in the MAPK pathway, such as NTRK2, AKT, and phospho-ERK1/2, cPLA2 were significantly upregulated in the hippocampus of Prdx6 mice during the retrieval stage of contextual fear memory. The distribution of PRDX6 found in the astrocytes was also observed throughout the hippocampus. This study identifies PRDX6 as a participant in the regulation of fear response. It suggests that PRDX6 and related molecules may have important implications for understanding fear-dysregulation associated disorders like PTSD.
Sarayut Phasuk, Tanita Pairojana, Pavithra Suresh, Chee-Hing Yang, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Shun-Ping Huang, Chien-Chang Chen, Narawut Pakaprot, Supin Chompoopong, Sutisa Nudmamud-Thanoi, Ingrid Y Liu

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#33626953   // To Up

Expression of cPLAγ mRNA and protein differs the response of PBMC from severe and non-severe asthmatics to bacterial lipopolysaccharide and house dust mite allergen.

Chronic inflammation in asthmatics is initiated/exacerbated by many environmental factors, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide and allergens. Phospholipase A and histone acetyltransferase/deacetylases are enzymes involved in inflammatory process, particularly in lipid inflammatory mediators production and control of transcription of many inflammatory genes, respectively. The aim of the study was to identify differences in the inflammatory process in patients with severe and non-severe asthma, taking as a criterion expression of two groups of enzymes: phospholipases A and histone acetyltransferases/deacetylases. Thirty-two patients with severe, non-severe atopic to house dust mite asthmatics and 14 healthy volunteers were recruited. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with allergen (nDer p1) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The expression of phospholipases A and histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases were assessed using TaqMan Low Density Array Cards. The protein expression was analyzed with immunoblot. Increased expression of phospholipase A2 Group IVC ( and cytosolic phospholipase A2 gamma (cPLAγ) protein was observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from severe asthmatics in response to LPS and nDer p1, compared to non-severe asthmatics. nDer p1-stimulated PBMC from severe asthmatics exhibit induced expression of and similar trend was observed in protein concentration. Decreased expression of occurred in PBMC of severe asthmatics. PBMC from non-severe asthmatics showed decreased expression of and after LPS treatment. In conclusion, in response to LPS and dust mite allergen, PBMC from severe and non-severe asthmatics modulate expression of selected phospholipase A, histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases, while increased expression of cPLAγ characterizes PBMC response from severe asthmatics.
Ewa Pniewska-Dawidczyk, Izabela Kupryś-Lipińska, Gabriela Turek, Dorota Kacprzak, Joanna Wieczfinska, Paulina Kleniewska, Piotr Kuna, Rafal Pawliczak

2495 related Products with: Expression of cPLAγ mRNA and protein differs the response of PBMC from severe and non-severe asthmatics to bacterial lipopolysaccharide and house dust mite allergen.

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#33602886   // To Up

NOX4/Src regulates ANP secretion through activating ERK1/2 and Akt/GATA4 signaling in beating rat hypoxic atria.

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases (NOXs) are the major enzymatic source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). NOX2 and NOX4 are expressed in the heart but its role in hypoxia-induced atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion is unclear. This study investigated the effect of NOX on ANP secretion induced by hypoxia in isolated beating rat atria. The results showed that hypoxia significantly upregulated NOX4 but not NOX2 expression, which was completely abolished by endothelin-1 (ET-1) type A and B receptor antagonists BQ123 (0.3 µM) and BQ788 (0.3 µM). ET-1-upregulated NOX4 expression was also blocked by antagonists of secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2; varespladib, 5.0 µM) and cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2; CAY10650, 120.0 nM), and ET-1-induced cPLA2 expression was inhibited by varespladib under normoxia. Moreover, hypoxia-increased ANP secretion was evidently attenuated by the NOX4 antagonist GLX351322 (35.0 µM) and inhibitor of ROS N-Acetyl-D-cysteine (NAC, 15.0 mM), and hypoxia-increased production of ROS was blocked by GLX351322. In addition, hypoxia markedly upregulated Src expression, which was blocked by ET receptors, NOX4, and ROS antagonists. ET-1-increased Src expression was also inhibited by NAC under normoxia. Furthermore, hypoxiaactivated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and protein kinase B (Akt) were completely abolished by Src inhibitor 1 (1.0 µM), and hypoxia-increased GATA4 was inhibited by the ERK1/2 and Akt antagonists PD98059 (10.0 µM) and LY294002 (10.0 µM), respectively. However, hypoxia-induced ANP secretion was substantially inhibited by Src inhibitor. These results indicate that NOX4/Src modulated by ET-1 regulates ANP secretion by activating ERK1/2 and Akt/GATA4 signaling in isolated beating rat hypoxic atria.
Cheng-Zhe Wu, Xiang Li, Lan Hong, Zhuo-Na Han, Ying Liu, Cheng-Xi Wei, Xun Cui

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#33592322   2021/02/14 To Up

Role of arachidonic cascade in COVID-19 infection: A review.

