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Search results for: mTOR1 (1 524a.a.)

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#33222668   2020/11/19 To Up

OSI-027 alleviates oxaliplatin chemoresistance in gastric cancer cells by suppressing P-gp induction.

Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide and the third leading cause of cancer-related death. In the present study, we investigated the potential activity of OSI-027, a potent and selective mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1/2 (mTOR1/2) dual inhibitor, alone or in combination with oxaliplatin against gastric cancer cells in vitro. Cell counting kit-8 assays and EdU staining were performed to examine the proliferation of cancer cells. Cell cycle and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry. Western blot was used to detect the elements of the mTOR pathway and Pgp in gastric cancer cell lines. OSI-027 inhibited the proliferation of MKN-45 and AGS cells by arresting the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase. At the molecular level, OSI-027 simultaneously blocked mTORC1 and mTORC2 activation, and resulted in the downregulation of phosphor-Akt, phpspho-p70S6k, phosphor-4EBP1, cyclin D1, and cyclin-dependent kinase4 (CDK4). Additionally, OSI-027 also downregulated P-gp, which enhanced oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis and suppressed multidrug resistance. Moreover, OSI-027 exhibited synergistic cytotoxic effects with oxaliplatin in vitro, while a P-gp siRNA knockdown significantly inhibited the synergistic effect. In summary, our results suggest that dual mTORC1/mTORC2 inhibitors (e.g., OSI-027) should be further investigated as a potential valuable treatment for gastric cancer.
En Xu, Hao Zhu, Feng Wang, Ji Miao, Shangce Du, Chang Zheng, Xingzhou Wang, Zijian Li, Feng Xu, Xuefeng Xia, Wenxian Guan

1195 related Products with: OSI-027 alleviates oxaliplatin chemoresistance in gastric cancer cells by suppressing P-gp induction.

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#32801739   2020/07/20 To Up

WHSC1 Promotes Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion in Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Activating mTORC1 Signaling.

Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome candidate gene-1 (WHSC1) plays key regulatory roles in cancer development and progression. However, its specific functions and potential mechanisms of action remain to be described in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Jingjing Dai, Longfeng Jiang, Lei Qiu, Yuyun Shao, Ping Shi, Jun Li

2747 related Products with: WHSC1 Promotes Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion in Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Activating mTORC1 Signaling.

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#32487697   2020/06/02 To Up

PDK1 Regulates the Maintenance of Cell Body and the Development of Dendrites of Purkinje Cells by pS6 and PKCγ.

3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) plays a critical role in the development of mammalian brain. Here, we investigated the role of PDK1 in Purkinje cells (PCs) by generating the PDK1-conditional knock-out mice (cKO) through crossing or mice with mice. The male mice were used in the behavioral testing, and the other experiments were performed on mice of both sexes. These PDK1-cKO mice displayed decreased cerebellar size and impaired motor balance and coordination. By the electrophysiological recording, we observed the reduced spontaneous firing of PCs from the cerebellar slices of the PDK1-cKO mice. Moreover, the cell body size of PCs in the PDK1-cKO mice was time dependently reduced compared with that in the control mice. And the morphologic complexity of PCs was also decreased after PDK1 deletion. These effects may have contributed to the reduction of the rpS6 (reduced ribosomal protein S6) phosphorylation and the PKCγ expression in PDK1-cKO mice since the upregulation of pS6 by treatment of 3-benzyl-5-((2-nitrophenoxy) methyl)-dihydrofuran-2(3H)-1, the agonist of mTOR1, partly rescued the reduction in the cell body size of the PCs, and the delivery of recombinant adeno-associated virus-PKCγ through cerebellar injection rescued the reduced complexity of the dendritic arbor in PDK1-cKO mice. Together, our data suggest that PDK1, by regulating rpS6 phosphorylation and PKCγ expression, controls the cell body maintenance and the dendritic development in PCs and is critical for cerebellar motor coordination. Here, we show the role of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) in Purkinje cells (PCs). The ablation of PDK1 in PCs resulted in a reduction of cell body size, and dendritic complexity and abnormal spontaneous firing, which attributes to the motor defects in PDK1-conditional knock-out (cKO) mice. Moreover, the ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) phosphorylation and the expression of PKCγ are downregulated after the ablation of PDK1. Additionally, upregulation of rpS6 phosphorylation by3-benzyl-5-((2-nitrophenoxy) methyl)-dihydrofuran-2(3H)-1 partly rescued the reduction in cell body size of PCs, and the overexpression of PKCγ in PDK1-KO PCs rescued the reduction in the dendritic complexity. These findings indicate that PDK1 contributes to the maintenance of the cell body and the dendritic development of PCs by regulating rpS6 phosphorylation and PKCγ expression.
Rui Liu, Min Xu, Xiao-Yang Zhang, Min-Jie Zhou, Bing-Yao Zhou, Cui Qi, Bo Song, Qi Fan, Wei-Yan You, Jing-Ning Zhu, Zhong-Zhou Yang, Jun Gao

