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#33223507   2020/11/20 To Up

SRT2183 impairs ovarian cancer by facilitating autophagy.

The 5-year survival rate of ovarian cancer patients is only 47%, and developing novel drugs for ovarian cancer is needed. Herein, we evaluated if and how SRT2183, a sirtuin-1 activator, impairs the ovarian cancer cells. OVCAR-3 and A2780 cells were treated with SRT2183. Cell viability was measured by cell counting kit-8 assay and clonogenic assay. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry with Annexin V and propidium iodide. The level of autophagy was evaluated by western blot and immunofluorescence. The activities of AKT/mTOR/70s6k and MAPK signaling pathway were measured by immunoblot. SRT2183 inhibited the growth of ovarian cancer cells, increased the accumulation of BAX, cleaved-caspase 3 and cleaved-PARP, and decreased the level of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Mcl-1. SRT2183 increased the LC3II level, and enhanced the degradation of p62/SQSTM1. SRT2183 increased the formation of GFP-LC3 puncta and induced the maturation of autophagosome. Interestingly, knockdown of autophagy related 5 and 7 significantly impaired the anti-carcinoma activity of SRT2183, implying that SRT2183 impaired the ovarian cancer cells by inducing autophagy. SRT2183 decreased the accumulation of p-Akt, p-mTOR and p-70s6k, and activated the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. This indicated that Akt/mTOR/70s6k and p38 MAPK signaling pathway might be involved in the SRT2183-mediated autophagy and apoptosis.
Tingting Sun, Yanfen Hu, Weipeng He, Yuru Shang, Xiaohong Yang, Liyun Gong, Xianbin Zhang, Peng Gong, Guofen Yang

1753 related Products with: SRT2183 impairs ovarian cancer by facilitating autophagy.

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#33196459   2020/11/10 To Up

Pathomechanism characterization and potential therapeutics identification for SCA3 targeting neuroinflammation.

Polyglutamine (polyQ)-mediated spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) are caused by mutant genes with expanded CAG repeats encoding polyQ tracts. The misfolding and aggregation of polyQ proteins result in increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular toxicity. Inflammation is a common manifestation of oxidative stress and inflammatory process further reduces cellular antioxidant capacity. Increase of activated microglia in the pons of SCA type 3 (SCA3) patients suggests the involvement of neuroinflammation in the disease pathogenesis. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory potentials of indole compound NC009-1, 4-aminophenol-arachidonic acid derivative AM404, quinoline compound VB-037 and chalcone-coumarin derivative LM-031 using human HMC3 microglia and SCA3 ATXN3/Q-GFP SH-SY5Y cells. The four tested compounds displayed anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing NO, IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 production and CD68 expression of IFN-γ-activated HMC3 microglia. In retinoic acid-differentiated ATXN3/Q-GFP SH-SY5Y cells inflamed with IFN-γ-primed HMC3 conditioned medium, treatment with the tested compounds mitigated the increased caspase 1 activity and lactate dehydrogenase release, reduced polyQ aggregation and ROS and/or promoted neurite outgrowth. Examination of IL-1β- and TNF-α-mediated signaling pathways revealed that the tested compounds decreased IκBα/P65, JNK/JUN and/or P38/STAT1 signaling. The study results suggest the potential of NC009-1, AM404, VB-037 and LM-031 in treating SCA3 and probable other polyQ diseases.
Ya-Jen Chiu, Shu-An Lin, Wan-Ling Chen, Te-Hsien Lin, Chih-Hsin Lin, Ching-Fa Yao, Wenwei Lin, Yih-Ru Wu, Kuo-Hsuan Chang, Guey-Jen Lee-Chen, Chiung-Mei Chen

2407 related Products with: Pathomechanism characterization and potential therapeutics identification for SCA3 targeting neuroinflammation.

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#32841709   2020/08/22 To Up

Palmitate differentially regulates Spexin, and its receptors Galr2 and Galr3, in GnRH neurons through mechanisms involving PKC, MAPKs, and TLR4.