The World Health Organization has described the 2019 Coronavirus disease caused by an influenza-like virus called SARS-CoV-2 as a pandemic. Millions of people worldwide are already infected by this virus, and severe infection causes hyper inflammation, thus disrupting lung function, exacerbating breath difficulties, and death. Various inflammatory mediators bio-synthesized through the arachidonic acid pathway play roles in developing cytokine storms, injuring virus-infected cells. Since pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, including prostaglandins, and leukotrienes, are key brokers for physiological processes such as inflammation, fever, allergy, and pain but, their function in COVID-19 is not well defined. This study addresses eicosanoid's crucial role through the arachidonic pathway in inflammatory cascading and recommends using bioactive lipids, NSAIDs, steroids, cell phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) inhibitors, and specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) to treat COVID-19 disease. The role of soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors (SEHIs) in promoting the activity of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and 17-hydroxide-docosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA) is also discussed. Additional research that assesses the eicosanoid profile in COVID-19 patients or preclinical models generates novel insights into coronavirus-host interaction and inflammation regulation.
Md Abdur Rahman Ripon, Dipty Rani Bhowmik, Mohammad Tohidul Amin, Mohammad Salim Hossain

2586 related Products with: Role of arachidonic cascade in COVID-19 infection: A review.

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#33569432   // To Up

Renal tubular injury induced by glyphosate combined with hard water: the role of cytosolic phospholipase A2.

The combined effects of glyphosate and hard water on chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CDKu) have attracted much interest, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Cytoplasmic phospholipase A (cPLA) plays a key role in the acute and chronic inflammatory reactions. This study explored the effect of glyphosate combined with hard water on renal tubules and the possible targets and mechanisms involved.
Ruojing Wang, Jing Chen, Fan Ding, Lin Zhang, Xuan Wu, Yi Wan, Jianying Hu, Xiaoyan Zhang, Qing Wu

1195 related Products with: Renal tubular injury induced by glyphosate combined with hard water: the role of cytosolic phospholipase A2.

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#33567524   2021/02/08 To Up

Protein Expression of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) is Upregulated in Brains with Alzheimer's Disease.

Alzheimer's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder and represents the main cause of dementia globally. Currently, the world is suffering from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a virus that uses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor to enter the host cells. In COVID-19, neurological manifestations have been reported to occur. The present study demonstrates that the protein expression level of ACE2 is upregulated in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease. The increased ACE2 expression is not age-dependent, suggesting the direct relationship between Alzheimer's disease and ACE2 expression. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, and brains with the disease examined in this study also exhibited higher carbonylated proteins, as well as an increased thiol oxidation state of peroxiredoxin 6 (Prx6). A moderate positive correlation was found between the increased ACE2 protein expression and oxidative stress in brains with Alzheimer's disease. In summary, the present study reveals the relationships between Alzheimer's disease and ACE2, the receptor for SARS-CoV-2. These results suggest the importance of carefully monitoring patients with both Alzheimer's disease and COVID-19 in order to identify higher viral loads in the brain and long-term adverse neurological consequences.
Qiyue Ding, Nataliia V Shults, Sergiy G Gychka, Brent T Harris, Yuichiro J Suzuki

2607 related Products with: Protein Expression of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) is Upregulated in Brains with Alzheimer's Disease.

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#33527851   2020/08/17 To Up

Organ function, sphingolipid levels and inflammation in tunicamycin induced endoplasmic reticulum stress in male rats.

Disorders of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lead to cellular damage but can cause cell death if ER dysfunction is prolonged. We aimed to examine liver/kidney functions, neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase) activity, sphingolipid levels, cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression in rats under ER stress. ER stress was induced by tunicamycin (TM) and the ER stress inhibitor taurodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) was injected before induction of ER stress. ER stress was confirmed by increased tissue levels of GRP78. Hematological and biochemical profiles were measured by autoanalyzers while hepatic and renal injury was evaluated via microscopy and histopathological scoring. Tissue levels of C16-C24 sphingomyelins (SM), C16-C24 ceramides (CERs) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) were determined by LC-MS/MS. Tissue cPLA2 and COX-2 were measured by western blot and activity assays. Tunicamycin treatment caused kidney and liver function test abnormalities, increased hematocrit and hemoglobin levels but decreased white blood cell counts. Histopathological findings showed hepatic necroinflammation and renal tubular damage in rats treated with TM. TUDCA administration attenuated WBC abnormalities and TM- induced hepatic/renal functional impairment in ER stress, as evident by significantly restored serum ALT, AST, creatinine, and total bilirubin levels. A significant increase was observed in N-SMase activity, tissue levels of C16-C24 CERs, cPLA2 and COX-2 expression in liver and kidney tissue under ER stress. TUDCA administration decreased tissue CER levels, cPLA2 and COX-2 expression as well as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) formation. These results signify that ER stress causes hepatic and renal toxicity as well as CER-induced PGE2 formation in liver and kidney.
Mutay Aslan, Özlem Elpek, Bahar Akkaya, Hazal Tuzcu Balaban, Ebru Afşar

2754 related Products with: Organ function, sphingolipid levels and inflammation in tunicamycin induced endoplasmic reticulum stress in male rats.

