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#33193126   2020/10/22 To Up

Calcineurin Regulates Conidiation, Chlamydospore Formation and Virulence in f. sp. .

Fusarium wilt of tomato caused by the ascomycetous fungus f. sp. () is widespread in most tomato planting areas. Calcineurin is a heterodimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase comprised of catalytic (Cna1) and regulatory (Cnb1) subunits. Calcineurin has been studied extensively in human fungal pathogens, but less is known about its roles in plant fungal pathogens. It is known that calcineurin regulates fungal calcium signaling, growth, drug tolerance, and virulence. However, the roles of calcineurin in have not yet been characterized. In this study, we deleted calcineurin and genes to characterize their roles in conidiation, chlamydospore formation and virulence in . Our results revealed that both and mutants show defects in calcineurin phosphatase activity, vegetative growth and conidiation as compared to the wild type. Furthermore, calcineurin mutants exhibited blunted and swollen hyphae as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Interestingly, we found that calcineurin is critical for chlamydospore formation, a function of calcineurin previously undocumented in the fungal kingdom. According to transcriptome analysis, the expression of 323 and 414 genes was up- and down-regulated, respectively, in both and mutants. Based on the pathogen infection assay, tomato plants inoculated with or mutant have a dramatic reduction in disease severity, indicating that calcineurin has a vital role in virulence. In conclusion, our findings suggest that calcineurin is required, at least in part, for phosphatase activity, vegetative growth, conidiation, chlamydospore formation, and virulence.
Yi-Hsuan Hou, Li-Hang Hsu, Hsuan-Fu Wang, Yu-Hsin Lai, Ying-Lien Chen

1609 related Products with: Calcineurin Regulates Conidiation, Chlamydospore Formation and Virulence in f. sp. .

200 10 100 μg250ul100 μg1 mg100 μg100 μg100 ug50 100 assays2000 Units

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#32931913   2020/09/12 To Up

Antifungal polybrominated proxyphylline derivative induces Candida albicans calcineurin stress response in Galleria mellonella.

Candida albicans CNB1 plays a role in the response in vitro and in vivo to stress generated by PB-WUT-01, namely 1,3-dimethyl-7-(2-((1-(3-(perbromo-2H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazol-2-yl)propyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methoxy)propyl)-1H-purine-2,6(3H,7H)-dione. The antifungal mechanism involved the calcineurin pathway-regulated genes SAP9-10. Galleria mellonella treated with PB-WUT-01 (at 0.64 µg/mg) showed limited candidiasis and remained within the highest survival rates. The molecular mode of action of PB-WUT-01 was rationalized by in silico docking studies toward both human and C. albicans calcineurin A (CNA) and calcineurin B (CNB) complexes, respectively. PB-WUT-01 acting as a calcineurin inhibitor in the C. albicans cells enhances the cells' susceptibility. Therefore it could be a suitable alternative treatment in patients with candidiasis.
Małgorzata Gizińska, Anna Staniszewska, Michalina Kazek, Mirosława Koronkiewicz, Łukasz Kuryk, Małgorzata Milner-Krawczyk, Joanna Baran, Paweł Borowiecki, Monika Staniszewska

1501 related Products with: Antifungal polybrominated proxyphylline derivative induces Candida albicans calcineurin stress response in Galleria mellonella.

100 UG1 mL1 mL1 mL96T1 mg96T100 ug100.00 ug100 μg100

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#32882262   2020/08/31 To Up

The CnB1 p.D102A variant is linked to dilated cardiomyopathy via impaired Calcineurin activity.

The role of calcineurin (protein phosphatase 2B (PP2B)) in the pathogenesis of human dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) has not been fully elucidated. We determined the potential involvement of calcineurin in the pathogenesis of DCM caused by mutations in CnB1, a subunit of calcineurin.
M D Jinqiang Zhuang, M D Ruijun Yuan, M D Yizeng, M D Congliang Miao, M D Dandan Zhou, M D Anli Na, M D Xinying Yang, M D Hui Xu, Jiang Hong

2422 related Products with: The CnB1 p.D102A variant is linked to dilated cardiomyopathy via impaired Calcineurin activity.