1324 related Products with: PDK1 Regulates the Maintenance of Cell Body and the Development of Dendrites of Purkinje Cells by pS6 and PKCγ.

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#32129566   2020/03/09 To Up

Antidepressant mechanism of classical herbal formula lily bulb and Rehmannia decoction: insights from gene expression profile of medial prefrontal cortex of mice with stress-induced depression-like behavior.

According to traditional Chinese medicine, lily bulb and Rehmannia decoction (LBRD) is a specialized formula for the treatment of "lily disease", the symptoms of which resemble the clinical manifestations of major depression. However, the molecular basis of the antidepressant mechanism of LBRD and the quality marker ingredients of LBRD remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the quality marker ingredients of LBRD and to show the molecular mechanism of its antidepressant activities. In this study, we adopted the chronic unpredicted mild stress paradigm to construct a depression model. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the levels of the main markers in LBRD. The underlying mechanism of LBRD was explored by measuring neurotransmitter and cytokine levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and by quantifying differentially expressed gene (DEG) of transcriptome in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) tissue through RNA sequencing. HPLC results showed that the average levels of quality marker ingredients of LBRD (ferulic acid, dioscin, verbascoside and catalpol) were 0.00079%, 0.00039%, 0.7% and 1.6% (w/w), respectively. LBRD intervention significantly attenuated the depressive phenotype compared with that in the depressed group. LBRD treatment altered the enriched DEGs in the signaling pathways of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate neurotransmitter, synaptic plasticity and axon guidance, circadian rhythm and neural-immunity. GABAergic and glutamatergic synapses as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/TrkB-dependent phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin-1 (mTOR1), might be the main signaling pathways underlying the multi-target therapeutic effects of LBRD against depression.
Hongxiu Zhang, Xiansu Chi, Wenchao Pan, Shijun Wang, Zhe Zhang, Haijun Zhao, Yuan Wang, Zhichun Wu, Miaomiao Zhou, Shan Ma, Qitao Zhao, Ke Ma

2203 related Products with: Antidepressant mechanism of classical herbal formula lily bulb and Rehmannia decoction: insights from gene expression profile of medial prefrontal cortex of mice with stress-induced depression-like behavior.

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#32103032   2020/02/26 To Up

p38 MAPK signalling regulates cytokine production in IL-33 stimulated Type 2 Innate Lymphoid cells.

Type 2 Innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are implicated in helminth infections and asthma where they play a role in the production of Th2-type cytokines. ILC2s express the IL-33 receptor and are a major cell type thought to mediate the effects of this cytokine in vivo. To study the signalling pathways that mediate IL-33 induced cytokine production, a culture system was set up to obtain pure populations of ILC2s from mice. Inhibitors of the p38α/β and ERK1/2 MAPK pathways reduced the production of IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-13 and GM-CSF by ILC2 in response to IL-33, with inhibition of p38 having the greatest effect. MK2 and 3 are kinases activated by p38α; MK2/3 inhibitors or knockout of MK2/3 in mice reduced the production of IL-6 and IL-13 (two cytokines implicated in asthma) but not IL-5, IL-9 or GM-CSF in response to IL-33. MK2/3 inhibition also suppressed IL-6 and IL-13 production by human ILC2s. MK2/3 were required for maximal S6 phosphorylation, suggesting an input from the p38α-MK2/3 pathway to mTOR1 activation in ILC2s. The mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin also reduced IL-6 and IL-13 production, which would be consistent with a model in which MK2/3 regulate IL-6 and IL-13 via mTORC1 activation in ILC2s.
Tsvetana Petrova, Jelena Pesic, Katerina Pardali, Matthias Gaestel, J Simon C Arthur

1990 related Products with: p38 MAPK signalling regulates cytokine production in IL-33 stimulated Type 2 Innate Lymphoid cells.

