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#33610611   2021/02/18 To Up

Vipers of Major Clinical Relevance in Europe: Taxonomy, Venom Composition, Toxicology and Clinical Management of Human Bites.

Snakebites in Europe are mostly due to bites from Viperidae species of the genus Vipera. This represents a neglected public health hazard with poorly defined incidence, morbidity and mortality. In Europe, fourteen species of "true vipers" (subfamily Viperinae) are present, eleven of which belong to the genus Vipera. Amongst these, the main medically relevant species due to their greater diffusion across Europe and the highest number of registered snakebites are six, namely: Vipera ammodytes, V. aspis, V. berus, V. latastei, V. seoanei and V. ursinii. Generally speaking, viper venom composition is characterised by many different toxin families, like phospholipases A2, snake venom serine proteases, snake venom metalloproteases, cysteine-rich secretory proteins, C-type lectins, disintegrins, haemorrhagic factors and coagulation inhibitors. A suspected snakebite is often associated with severe pain, erythema, oedema and, subsequently, the onset of an ecchymotic area around one or two visible fang marks. In the field, the affected limb should be immobilised and mildly compressed with a bandage, which can then be removed once the patient is being treated in hospital. The clinician should advise the patient to remain calm to reduce blood circulation and, therefore, decrease the spread of the toxins. In the case of pain, an analgesic therapy can be administered, the affected area can be treated with hydrogen peroxide or clean water. However, anti-inflammatory drugs and disinfection with alcohol or alcoholic substances should be avoided. For each patient, clinical chemistry and ECG are always a pre-requisite as well as the evaluation of the tetanus immunisation status and for which immunisation may be provided if needed. The treatment of any clinical complication, due to the envenomation, does not differ from treatments of emergency nature. Antivenom is recommended when signs of systemic envenomation exist or in case of advanced local or systemic progressive symptoms. Recommendations for future work concludes. The aim of this review is to support clinicians for the clinical management of viper envenomation, through taxonomic keys for main species identification, description of venom composition and mode of action of known toxins and provide a standardised clinical protocol and antivenom administration.
Matteo R Di Nicola, Andrea Pontara, George E N Kass, Nynke I Kramer, Ignazio Avella, Riccardo Pampena, Santo Raffaele Mercuri, Jean Lou C M Dorne, Giovanni Paolino

1109 related Products with: Vipers of Major Clinical Relevance in Europe: Taxonomy, Venom Composition, Toxicology and Clinical Management of Human Bites.



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#33602886   // To Up

NOX4/Src regulates ANP secretion through activating ERK1/2 and Akt/GATA4 signaling in beating rat hypoxic atria.

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Cheng-Zhe Wu, Xiang Li, Lan Hong, Zhuo-Na Han, Ying Liu, Cheng-Xi Wei, Xun Cui

1630 related Products with: NOX4/Src regulates ANP secretion through activating ERK1/2 and Akt/GATA4 signaling in beating rat hypoxic atria.

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#33534139   2021/02/03 To Up

Identification, expression, and enzyme activity of the group III sPLA s in Cyprinus carpio L.

Five group III secreted phospholipase (pla2g3s) homologous genes located on different linkage groups were identified from common carp (Cyprinus carpio), which we named Ccpla2g3a1, Ccpla2g3a2, Ccpla2g3b, Ccpla2g3c1, and Ccpla2g3c2. The five genes encode 530, 525, 461, 752, 753 amino acids, respectively. Sequence analysis showed that the Ccpla2g3as contain seven exons, and the others contain four exons. Synteny analysis of fish pla2g3s indicated that pla2g3a and pla2g3b were from the same ancestor gene, and Ccpla2g3a1, Ccpla2g3a2, Ccpla2g3c1, and Ccpla2g3c2 were from the specific genome duplication of common carp. Due to the significant variation of the pla2g3bs from common carp and zebrafish (Danio rerio), they formed a separate group in the phylogenetic tree. The tissue distributions of Ccpla2g3s coincided with their expression profiles during the embryo stages. The expression levels of Ccpla2g3as and Ccpla2g3cs were low at the embryo stages, and they were abundant in the liver and brain, respectively, whereas the expression of Ccpla2g3b was high at 0.5 h after fertilization and in the ovary. We obtained three soluble recombinant proteins of the bee venom-like PLA2 (BVLP) from Ccpla2g3 and evaluated their PLA enzyme properties. The optimum pH of MBP-a1-BVLP, MBP-b-BVLP, and MBP-c1-BVLP were 7.5, 7.0, and 8.0, respectively, and specific activities were 7.68 ± 0.66, 4.155 ± 0.158, and 1.93 ± 0.05 U·μmol , respectively. The K for Ca of MBP-b-BVLP was the lowest (2.6 μM), whereas the values for both MBP-a1-BVLP and MBP-c1-BVLP were about 15 μM. The Km values of three proteins ranged from 31.9 to 41.91 μM. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Yuxin Xu, Hongxia Li, Dihui Xu, Jianlin Li, Fan Yu, Meiyao Wang, Qin Wang, Yunsheng Wu, Qiyuan Zhang, Yongkai Tang, Juhua Yu

2747 related Products with: Identification, expression, and enzyme activity of the group III sPLA s in Cyprinus carpio L.