0.1ml (1.3mg/ml)100ug/vial200 ug100 assays100 ug200 ug1 kit100 ug200 ug100 ug1 mg

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#32445858   2020/05/20 To Up

The Protective Effects of Calcineurin on Pancreatitis in Mice Depend on the Cellular Source.

Calcineurin is a ubiquitously expressed central Ca-responsive signaling molecule that mediates acute pancreatitis, but little is known about its effects. We compared the effects of calcineurin expression by hematopoietic cells vs pancreas in mouse models of pancreatitis and pancreatitis-associated lung inflammation.
Li Wen, Tanveer A Javed, Andrea K Dobbs, Rebecca Brown, Mengya Niu, Liwen Li, Asna Khalid, Monique T Barakat, Xiangwei Xiao, Dean Yimlamai, Liza Konnikova, Mang Yu, Craig A Byersdorfer, Sohail Z Husain

1869 related Products with: The Protective Effects of Calcineurin on Pancreatitis in Mice Depend on the Cellular Source.

100ul1 100ul100ug

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#31417135   2019/08/15 To Up

The regulation of the sulfur amino acid biosynthetic pathway in Cryptococcus neoformans: the relationship of Cys3, Calcineurin, and Gpp2 phosphatases.

Cryptococcosis is a fungal disease caused by C. neoformans. To adapt and survive in diverse ecological niches, including the animal host, this opportunistic pathogen relies on its ability to uptake nutrients, such as carbon, nitrogen, iron, phosphate, sulfur, and amino acids. Genetic circuits play a role in the response to environmental changes, modulating gene expression and adjusting the microbial metabolism to the nutrients available for the best energy usage and survival. We studied the sulfur amino acid biosynthesis and its implications on C. neoformans biology and virulence. CNAG_04798 encodes a BZip protein and was annotated as CYS3, which has been considered an essential gene. However, we demonstrated that CYS3 is not essential, in fact, its knockout led to sulfur amino acids auxotroph. Western blots and fluorescence microscopy indicated that GFP-Cys3, which is expressed from a constitutive promoter, localizes to the nucleus in rich medium (YEPD); the addition of methionine and cysteine as sole nitrogen source (SD-N + Met/Cys) led to reduced nuclear localization and protein degradation. By proteomics, we identified and confirmed physical interaction among Gpp2, Cna1, Cnb1 and GFP-Cys3. Deletion of the calcineurin and GPP2 genes in a GFP-Cys3 background demonstrated that calcineurin is required to maintain Cys3 high protein levels in YEPD and that deletion of GPP2 causes GFP-Cys3 to persist in the presence of sulfur amino acids. Global transcriptional profile of mutant and wild type by RNAseq revealed that Cys3 controls all branches of the sulfur amino acid biosynthesis, and sulfur starvation leads to induction of several amino acid biosynthetic routes. In addition, we found that Cys3 is required for virulence in Galleria mellonella animal model.
Amanda Teixeira de Melo, Kevin Felipe Martho, Thiago Nunes Roberto, Erika S Nishiduka, Joel Machado, Otávio J B Brustolini, Alexandre K Tashima, Ana Tereza Vasconcelos, Marcelo A Vallim, Renata C Pascon

1522 related Products with: The regulation of the sulfur amino acid biosynthetic pathway in Cryptococcus neoformans: the relationship of Cys3, Calcineurin, and Gpp2 phosphatases.

1500 Units 100 G

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#30985728   // To Up

Calcineurin B1 subunit in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and its role in idiopathic membranous nephropathy.

The immune responses involved in the pathogenesis of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) have not been fully understood. Calcineurin, a key signaling enzyme in T-cell activation, may be implicated in IMN. The present study aimed to investigate the role of calcineurin B1 subunit (CnB1) in IMN and the potential mechanism.A total of 59 biopsy-proven IMN patients and 28 healthy controls were recruited. The CnB1 expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was assessed by Western blotting. Knockdown and overexpression of CnB1 in Jurkat T cell line were achieved by small interference RNA (siRNA) transfection and lentiviral transduction, respectively.It was found that PBMCs CnB1 expression was significantly increased in IMN patients (P = .002), but unrelated to the severity and prognosis of IMN. Knockdown of CnB1 in Jurkat cells inhibited the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)-regulated gene expression required for T-cell activation.Our study suggested the potential role of CnB1 in the occurrence of IMN. The mechanism maybe involved the effect of CnB1 on the T-cell activation mediated by calcineurin-NFAT signaling.
Ying Zhu, Min Zhang, Fan Wang, Jing Sun, Jianda Lu, Ruiying Chen, Qionghong Xie, Jun Xue, Chuanming Hao, Shanyan Lin

2824 related Products with: Calcineurin B1 subunit in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and its role in idiopathic membranous nephropathy.