The function of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuron is critical to maintain reproductive function and a significant decrease in GnRH can lead to disorders affecting fertility, including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Spexin (SPX) is a novel hypothalamic neuropeptide that exerts inhibitory effects on reproduction and feeding by acting through galanin receptor 2 (GALR2) and galanin receptor 3 (GALR3). Fatty acids can act as nutritional signals that regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, and elevated levels of circulating saturated fatty acids associated with high fat diet (HFD)-feeding have been shown to induce neuroinflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress and hormonal resistance in the hypothalamus, as well as alter neuropeptide expression. We previously demonstrated that palmitate, the most common saturated fatty acid in a HFD, elevates the expression of Spx, Galr2 and Galr3 mRNA in a model of appetite-regulating neuropeptide Y hypothalamic neurons. Here, we found that Spx, Galr2 and Galr3 mRNA were also significantly induced by palmitate in a model of reproductive GnRH neurons, mHypoA-GnRH/GFP. As a follow-up to our previous report, we examined the molecular pathways by which Spx and galanin receptor mRNA was regulated in this cell line. Furthermore, we performed inhibitor studies, which revealed that the effect of palmitate on Spx and Galr3 mRNA involved activation of the innate immune receptor TLR4, and we detected differential regulation of the three genes by the protein kinases PKC, JNK, ERK, and p38. However, the intracellular metabolism of palmitate to ceramide did not appear to be involved in the palmitate-mediated gene regulation. Overall, this suggests that SPX may play a role in reproduction at the level of the hypothalamus and the pathways by which Spx, Galr2 and Galr3 are altered by fatty acids could provide insight into the mechanisms underlying reproductive dysfunction in obesity.
Lu Wang, Andy Tran, Juliette Lee, Denise D Belsham

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#32750030   2020/07/24 To Up

Aspirin protects human coronary artery endothelial cells by inducing autophagy.

Although the use of aspirin has substantially reduced the risks of cardiovascular events and death, its potential mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In a previous study, we found that aspirin triggers cellular autophagy. In the present study, we aimed to determine the protective effects of aspirin on human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) and explore its underlying mechanisms. HCAECs were treated with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), angiotensin II (Ang-II), or high glucose (HG) with or without aspirin stimulation. The expression levels of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS), p-eNOS, LC3, p62, phosphor-nuclear factor kappa B (p-NF-κB), p-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38 MAPK), and Beclin-1 were detected via immunoblotting analysis. Concentrations of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) were measured via ELISA. NO levels were determined using the Griess reagent. Autophagic flux was tracked by tandem mRFP-GFP-tagged LC3. Results showed that aspirin increased eNOS level and reduced injury to the endothelial cells (ECs) caused by ox-LDL, Ang-II, and HG treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Aspirin also increased the LC3II/LC3I ratio, decreased p62 expression, and enhanced autophagic flux (autophagosome and autolysosome puncta) in the HCAECs. p-NF-κB and p-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibition, sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 secretion, and eNOS activity promotion by aspirin treatment were found to be dependent on Beclin-1. These results suggested that aspirin can protect ECs from ox-LDL-, Ang-II-, and HG-induced injury by activating autophagy in a Beclin-1-dependent manner.
J Chen, L Wang, W H Liu, J Shi, Y Zhong, S J Liu, S M Liu

1795 related Products with: Aspirin protects human coronary artery endothelial cells by inducing autophagy.

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#32454290   2020/05/23 To Up

Berberine represses human gastric cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo by inducing cytostatic autophagy via inhibition of MAPK/mTOR/p70S6K and Akt signaling pathways.

Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid from Coptidis Rhizoma, has been characterized as a potential anticancer drug due to its good anti-tumor effects. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in anti-gastric cancer remain poorly understood. Herein, the role of berberine in gastric cancer suppression by inducing cytostatic autophagy in vitro and in vivo was first investigated. Results showed that berberine induced an obvious growth inhibitory effect on gastric cancer BGC-823 cells without toxicity to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Treatment with berberine triggered cell autophagy, as demonstrated by the punctuate distribution of monodansylcadaverine staining and GFP-LC3, as well as the LC3-II, Beclin-1 and p-ULK1 promotion, and p62 degradation. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA, CQ, Baf-A1 and BECN1 siRNA obviously increased cell viability of berberine-exposed gastric cancer cells, which confirmed the anti-cancer role of autophagy induced by berberine. Mechanistic studies showed that berberine inhibited mTOR, Akt and MAPK (ERK, JNK and p38) pathways thereby inducing autophagy. Inhibition of above pathways increases berberine induced autophagy and cytotoxicity. Interestingly, mTOR/p70S6K was inhibited by the MAPK but not Akt. Furthermore, inhibition of autophagy reversed berberine down-regulated mTOR, Akt and MAPK. In xenografts, the berberine induced autophagy leads to suppression of tumor proliferation with no side-effect, and western blotting displayed an apparent attenuation of p-mTOR, p-p70S6K, p-Akt, p-ERK, p-JNK and p-p38 in tumors from berberine treated mice. Briefly, these results indicated that berberine repressed human gastric cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo by inducing cytostatic autophagy via inhibition of MAPK/mTOR/p70S6K and Akt, and provided a molecular basis for the treatment of gastric cancer.
Qiang Zhang, Xiaobing Wang, Shijie Cao, Yujie Sun, Xinya He, Benke Jiang, Yaqin Yu, Jingshi Duan, Feng Qiu, Ning Kang

1588 related Products with: Berberine represses human gastric cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo by inducing cytostatic autophagy via inhibition of MAPK/mTOR/p70S6K and Akt signaling pathways.

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#32274611   2020/04/09 To Up

Raftlin is recruited by neuropilin-1 to the activated VEGFR2 complex to control proangiogenic signaling.

VEGFR2 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2) is the major pro-angiogenic receptor in endothelial cells. Compared to other members of the receptor tyrosine kinase family, we know relatively few VEGFR2 signaling partners. Our objective was to use mass spectrometry-based proteomics to identify novel binding partners of activated VEGFR2.
Asha L Bayliss, Ananthalakshmy Sundararaman, Camille Granet, Harry Mellor

1589 related Products with: Raftlin is recruited by neuropilin-1 to the activated VEGFR2 complex to control proangiogenic signaling.

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#32172136   2020/03/02 To Up

Understanding the role of p38 and JNK mediated MAPK pathway in response to UV-A induced photoaging in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Premature aging of the skin, principally induced by the UV radiations is called as photoaging, characterized by an increase in the level of ROS and the damage of the collagen layer leading to the damage of the cells. Mitogen activated Protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is known to mediate photoaging by controlling the level of ROS and initiating detoxification. Caenorhabditis elegans, a known model to analyze photoaging was used to understand the role of MAPK pathway (p38 and JNK) during UV-A mediated photoaging. Gene specific mutants of p38 MAPK pathway showed reduced survival when exposed to UV-A suggesting that UV-A mediated photoaging was dependent on this pathway. Also, the role of SKN-1 in eliciting response against UV-A was analyzed with the help of GFP tagged strains and qPCR analysis. Further, UV-A did not have any impact on the lifespan of JNK pathway mutants suggesting the importance of the pathway in eliciting a response against UV-A exposure, which was further validated by Western blot analysis. Overall, this study suggests that MAPK pathway could play an important part in initiating and eliciting a response by the host against UV-A exposure, by which it could be used as a marker to analyze the effects of photoaging.
Mani Iyer Prasanth, Subramanyam Gayathri, James Prabhanand Bhaskar, Venkateswaran Krishnan, Krishnaswamy Balamurugan

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#32141386   2020/03/06 To Up

Nbr1-regulated autophagy in Lactoferrin-induced osteoblastic differentiation.

