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Search results for: CDC42 (dn)

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#35651615   2022/05/16 To Up

Gene Biomarkers Related to Th17 Cells in Macular Edema of Diabetic Retinopathy: Cutting-Edge Comprehensive Bioinformatics Analysis and Validation.

Previous studies have shown that T-helper 17 (Th17) cell-related cytokines are significantly increased in the vitreous of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), suggesting that Th17 cells play an important role in the inflammatory response of diabetic retinopathy (DR), but its cell infiltration and gene correlation in the retina of DR, especially in diabetic macular edema (DME), have not been studied.
Jing Huang, Qiong Zhou

2100 related Products with: Gene Biomarkers Related to Th17 Cells in Macular Edema of Diabetic Retinopathy: Cutting-Edge Comprehensive Bioinformatics Analysis and Validation.

1 module1 module4 Arrays/Slide3 modules1 module96 assays1.00 flask

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#34110575   2021/06/10 To Up

The roles of Cdc42 and Rac1 in the formation of plasma membrane protrusions in cancer epithelial HeLa cells.

The inducible model of clones generated from the cervical cancer epithelial HeLa cell line has shown the role of DOCK10 as a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for Rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1 and as an inducer of filopodia and plasma membrane (PM) ruffles. In this model, constitutively active (CA) mutants of Cdc42 and Rac1 promote filopodia and ruffles, respectively, as in other models. DOCK9 also induces filopodia and ruffles, although ruffling activity is less prominent. By exploiting this model further, the aim of this work is to provide a more complete understanding of the role of Cdc42 and Rac1, and their interactions with DOCK10 and DOCK9, in regulation of PM protrusions. New clones have been generated from HeLa, including single clones expressing one form of wild-type (WT) or dominant negative (DN) Cdc42 or Rac1, and double clones co-expressing one of them together with either DOCK10 or DOCK9. Expression of WT- and DN-Cdc42 induced filopodia. WT-Cdc42 and, especially, DN-Cdc42 also gave rise to veil protrusions, which were neutralized by DOCK10. Moreover, DN-Cdc42 stimulated the emergence of ruffles, further increased by DOCK10, and WT-Cdc42 also augmented ruffles in presence of DOCK9 and DOCK10. WT-Rac1 greatly increased PM blebbing, as did DN-Rac1 more moderately. In both cases, blebs were enhanced by DOCK10. DN-Rac1 and CA-Rac1 moderately raised filopodia, and DOCK10 and DOCK9 had opposed effects on filopodia (up and down, respectively) in presence of WT-Rac1. As conclusions, we highlight that Cdc42 promotes filopodia regardless of its conformational state, and Rac1 induces blebs in conformations other than CA, especially WT-Rac1, in the inducible HeLa clones. The model could be useful to learn more about the mechanisms underlying PM protrusions.
Natalia Ruiz-Lafuente, Alfredo Minguela, Manuel Muro, Antonio Parrado

2024 related Products with: The roles of Cdc42 and Rac1 in the formation of plasma membrane protrusions in cancer epithelial HeLa cells.

11x10e7 cells

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#33478991   2021/01/21 To Up

Tuba Activates Cdc42 during Neuronal Polarization Downstream of the Small GTPase Rab8a.

The acquisition of neuronal polarity is a complex molecular process that depends on changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and directed membrane traffic, regulated by the Rho and Rab families of small GTPases, respectively. However, during axon specification, a molecular link that couples these protein families has yet to be identified. In this paper, we describe a new positive feedback loop between Rab8a and Cdc42, coupled by Tuba, a Cdc42-specific guanine nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF), that ensures a single axon generation in rodent hippocampal neurons from embryos of either sex. Accordingly, Rab8a or Tuba gain-of-function generates neurons with supernumerary axons whereas Rab8a or Tuba loss-of-function abrogated axon specification, phenocopying the well-established effect of Cdc42 on neuronal polarity. Although Rab8 and Tuba do not interact physically, the activity of Rab8 is essential to generate a proximal to distal axonal gradient of Tuba in cultured neurons. Tuba-associated and Rab8a-associated polarity defects are also evidenced , since dominant negative (DN) Rab8a or Tuba knock-down impairs cortical neuronal migration in mice. Our results suggest that Tuba coordinates directed vesicular traffic and cytoskeleton dynamics during neuronal polarization. The morphologic, biochemical, and functional differences observed between axon and dendrites, require dramatic structural changes. The extension of an axon that is 1 µm in diameter and grows at rates of up to 500 µm/d, demands the confluence of two cellular processes: directed membrane traffic and fine-tuned cytoskeletal dynamics. In this study, we show that both processes are integrated in a positive feedback loop, mediated by the guanine nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) Tuba. Tuba connects the activities of the Rab GTPase Rab8a and the Rho GTPase Cdc42, ensuring the generation of a single axon in cultured hippocampal neurons and controlling the migration of cortical neurons in the developing brain. Finally, we provide compelling evidence that Tuba is the GEF that mediates Cdc42 activation during the development of neuronal polarity.
Pamela J Urrutia, Felipe Bodaleo, Daniel A Bórquez, Yuta Homma, Victoria Rozes-Salvador, Cristopher Villablanca, Cecilia Conde, Mitsunori Fukuda, Christian González-Billault

2350 related Products with: Tuba Activates Cdc42 during Neuronal Polarization Downstream of the Small GTPase Rab8a.