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#33504425   // To Up

Effects of progesterone on the lipolysis of lipid droplets and prostaglandin E synthesis in murine cervical epithelial cells.

Previous studies demonstrated that progesterone (P4) can promote prostaglandin (PG) E2 production; however, how P4 mediates the synthesis of PGE2 remains unclear. In this study, cervical epithelial cells from mice during the follicular phase were cultured invitro and treated with different concentrations of P4 (5, 10, and 20nM). The results of the present study suggest that treatment of murine cervical epithelial cells with 10nM P4 for 24h contributed to: (1) significantly increased expression of protein kinase A (PKA), cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and PGE synthase (PGES)-1; (2) higher phosphorylated (p-) to total extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) ratios; (3) a significant decrease in the number of lipid droplets (LDs) and fatty acid content within LDs in epithelial cells; and (4) enhanced arachidonic acid and PGE2 levels in cells compared with the control (0nM P4) group (P<0.01 for all findings). In contrast, the PKA inhibitor H89 contributed to significantly decreased cPLA2, PGES-1 and HSL expression, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and arachidonic acid and PGE2 levels, even in the presence of P4. These data show that P4 can act via the PKA/ERK1/2 pathway to stimulate lipolysis of triacylglycerol in the LD core and degradation of phospholipid in the LD membrane to promote PGE2 synthesis in murine cervical epithelial cells.
Hongyan Zhang, Feng Su, Libo Huang, Boyu Li, Xuejun Yuan, Mingjiu Luo, Lijiang Ge

1597 related Products with: Effects of progesterone on the lipolysis of lipid droplets and prostaglandin E synthesis in murine cervical epithelial cells.

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#33496060   2021/01/25 To Up

Targeting cyclooxygenase enzyme for the adjuvant COVID-19 therapy.

Despite vigorous efforts, the COVID-19 pandemic continues to take a toll on the global health. The contemporary therapeutic regime focused on the viral spike proteins, viral 3CL protease enzyme, immunomodulation, inhibition of viral replication, and providing a symptomatic relief encouraged the repurposing of drugs to meet the urgency of treatment. Similarly, the representative drugs that proved beneficial to alleviate SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV, HIV, ZIKV, H1N1, and malarial infection in the past presented a sturdy candidature for ameliorating the COVID-19 therapeutic doctrine. However, most of the deliberations for developing effective pharmaceuticals proved inconsequential, thereby encouraging the identification of new pathways, and novel pharmaceuticals for capping the COVID-19 infection. The COVID-19 contagion encompasses a burst release of the cytokines that increase the severity of the infection mainly due to heightened immunopathogenicity. The pro-inflammatory metabolites, COX-2, cPLA2, and 5-LOX enzymes involved in their generation, and the substrates that instigate the origination of the innate inflammatory response therefore play an important role in intensifying and worsening of the tissue morbidity related to the coronavirus infection. The deployment of representative drugs for inhibiting these overexpressed immunogenic pathways in the tissues invaded by coronaviruses has been a matter of debate since the inception of the pandemic. The effectiveness of NSAIDs such as Aspirin, Indomethacin, Diclofenac, and Celecoxib in COVID-19 coagulopathy, discouraging the SARS viral replication, the inflammasome deactivation, and synergistic inhibition of H5N1 viral infection with representative antiviral drugs respectively, have provided a silver lining in adjuvant COVID-19 therapy. Since the anti-inflammatory NSAIDs and COXIBs mainly function by reversing the COX-2 overexpression to modulate the overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, these drugs present a robust treatment option for COVID-19 infection. This commentary succinctly highlights the various claims that support the status of immunomodulatory NSAIDs, and COXIBs in the adjuvant COVID-19 therapy.
Parteek Prasher, Mousmee Sharma, Ravi Gunupuru

2379 related Products with: Targeting cyclooxygenase enzyme for the adjuvant COVID-19 therapy.

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#33479150   // To Up

Convergent evolution of pain-inducing defensive venom components in spitting cobras.

Convergent evolution provides insights into the selective drivers underlying evolutionary change. Snake venoms, with a direct genetic basis and clearly defined functional phenotype, provide a model system for exploring the repeated evolution of adaptations. While snakes use venom primarily for predation, and venom composition often reflects diet specificity, three lineages of cobras have independently evolved the ability to spit venom at adversaries. Using gene, protein, and functional analyses, we show that the three spitting lineages possess venoms characterized by an up-regulation of phospholipase A (PLA) toxins, which potentiate the action of preexisting venom cytotoxins to activate mammalian sensory neurons and cause enhanced pain. These repeated independent changes provide a fascinating example of convergent evolution across multiple phenotypic levels driven by selection for defense.
T D Kazandjian, D Petras, S D Robinson, J van Thiel, H W Greene, K Arbuckle, A Barlow, D A Carter, R M Wouters, G Whiteley, S C Wagstaff, A S Arias, L-O Albulescu, A Plettenberg Laing, C Hall, A Heap, S Penrhyn-Lowe, C V McCabe, S Ainsworth, R R da Silva, P C Dorrestein, M K Richardson, J M Gutiérrez, J J Calvete, R A Harrison, I Vetter, E A B Undheim, W Wüster, N R Casewell

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