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#33533300   2021/02/03 To Up

Exercise-Induced Alterations in Phospholipid Hydrolysis, Airway Surfactant and Eicosanoids and their Role in Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Asthma.

The mechanisms responsible for driving endogenous airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in the form of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) are not fully understood. We examined alterations in airway phospholipid hydrolysis, surfactant degradation, and lipid mediator release in relation to AHR severity and changes induced by exercise challenge. Paired induced sputum (n=18) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid (n=11) were obtained before and after exercise challenge in asthmatic subjects. Samples were analyzed for phospholipid structure, surfactant function and levels of eicosanoid and secreted phospholipase A group 10 (sPLA-X). A primary epithelial cell culture model was used to model effects of osmotic stress on sPLA-X. Exercise challenge resulted in increased surfactant degradation, phospholipase activity, and eicosanoid production in sputum samples of all patients. Subjects with EIB had higher levels of surfactant degradation and phospholipase activity in BAL fluid. Higher basal sputum levels of cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) and prostaglandin D (PGD) were associated with direct AHR and both the post-exercise and absolute change in CysLTs and PGD levels were associated with EIB severity. Surfactant function was either abnormal at baseline or became abnormal after exercise challenge. Baseline levels of sPLA-X in sputum and the absolute change in amount of sPLA-X with exercise were positively correlated with EIB severity. Osmotic stress ex vivo resulted in movement of water and release of sPLA-X to the apical surface. In summary, exercise challenge promotes changes in phospholipid structure and eicosanoid release in asthma, providing two mechanisms that promote bronchoconstriction, particularly in individuals with EIB who have higher basal levels phospholipid turnover.
Ryan Conrad Murphy, Ying Lai, James D Nolin, Robier A Aguillon Prada, Arindam Chakrabarti, Michael V Novotny, Michael C Seeds, William Altemeier, Michael H Gelb, Robert Duncan Hite, Teal S Hallstrand

1925 related Products with: Exercise-Induced Alterations in Phospholipid Hydrolysis, Airway Surfactant and Eicosanoids and their Role in Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Asthma.

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#33529631   2021/01/30 To Up

Structural, enzymatic and pharmacological profiles of AplTX-II - A basic sPLA (D49) isolated from the Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma snake venom.

A basic sPLA (D49) from the venom of snake Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma (AplTX-II) was isolated, purified and characterized. We determined the enzymatic and pharmacological profiles of this toxin. AplTX-II was isolated with a high level of purity through reverse phase chromatography and molecular exclusion. The enzyme showed pI 9.48 and molecular weight of 14,003 Da. The enzymatic activity of the AplTX-II depended on Ca pH and temperature. The comparison of the primary structure with other sPLAs revealed that AplTX-II presented all the structural reasons expected for a basic sPLAs. Additionally, we have resolved its structure with the docked synthetic substrate NOBA (4-nitro-3-octanoyloxy benzoic acid) by homology modeling, and performed MD simulations with explicit solvent. Structural similarities were found between the enzyme's modeled structure and other snake sPLA X-Ray structures, available in the PDB database. NOBA and active-site water molecules spontaneously adopted stable positions and established interactions in full agreement with the reaction mechanism, proposed for the physiological substrate, suggesting that NOBA hydrolysis is an excellent model to study phospholipid hydrolysis.
Letícia M Resende, José R Almeida, Tatiana A Guaraca-Medina, Matilde F Viegas, Andreimar M Soares, Maria J Ramos, Pedro A Fernandes, Sergio Marangoni, Saulo L Da Silva

1899 related Products with: Structural, enzymatic and pharmacological profiles of AplTX-II - A basic sPLA (D49) isolated from the Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma snake venom.

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#33436717   2021/01/12 To Up

UV-C mediated accumulation of pharmacologically significant phytochemicals under light regimes in in vitro culture of Fagonia indica (L.).