25 5 mg 100ul 100 G100ug1 Set250ul100 U

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#31920663   2019/12/10 To Up

Catalpol Ameliorates Podocyte Injury by Stabilizing Cytoskeleton and Enhancing Autophagy in Diabetic Nephropathy.

Catalpol, an iridoid glycoside extracted from , has been found to ameliorate diabetic nephropathy (DN), but the mechanism has not been clarified. Podocyte injury play a key role in the pathogenesis of DN. This study mainly investigated the protective effect and potential mechanism of catalpol on podocyte injury of DN and . The results indicated that the pathological features of DN in mice were markedly ameliorated after treatment with catalpol. Moreover, podocyte foot process effacement, and down-regulation of nephrin and synaptopodin expression in DN mice were also significantly improved after treatment with catalpol. , catalpol rescued disrupted cytoskeleton and increased migration ratio in podocytes induced by high glucose, the effect might be attributable to the inhibition of RhoA and Cdc42 activities but not Rac1. Furthermore, the impaired podocyte autophagy in DN mice was significantly enhanced after catalpol treatment. And catalpol also enhanced autophagy and lysosome biogenesis in cultured podocytes under high glucose condition. In addition, we found that catalpol could inhibit mTOR activity and promote TFEB nuclear translocation and experiments. Our study demonstrated that catalpol could ameliorate podocyte injury in DN, and the protective effect of catalpol might be attributed to the stabilization of podocyte cytoskeleton and the improvement of impaired podocyte autophagy.
Yan Chen, Qingpu Liu, Zengfu Shan, Wangyang Mi, Yingying Zhao, Meng Li, Baiyan Wang, Xiaoke Zheng, Weisheng Feng

2274 related Products with: Catalpol Ameliorates Podocyte Injury by Stabilizing Cytoskeleton and Enhancing Autophagy in Diabetic Nephropathy.

2 Pieces/Box2 Pieces/Box96T 500 ml 100 μg100ug Lyophilized4 Arrays/Slide100 μg100 μg100ug

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#30621321   2019/01/06 To Up

Cdc42: A Novel Regulator of Insulin Secretion and Diabetes-Associated Diseases.

Cdc42, a member of the Rho GTPases family, is involved in the regulation of several cellular functions including cell cycle progression, survival, transcription, actin cytoskeleton organization and membrane trafficking. Diabetes is a chronic and metabolic disease, characterized as glycometabolism disorder induced by insulin deficiency related to β cell dysfunction and peripheral insulin resistance (IR). Diabetes could cause many complications including diabetic nephropathy (DN), diabetic retinopathy and diabetic foot. Furthermore, hyperglycemia can promote tumor progression and increase the risk of malignant cancers. In this review, we summarized the regulation of Cdc42 in insulin secretion and diabetes-associated diseases. Organized researches indicate that Cdc42 is a crucial member during the progression of diabetes, and Cdc42 not only participates in the process of insulin synthesis but also regulates the insulin granule mobilization and cell membrane exocytosis via activating a series of downstream factors. Besides, several studies have demonstrated Cdc42 as participating in the pathogenesis of IR and DN and even contributing to promote cancer cell proliferation, survival, invasion, migration, and metastasis under hyperglycemia. Through the current review, we hope to cast light on the mechanism of Cdc42 in diabetes and associated diseases and provide new ideas for clinical diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.
Qi-Yuan Huang, Xing-Ning Lai, Xian-Ling Qian, Lin-Chen Lv, Jun Li, Jing Duan, Xing-Hua Xiao, Li-Xia Xiong

1233 related Products with: Cdc42: A Novel Regulator of Insulin Secretion and Diabetes-Associated Diseases.

96 assays100ug100ug1000 1 Set25 mg100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized1000 tests500 tests100ug Lyophilized

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#29242313   2017/12/14 To Up

Dissection of Glomerular Transcriptional Profile in Patients With Diabetic Nephropathy: SRGAP2a Protects Podocyte Structure and Function.

Podocytes play a pivotal role in maintaining glomerular filtration function through their interdigitated foot processes. However, the mechanisms that govern the podocyte cytoskeletal rearrangement remain unclear. Through analyzing the transcriptional profile of renal biopsy specimens from patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) and control donors, we identify SLIT-ROBO ρGTPase-activating protein 2a (SRGAP2a) as one of the main hub genes strongly associated with proteinuria and glomerular filtration in type 2 DN. Immunofluorescence staining and Western blot analysis revealed that human and mouse SRGAP2a is primarily localized at podocytes and largely colocalized with synaptopodin. Moreover, podocyte SRGAP2a is downregulated in patients with DN and mice at both the mRNA and the protein level. SRGAP2a reduction is observed in cultured podocytes treated with tumor growth factor-β or high concentrations of glucose. Functional and mechanistic studies show that SRGAP2a suppresses podocyte motility through inactivating RhoA/Cdc42 but not Rac1. The protective role of SRGAP2a in podocyte function also is confirmed in zebrafish, in which knockdown of SRGAP2a, a SRGAP2 ortholog in zebrafish, recapitulates podocyte foot process effacement. Finally, increasing podocyte SRGAP2a levels in mice through administration of adenovirus-expressing SRGAP2a significantly mitigates podocyte injury and proteinuria. The results demonstrate that SRGAP2a protects podocytes by suppressing podocyte migration.
Yu Pan, Song Jiang, Qing Hou, Dandan Qiu, Jingsong Shi, Ling Wang, Zhaohong Chen, Mingchao Zhang, Aiping Duan, Weisong Qin, Ke Zen, Zhihong Liu