100 UG 100ul1.00 flask96 wells (1 kit)1.00 flask1 mg50ul10 ug1.00 flask1.00 flask0.1 mg100 μg

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#30905147   2019/03/29 To Up

Bowl-Shaped Carbon Nanobelts Showing Size-Dependent Properties and Selective Encapsulation of C.

The synthesis of carbon nanobelts (CNBs) with well-defined size and structure remains a challenging topic in nanocarbon chemistry and materials science. Herein, we report the synthesis, physical characterization, and supramolecular properties of two fully conjugated bowl-shaped CNBs (CNB1/CNB2), in which six/eight cyclopenta-rings are fused onto a macrocycle containing three/four alternately linked 2,7-pyrenyl and 2,7-phenanthryl units. The existence of five-membered rings results in a bowl-shaped geometry, as revealed by X-ray crystallographic analysis and density functional theory calculations. Both molecules contain an alternate aromatic phenanthrene- co-quinoidal pyrene structure to satisfy Clar's aromatic sextet rule. The smaller size CNB1 has a deeper bowl depth ( d = 4.997 Å) than CNB2 ( d = 3.682 Å) and cannot undergo bowl-to-bowl (BTB) inversion below 373 K in toluene. However, the larger size CNB2 shows a smaller BTB inversion barrier (∼12 kcal/mol) at the coalescent temperature (248 K), which was estimated by variable-temperature NMR measurements. Both compounds exhibit a small energy gap and amphoteric redox behavior with multiple redox waves. The dications of CBN1 and CBN2, and the tetracation of CBN2, are experimentally accessible by chemical oxidation with NO·SbF, all displaying unusual open-shell singlet diradical character with a small singlet-triplet energy gap (Δ E = -2.71 kcal/mol for CBN1, -2.50 kcal/mol for CBN2, and -2.00 kcal/mol for CBN2). The dications are globally aromatic while the tetracations are globally antiaromatic according to NMR measurements and theoretical calculations (anisotropy of the induced current density, nucleus independent chemical shift, and 2D isochemical shielding surface). The small bowl-shaped CNB1 demonstrates selective encapsulation of fullerene C over C, with a large association constant ( K = 8.066 × 10 M in toluene). However, the larger size CNB2 does not exhibit any encapsulation with both C and C.
Xuefeng Lu, Tullimilli Y Gopalakrishna, Yi Han, Yong Ni, Ya Zou, Jishan Wu

1552 related Products with: Bowl-Shaped Carbon Nanobelts Showing Size-Dependent Properties and Selective Encapsulation of C.

100ul5 mg25.00 nmol0.1mg 25 MG1000 100ul250ul100ug 1KG100ug Lyophilized25 mg

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#30717454   2019/02/03 To Up

In Vitro Anti-Biofilm Activities of Citral and Thymol Against Candida Tropicalis.

is an emerging non- species which is pathogenic to the immune-compromised humans, especially in tropical countries, including India. The acquired resistance of species towards antifungal therapies is of major concern. Moreover, limited efficacy and dosage constraint of synthetic drugs have indicated the prerequisite of finding new and natural drugs for treatment. In the present study, we have compared the influence of citral and thymol on and its biofilm along with expression levels of certain antifungal tolerance genes. The antifungal and anti-biofilm activities of the both were studied using 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide sodium salt (XTT) reduction assay, field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Citral and thymol have damaged the cells with distorted surface and less viability. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed augmented expression of the cell membrane biosynthesis genes including / against citral and the cell wall related tolerance genes involving against thymol thus, depicting their differential mode of actions.
Apurva Chatrath, Rashmi Gangwar, Poonam Kumari, Ramasare Prasad

2622 related Products with: In Vitro Anti-Biofilm Activities of Citral and Thymol Against Candida Tropicalis.