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#30771196   2019/02/15 To Up

Mammalian Target of Rapamycin 2 (MTOR2) and C-MYC Modulate Glucosamine-6-Phosphate Synthesis in Glioblastoma (GBM) Cells Through Glutamine: Fructose-6-Phosphate Aminotransferase 1 (GFAT1).

Glucose and glutamine are two essential ingredients for cell growth. Glycolysis and glutaminolysis can be linked by glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase (GFAT, composed of GFAT1 and GFAT2) that catalyzes the synthesis of glucosamine-6-phosphate and glutamate by using fructose-6-phosphate and glutamine as substrates. The role of mammalian target of rapamycin (MTOR, composed of MTOR1 and MTOR2) in regulating glycolysis has been explored in human cancer cells. However, whether MTOR can interact with GFAT to regulate glucosamine-6-phosphate is poorly understood. In this study, we report that GFAT1 is essential to maintain the malignant features of GBM cells. And MTOR2 rather than MTOR1 plays a robust role in promoting GFAT1 protein activity, and accelerating the progression of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthesis, which is not controlled by the PI3K/AKT signaling. Intriguingly, high level of glucose or glutamine supply promotes MTOR2 protein activity. In turn, up-regulating glycolytic and glutaminolytic metabolisms block MTOR dimerization, enhancing the release of MTOR2 from the MTOR complex. As a transcriptional factor, C-MYC, directly targeted by MTOR2, promotes the relative mRNA expression level of GFAT1. Notably, our data reveal that GFAT1 immunoreactivity is positively correlated with the malignant grades of glioma patients. Kaplan-Meier assay reveals the correlations between patients' 5-year survival and high GFAT1 protein expression. Taken together, we propose that the MTOR2/C-MYC/GFAT1 axis is responsible for the modulation on the crosstalk between glycolysis and glutaminolysis in GBM cells. Under the condition of accelerated glycolytic and/or glutaminolytic metabolisms, the MTOR2/C-MYC/GFAT1 axis will be up-regulated in GBM cells.
Bo Liu, Ze-Bin Huang, Xin Chen, Yi-Xiang See, Zi-Kai Chen, Huan-Kai Yao

2779 related Products with: Mammalian Target of Rapamycin 2 (MTOR2) and C-MYC Modulate Glucosamine-6-Phosphate Synthesis in Glioblastoma (GBM) Cells Through Glutamine: Fructose-6-Phosphate Aminotransferase 1 (GFAT1).

1 G 25 MG 1000 ml 100ug Lyophilized5 1 G25001 LITRE1x10e7 cells 1000 ml 200ul

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#30592731   2018/12/28 To Up

SLC3A2 is a novel endoplasmic reticulum stress-related signaling protein that regulates the unfolded protein response and apoptosis.

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress results from imbalances in unfolded/misfolded proteins, contributing to a wide variety of human diseases. To better understand the mechanisms involved in the cellular response to ER stress in cardiomyocytes, we previously conducted a genome-wide screening in an in vitro ER stress model of rat cardiomyocytes, which highlighted amino acid transporter heavy chain, member 2 (SLC3A2) as an important factor in ER stress. In the present study, we characterized the role of SLC3A2 during the unfolded protein response (UPR), as one of the primary pathways activated during ER stress. First, we confirmed the induction of Slc3a2 mRNA expression following treatment with various ER stress inducers in rat cardiomyocytes (H9C2) and neural cells (PC12). Knockdown of Slc3a2 expression with small interfering RNA (siRNA) revealed that the encoded protein functions upstream of three important UPR proteins: ATF4, ATF6, and XBP1. siRNA-mediated knockdown of both SLC3A2 and mammalian target of rapamycin 1 (mTOR1) revealed that mTOR1 acts as a mediator between SLC3A2 and the UPR. RNA sequencing was then performed to gain a more thorough understanding of the function of SLC3A2, which identified 23 highly differentially regulated genes between the control and knockdown cell lines, which were related to the UPR and amino acid transport. Notably, flow cytometry further showed that SLC3A2 inhibition also enhanced the apoptosis of rat cardiomyocytes. Taken together, these results highlight SLC3A2 as a complex, multifunctional signaling protein that acts upstream of well-known UPR proteins with anti-apoptotic properties, suggesting its potential as a therapeutic target for ER stress-related diseases.
Chunlei Liu, Xin Li, Chen Li, Zeyu Zhang, XiaoJian Gao, Zhilong Jia, HaiXu Chen, Qian Jia, Xiaojing Zhao, Jixuan Liu, Bohan Liu, Zhenguo Xu, Yaping Tian, Kunlun He