1221 related Products with: Dissection of Glomerular Transcriptional Profile in Patients With Diabetic Nephropathy: SRGAP2a Protects Podocyte Structure and Function.

25 Plates/Unit100 μg100ug Lyophilized4 Arrays/Slide100 μg100ug100 μg100ug Lyophilized100ug

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#28289332   2017/02/14 To Up

PI3Kα isoform-dependent activation of RhoA regulates Wnt5a-induced osteosarcoma cell migration.

We have reported that the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway mediated Wnt5a-induced osteosarcoma cell migration. However, the signaling pathways regulating Wnt5a/PI3K/Akt-mediated cell migration remains poorly defined in osteosarcoma cells.
Ailiang Zhang, Ting Yan, Kun Wang, Zhihui Huang, Jinbo Liu

1347 related Products with: PI3Kα isoform-dependent activation of RhoA regulates Wnt5a-induced osteosarcoma cell migration.

400 ug100ug96 samples100ug400 ug24 samples100ug1 mg6 100ul1 mg 100ul

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#25641678   2015/02/19 To Up

Loss of PTEN promotes podocyte cytoskeletal rearrangement, aggravating diabetic nephropathy.

In diabetic nephropathy (DN), podocyte cytoskeletal rearrangement occurs followed by podocyte effacement and the development of proteinuria. PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue) is a ubiquitously expressed phosphatase that plays a critical role in cell proliferation, cytoskeletal rearrangement, and motility. In mouse models of diabetes mellitus, PTEN expression is reportedly decreased in mesangial cells, contributing to expansion of the mesangial matrix, but how PTEN in the podocyte influences the development of DN is unknown. We observed that PTEN expression is down-regulated in the podocytes of diabetic db/db mice and patients with DN. In cultured podocytes, PTEN inhibition caused actin cytoskeletal rearrangement and this response was associated with unbalanced activation of the small GTPases Rac1/Cdc42 and RhoA. In mice treated with PTEN inhibitor, actin cytoskeletal rearrangement occurred in podocytes and was accompanied by increased albumin excretion. We also created mice with an inducible deletion of PTEN selectively in podocytes. These mice exhibited increased albumin excretion and moderate foot process effacement. When the mice were challenged with a high fat diet, podocyte-specific knockout of PTEN resulted in substantially increased proteinuria and glomeruloclerosis compared to control mice fed a high fat diet or mice with PTEN deletion fed a normal diet. These results indicate that PTEN is involved in the regulation of cytoskeletal rearrangement in podocytes and that loss of PTEN predisposes to the development of proteinuria and DN.
Jamie Lin, Yuanyuan Shi, Hui Peng, Xiaojie Shen, Sandhya Thomas, Yanlin Wang, Luan D Truong, Stuart E Dryer, Zhaoyong Hu, Jing Xu

2390 related Products with: Loss of PTEN promotes podocyte cytoskeletal rearrangement, aggravating diabetic nephropathy.

250ul 25UG1 Set50ul2 Pieces/Box1ml2180 Tests / Kit100 μg100100ug50 ug

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#25469537   // To Up

The interdependence of the Rho GTPases and apicobasal cell polarity.

Signaling via the Rho GTPases provides crucial regulation of numerous cell polarization events, including apicobasal (AB) polarity, polarized cell migration, polarized cell division and neuronal polarity. Here we review the relationships between the Rho family GTPases and epithelial AB polarization events, focusing on the 3 best-characterized members: Rho, Rac and Cdc42. We discuss a multitude of processes that are important for AB polarization, including lumen formation, apical membrane specification, cell-cell junction assembly and maintenance, as well as tissue polarity. Our discussions aim to highlight the immensely complex regulatory mechanisms that encompass Rho GTPase signaling during AB polarization. More specifically, in this review we discuss several emerging common themes, that include: 1) the need for Rho GTPase activities to be carefully balanced in both a spatial and temporal manner through a multitude of mechanisms; 2) the existence of signaling feedback loops and crosstalk to create robust cellular responses; and 3) the frequent multifunctionality that exists among AB polarity regulators. Regarding this latter theme, we provide further discussion of the potential plasticity of the cell polarity machinery and as a result the possible implications for human disease.
Natalie Ann Mack, Marios Georgiou

2048 related Products with: The interdependence of the Rho GTPases and apicobasal cell polarity.

500 Units 100ul100 U100.00 ul1200 units100

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