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#33101415   2020/10/08 To Up

Bacterial Contaminants and Antibiogram of Ghana Paper Currency Notes in Circulation and Their Associated Health Risks in Asante-Mampong, Ghana.

Transmission of pathogens through currency notes has become very relevant in today's world due to COVID-19 pandemic. This study profiled microbial flora and their antibiotic activities from Ghana paper currency (GH¢) notes in circulation in Mampong Municipal of Ashanti Region, Ghana. The study employed a cross-sectional design to assess bacterial contaminants and their antibiotic activities from January to May 2019. A total of 70 GH¢ notes consisting of 15 each of GH¢1, GH¢2, and GH¢5; 10 each of GH¢10 and GH¢20; and 5 of GH¢50 were randomly sampled from persons at different shops, canteens, and commercial drivers. The surfaces of each GH¢ note were gently swabbed, and tenfold serial dilutions made were inoculated on plate count agar (PCA), MacConkey agar, mannitol salt agar, and deoxycholate citrate agar. The study used appropriate laboratory and biochemical tests for bacterial identification. SPSS-IBM version 16.0 was used to analyze the data. Of the 70 GH¢ notes studied, 97.1% were contaminated with one or more bacterial isolates. Mean counts on PCA ranged between 3.2 cfu/ml × 10 and 4.7 cfu/ml × 10 on GH¢ notes. Of 124 bacteria isolated, 34 (27.4%), 30 (24.2%), 22 (17.7%), 17 (13.7%), 13 (10.5%), and 8 (6.5%) were from GH¢1, GH¢2, GH¢10, GH¢5, GH¢20, and GH¢50, respectively ( < 0.05). Bacterial isolates were (28.23%), (16.94%), coagulase-negative (16.13%), species (11.29%), species (9.68%), species (8.87%), (5.65%), and species (3.23%). GH¢ notes had 25.81%, 20.16%, 19.35%, 17.74%, and 16.94% from meat shops, commercial drivers, canteens, grocery shops, and vegetable shops, respectively. All bacteria were 100% resistant to erythromycin, 87.5% to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and cotrimoxazole, 75% to vancomycin, while 87.50% sensitive to amikacin. The GH¢ notes were heavily colonized with potential pathogens, which are resistant to most commonly used antibiotics and could pose a health threat to users during commercial transactions.
Denis Dekugmen Yar

2714 related Products with: Bacterial Contaminants and Antibiogram of Ghana Paper Currency Notes in Circulation and Their Associated Health Risks in Asante-Mampong, Ghana.

100 μg1 Set100 μg1 Set100 μg 5 G1 Set100ug Lyophilized

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#31743790   2019/11/16 To Up

The effects of age on reward magnitude processing in the monetary incentive delay task.

Previous studies have suggested age-related differences in reward-directed behavior and cerebral processes in support of the age effects. However, it remains unclear how age may influence the processing of reward magnitude. Here, with 54 volunteers (22-74 years of age) participating in the Monetary Incentive Delay Task (MIDT) with explicit cues ($1, ¢1, or nil) and timed response to win, we characterized brain activations during anticipation and feedback and the effects of age on these regional activations. Behaviorally, age was associated with less reaction time (RT) difference between dollar and cent trials, as a result of slower response to the dollar trials; i.e., age was positively correlated with RT dollar - RT cent, with RT nil as a covariate. Both age and the RT difference ($1 - ¢1) were correlated with diminished activation of the right caudate head, right anterior insula, supplementary motor area (SMA)/pre-SMA, visual cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, right superior/middle frontal gyri, and left primary motor cortex during anticipation of $1 vs. ¢1 reward. Further, these regional activities mediated the age effects on RT differences. In responses to outcomes, age was associated with decreases in regional activations to dollar vs. cent loss but only because of higher age-related responses to cent losses. Together, these findings suggest age-related differences in sensitivity to the magnitude of reward. With lower cerebral responses during anticipation to win large rewards and higher responses to outcomes of small loss, aging incurs a constricted sensitivity to the magnitude of reward.
Isha Dhingra, Sheng Zhang, Simon Zhornitsky, Thang M Le, Wuyi Wang, Herta H Chao, Ifat Levy, Chiang-Shan R Li

2408 related Products with: The effects of age on reward magnitude processing in the monetary incentive delay task.

1min 2 cartons96 tests100.00 ul

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#29434526   2018/01/31 To Up

Improving the first-line treatment of febrile illnesses in Ghana: willingness to pay for malaria rapid diagnostic tests at licensed chemical shops in the Kintampo area.

Use of malaria rapid diagnostic test (mRDT) enhances patient management and reduces costs associated with the inappropriate use of antimalarials. Despite its proven clinical effectiveness, mRDT is not readily available at licensed chemical shops in Ghana. Therefore, in order to improve the use of mRDT, there is the need to understand the willingness to pay for and sell mRDT. This study assessed patients' willingness to pay and licensed chemical operators' (LCS) willingness to sell mRDTs.
Theresa Tawiah, Keziah Malam, Anthony Kwarteng, Constance Bart-Plange, Lawrence Febir, Vivian Aubyn, Konrad Obermann, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Kwaku Poku Asante

1599 related Products with: Improving the first-line treatment of febrile illnesses in Ghana: willingness to pay for malaria rapid diagnostic tests at licensed chemical shops in the Kintampo area.

500 tests500 tests500 tests1

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#29248366   2017/12/13 To Up

Progress on impoverishing health spending in 122 countries: a retrospective observational study.

The goal of universal health coverage (UHC) requires that families who get needed health care do not suffer financial hardship as a result. This can be measured by instances of impoverishment, when a household's consumption including out-of-pocket spending on health is more than the poverty line but its consumption, excluding out-of-pocket spending, is less than the poverty line. This links UHC directly to the policy goal of reducing poverty.
Adam Wagstaff, Gabriela Flores, Marc-François Smitz, Justine Hsu, Kateryna Chepynoga, Patrick Eozenou

2121 related Products with: Progress on impoverishing health spending in 122 countries: a retrospective observational study.

100ug1 ml

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#15102528   // To Up

Pharmacological analysis and molecular cloning of the canine equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1.

We studied the binding of [3H]nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR) and the uptake of [3H]formycin B by the es (equilibrative inhibitor-sensitive) nucleoside transporter of Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells. NBMPR inhibited [3H]formycin B uptake with a Ki of 2.7+/-0.6 nM, and [3H]NBMPR had a KD of 1.3+/-0.3 nM for binding to these cells; these values are significantly higher than those obtained in human and mouse cell models. In contrast, other recognized es inhibitors, such as dipyridamole, were significantly more effective as inhibitors of [3H]NBMPR binding and [3H]formycin B uptake by MDCK cells relative to that seen for human cells. We isolated a cDNA encoding the canine es nucleoside transporter (designated cENT1), and assessed its function by stable expression in nucleoside transport deficient PK15NTD cells. The PK15-cENT1 cells displayed inhibitor sensitivities that were comparable to those obtained for the endogenous es nucleoside transporter in MDCK cells. These data indicate that the dog es/ENT1 transporter has distinctive inhibitor binding characteristics, and that these characteristics are a function of the protein structure as opposed to the environment in which it is expressed.
James R Hammond, Meaghan Stolk, Richard G E Archer, Kristy McConnell

2748 related Products with: Pharmacological analysis and molecular cloning of the canine equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1.

2 mL0.1 mg96 wells (1 kit)1 module1 Plate of 96 x 20ul/Unit100ug 6 ml Ready-to-use 2 modules1 ml2 modules100ug

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