Fagonia indica (L.) is an important medicinal plant with multitude of therapeutic potentials. Such application has been attributed to the presence of various pharmacological important phytochemicals. However, the inadequate biosynthesis of such metabolites in intact plants has hampered scalable production. Thus, herein, we have established an in vitro based elicitation strategy to enhance such metabolites in callus culture of F. indica. Cultures were exposed to various doses of UV radiation (UV-C) and grown in different photoperiod regimes and their impact was evaluated on biomass accumulation, biosynthesis of phytochemicals along antioxidant expression. Cultures grown under photoperiod (16L/8D h) after exposure to UV-C (5.4 kJ/m) accumulated optimal biomass (438.3 g/L FW; 16.4 g/L DW), phenolics contents (TPC: 11.8 μgGAE/mg) and flavonoids contents (TFC: 4.05 μgQE/mg). Similarly, HPLC quantification revealed that total production (6.967 μg/mg DW) of phytochemicals wherein kaempferol (1.377 μg/mg DW), apigenin (1.057 μg/mg DW), myricetin (1.022 μg/mg DW) and isorhamnetin (1.022 μg/mg DW) were recorded highly accumulated compounds in cultures at UV-C (5.4 kJ/m) dose than other UV-C radiations and light regimes.. The antioxidants activities examined as DPPH (92.8%), FRAP (182.3 µM TEAC) and ABTS (489.1 µM TEAC) were also recorded highly expressed by cultures under photoperiod after treatment with UV-C dose 5.4 kJ/m. Moreover, same cultures also expressed maximum % inhibition towards phospholipase A2 (sPLA2: 35.8%), lipoxygenase (15-LOX: 43.3%) and cyclooxygenases (COX-1: 55.3% and COX-2: 39.9%) with 1.0-, 1.3-, 1.3- and 2.8-fold increased levels as compared with control, respectively. Hence, findings suggest that light and UV can synergistically improve the metabolism of F. indica and could be used to produce such valuable metabolites on commercial scale.
Bilal Haider Abbasi, Taimoor Khan, Razia Khurshid, Muhammad Nadeem, Samantha Drouet, Christophe Hano

1859 related Products with: UV-C mediated accumulation of pharmacologically significant phytochemicals under light regimes in in vitro culture of Fagonia indica (L.).

1 L.100 ml.300 units4/120 Packing /sleeve/bo25 ml.50 ug4/120 Packing /sleeve/bo4/120 Packing /sleeve/bo96 testscase

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#33319738   2020/12/14 To Up

Circulating Secretory Phospholipase A2 Activity following Snakebites and Its Relationship with Envenomation Status and Progression of Local Swelling.

We studied whether circulating secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) activity reliably distinguished patients with snakebite envenomation from those with nonvenomous/dry snakebites, and whether patients with progressive local swelling had persistence of circulating sPLA2 activity despite antivenom treatment. We prospectively enrolled adults presenting to the emergency with a history of snakebite in the past 24 hours. We estimated circulating sPLA2 activity at baseline before antivenom administration and after 48 hours in those with envenomation. We enrolled 52 patients with snakebites (mean age 39.3 ± 12.6 years; 35 [67%] men), and 16 patients with infective cellulitis as controls. Thirty patients had local ± systemic envenomation; 15 were classified as dry/nonvenomous bites; and envenomation status was unclear in seven patients. Baseline sPLA2 activity was significantly higher in snakebite patients than that in those with infective cellulitis (4.64 [3.38-5.91] versus 3.38 [1.69-4.01] nmol/minute/mL; = 0.005). Among patients with snakebites, sPLA2 activity in the highest quartile was significantly associated with envenomation (12 of 27 versus two of 22; = 0.010). However, median sPLA2 activity did not differ significantly between patients with envenomation and the rest. Baseline sPLA2 activity was significantly associated with the maximum extent of limb swelling ( = 0.031 for trend). In envenomed patients, circulating sPLA2 activity significantly decreased after 48 hours compared with the baseline (5.49 [3.38-8.86] versus 3.38 [2.53-4.64]; = 0.003) including those with progressive swelling. Although circulating sPLA2 activity was elevated following snakebites, its sensitivity to diagnose envenomation appears to be limited. Administration of more antivenom after systemic manifestations had reversed might not benefit patients with progressive local swelling.
Akinchan Bhardwaj, Rajaa Muthu, Rajendiran Soundravally, Agieshkumar Balakrishna Pillai, Chanaveerappa Bammigatti, Tamilarasu Kadhiravan

2054 related Products with: Circulating Secretory Phospholipase A2 Activity following Snakebites and Its Relationship with Envenomation Status and Progression of Local Swelling.

5 G1 ml 5 G100ul25 mg50 ug 96 wells (1 kit)100ug1 g100 mg100tests100ul

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