The molecular mechanism of autophagy in Lactoferrin (LF) induced osteoblast differentiation is not fully demonstrated. In this study, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, alizarin red S staining and ELISA were used to study N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP) expression. mRFP-GFP-LC3 adenoviruses, mono-dansylcadaverine (MDC) staining, scanning electron microscopy, and western blot analysis was employed to probe the LF induced autophagy. The interaction between autophagy receptor Neighbor of Brca1 gene (Nbr1) and pp38 was studied. 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and chloroquine (CQ) could inhibit the activity of ALP, PINP and the autophagy in LF group. LF treatment could up-regulate and down-regulate the expressions of pp38 and Nbr1with a dose-dependent manner, respectively. LF could inhibit the recognition of pp38 and Nbr1. In addition, LF can prompt Nbr1-medicated autophagy and prevent pp38 degradation by autophagy. LF can induce Nbr1-mediated autophagy and inhibit pp38 entering into autophagy flux in the physiological process of osteoblast differentiation. CQ:chloroquine;LF: Lactoferrin; 3-MA: 3-methyladenine; ALP: Alkaline phosphatase; ANOVA: Analysis of variance; CCK-8: Cell Counting Kit-8; LC3: Microtubule-associated protein light chain3; MDC: Monodansylcadaverine; Nbr1: neighbor of Brca1 gene; PINP: N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen; PVDF: Polychlorotrifluoroethylene; pp38: phosphorylation p38; RAPA: Rapamycin; SDS: sodium dodecyl sulfate.
Yang Zhang, Zi-Nan Zhang, Na Li, Li-Jie Zhao, Ying Xue, Hao-Jie Wu, Jian-Ming Hou

1740 related Products with: Nbr1-regulated autophagy in Lactoferrin-induced osteoblastic differentiation.

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#31962157   2020/01/18 To Up

Crosstalk between oxidative stress-induced apoptotic and autophagic signaling pathways in Zn(II) phthalocyanine photodynamic therapy of melanoma.

Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer, highly resistant to conventional therapies. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a minimally invasive treatment modality that combines the use of a photosensitizer, visible light and molecular oxygen, leading to oxidative stress in the specific site of irradiation. The cationic zinc(II) phthalocyanine Pc13 has shown to be a potent photosensitizer in different melanoma cell lines. In this study, we explored the intracellular signaling pathways triggered by Pc13 PDT and the role of these cascades in the phototoxic action of Pc13 in human melanoma A375 cells. Activation of MAPKs p38, ERK, JNK and PI3K-I/AKT was observed after treatment and prevented by using the antioxidant trolox. Inhibition of p38 reduced Pc13 phototoxicity, whereas blockage of JNK potentiated cell death. Results obtained indicate that p38 is involved in the cleavage of PARP-1, an important mediator of apoptosis. On the other hand, Pc13 irradiation induced the activation of an autophagic program, as evidenced by enhanced levels of Beclin-1, LC3-II and GFP-LC3 punctate staining. We also demonstrated that this autophagic response is promoted by JNK and negatively regulated by PI3K-I/AKT pathway. The blockage of autophagy increased Pc13 phototoxicity and enhanced PARP-1 cleavage, revealing a protective role of this mechanism, which tends to prevent apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, reduced susceptibility to treatment and increased activation of autophagy were detected in A375 cells submitted to repeated cycles of Pc13 PDT, indicating that autophagy could represent a mechanism of resistance to PDT. The efficacy of Pc13 PDT and an improved phototoxic action in combination with chloroquine were also demonstrated in tumor spheroids. In conclusion, we showed the interplay between apoptotic and autophagic signaling pathways triggered by Pc13 PDT-induced oxidative stress. Thus, autophagy modulation represents a promising therapeutic strategy to potentiate the efficacy of PDT in melanoma.
Federico Valli, María C García Vior, Leonor P Roguin, Julieta Marino

1978 related Products with: Crosstalk between oxidative stress-induced apoptotic and autophagic signaling pathways in Zn(II) phthalocyanine photodynamic therapy of melanoma.

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