100 μg100ug100 μg100 μg100ug100 μg100ug100 μg1 ml

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#30665402   2019/01/21 To Up

The protein kinase Cmk2 negatively regulates the calcium/calcineurin signalling pathway and expression of calcium pump genes PMR1 and PMC1 in budding yeast.

Through a genome-wide screen we have identified calcium-tolerant deletion mutants for five genes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In addition to CNB1 and RCN1 that are known to play a role in the calcium signalling pathway, the protein kinase gene CMK2, the sphingolipid homeostasis-related gene ORM2 and the gene SIF2 encoding the WD40 repeat-containing subunit of Set3C histone deacetylase complex are involved in the calcium sensitivity of yeast cells to extracellular calcium. Cmk2 and the transcription factor Crz1 have opposite functions in the response of yeast cells to calcium stress. Deletion of CMK2 elevates the level of calcium/calcineurin signalling and increases the expression level of PMR1 and PMC1, which is dependent on Crz1. Effects of Cmk2 on calcium sensitivity and calcium/calcineurin signalling are dependent on its kinase activity. Therefore, Cmk2 is a negative feedback controller of the calcium/calcineurin signalling pathway. Furthermore, the cmk2 crz1 double deletion mutant is more resistant than the crz1 deletion mutant, suggesting that Cmk2 has an additional Crz1-independent role in promoting calcium tolerance.
Huihui Xu, Tianshu Fang, Hongbo Yan, Linghuo Jiang

1305 related Products with: The protein kinase Cmk2 negatively regulates the calcium/calcineurin signalling pathway and expression of calcium pump genes PMR1 and PMC1 in budding yeast.

96T7 inhibitors100ul11000 TESTS/0.65ml0.05 mg

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#29735720   2018/05/07 To Up

Calcineurin Regulatory Subunit Calcium-Binding Domains Differentially Contribute to Calcineurin Signaling in .

The protein phosphatase calcineurin is central to Ca signaling pathways from yeast to humans. Full activation of calcineurin requires Ca binding to the regulatory subunit CNB, comprised of four Ca-binding EF hand domains, and recruitment of Ca-calmodulin. Here we report the consequences of disrupting Ca binding to individual Cnb1 EF hand domains on calcineurin function in Calcineurin activity was monitored via quantitation of the calcineurin-dependent reporter gene, -lacZ, and calcineurin-dependent growth under conditions of environmental stress. Mutation of EF2 dramatically reduced -lacZ expression and failed to support calcineurin-dependent growth. In contrast, Ca binding to EF4 was largely dispensable for calcineurin function. Mutation of EF1 and EF3 exerted intermediate phenotypes. Reduced activity of EF1, EF2, or EF3 mutant calcineurin was also observed in yeast lacking functional calmodulin and could not be rescued by expression of a truncated catalytic subunit lacking the C-terminal autoinhibitory domain either alone or in conjunction with the calmodulin binding and autoinhibitory segment domains. Ca binding to EF1, EF2, and EF3 in response to intracellular Ca signals therefore has functions in phosphatase activation beyond calmodulin recruitment and displacement of known autoinhibitory domains. Disruption of Ca binding to EF1, EF2, or EF3 reduced Ca responsiveness of calcineurin, but increased the sensitivity of calcineurin to immunophilin-immunosuppressant inhibition. Mutation of EF2 also increased the susceptibility of calcineurin to hydrogen peroxide inactivation. Our observations indicate that distinct Cnb1 EF hand domains differentially affect calcineurin function , and that EF4 is not essential despite conservation across taxa.
Sean Connolly, Devona Quasi-Woode, Laura Waldron, Christian Eberly, Kerri Waters, Eric M Muller, Tami J Kingsbury

2839 related Products with: Calcineurin Regulatory Subunit Calcium-Binding Domains Differentially Contribute to Calcineurin Signaling in .

0.05 mg500 gm.50 ug1 mg48 assays100 250ul100 12 Pieces/Box10

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