1701 related Products with: SLC3A2 is a novel endoplasmic reticulum stress-related signaling protein that regulates the unfolded protein response and apoptosis.

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#30530704   2018/12/07 To Up

Activating Mutations in Contribute to Anal Carcinogenesis in the Presence or Absence of HPV-16 Oncogenes.

Over 95% of human anal cancers are etiologically associated with high-risk HPVs, with HPV type 16 (HPV16) the genotype most commonly found. Activating mutations in the catalytic subunit of Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate kinase (PI3K), encoded by the gene, are detected in approximately 20% of human anal cancers. We asked if common activating mutations in contribute to anal carcinogenesis using an established mouse model for anal carcinogenesis in which mice are topically treated with the chemical carcinogen 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). Mice expressing in their anal epithelium one of two activating mutations in genes, or , were monitored for anal carcinogenesis in the presence or absence of transgenes expressing the HPV16 E6 and E7 oncogenes.
Myeong-Kyun Shin, Susan Payne, Andrea Bilger, Kristina A Matkowskyj, Evie Carchman, Dominique S Meyer, Mohamed Bentires-Alj, Dustin A Deming, Paul F Lambert

2214 related Products with: Activating Mutations in Contribute to Anal Carcinogenesis in the Presence or Absence of HPV-16 Oncogenes.

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#30522118   2018/12/06 To Up

Downregulation of microRNA-376a in Gastric Cancer and Association with Poor Prognosis.

MicroRNAs have a significant role in the tumorigenesis and progression of cancers, including gastric cancer (GC). Our study aimed to identify a novel biomarker to predict the prognosis of patients with GC.
Cheng Zhang, Yu Liang, Ming-Hui Ma, Kun-Zhe Wu, Chun-Dong Zhang, Dong-Qiu Dai

2629 related Products with: Downregulation of microRNA-376a in Gastric Cancer and Association with Poor Prognosis.



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#30174295   2018/08/30 To Up

Autocrine Mfge8 Signaling Prevents Developmental Exhaustion of the Adult Neural Stem Cell Pool.

Adult neurogenesis, arising from quiescent radial-glia-like neural stem cells (RGLs), occurs throughout life in the dentate gyrus. How neural stem cells are maintained throughout development to sustain adult mammalian neurogenesis is not well understood. Here, we show that milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor (EGF) 8 (Mfge8), a known phagocytosis factor, is highly enriched in quiescent RGLs in the dentate gyrus. Mfge8-null mice exhibit decreased adult dentate neurogenesis, and furthermore, adult RGL-specific deletion of Mfge8 leads to RGL overactivation and depletion. Similarly, loss of Mfge8 promotes RGL activation in the early postnatal dentate gyrus, resulting in a decreased number of label-retaining RGLs in adulthood. Mechanistically, loss of Mfge8 elevates mTOR1 signaling in RGLs, inhibition of which by rapamycin returns RGLs to quiescence. Together, our study identifies a neural-stem-cell-enriched niche factor that maintains quiescence and prevents developmental exhaustion of neural stem cells to sustain continuous neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain.
Yi Zhou, Allison M Bond, Jamie E Shade, Yunhua Zhu, Chung-Ha O Davis, Xinyuan Wang, Yijing Su, Ki-Jun Yoon, Alexander T Phan, William J Chen, Justin H Oh, Nicholas Marsh-Armstrong, Kamran Atabai, Guo-Li Ming, Hongjun Song

1857 related Products with: Autocrine Mfge8 Signaling Prevents Developmental Exhaustion of the Adult Neural Stem Cell Pool.

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