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#32590004   2020/06/23 To Up

Deconstructing aqueous humor outflow - The last 50 years.

Herein partially summarizes one scientist-clinician's wanderings through the jungles of primate aqueous humor outflow over the past ~45 years. Totally removing the iris has no effect on outflow facility or its response to pilocarpine, whereas disinserting the ciliary muscle (CM) from the scleral spur/trabecular meshwork (TM) completely abolishes pilocarpine's effect. Epinephrine increases facility in CM disinserted eyes. Cytochalasins and latrunculins increase outflow facility, subthreshold doses of cytochalasins and epinephrine given together increase facility, and phalloidin, which has no effect on facility, partially blocks the effect of both cytochalasins and epinephrine. H-7, ML7, Y27632 and nitric oxide - donating compounds all increase facility, consistent with a mechanosensitive TM/SC. Adenosine A1 agonists increase and angiotensin II decrease facility. OCT and optical imaging techniques now permit visualization and digital recording of the distal outflow pathways in real time. Prostaglandin (PG) F2α analogues increase the synthesis and release of matrix metalloproteinases by the CM cells, causing remodeling and thinning of the interbundle extracellular matrix (ECM), thereby increasing uveoscleral outflow and reducing IOP. Combination molecules (one molecule, two or more effects) and fixed combination products (two molecules in one bottle) simplify drug regimens for patients. Gene and stem cell therapies to enhance aqueous outflow have been successful in laboratory models and may fill an unmet need in terms of patient compliance, taking the patient out of the delivery system. Functional transfer of genes inhibiting the rho cascade or decoupling actin from myosin increase facility, while genes preferentially expressed in the glaucomatous TM decrease facility. In live NHP, reporter genes are expressed for 2+ years in the TM after a single intracameral injection, with no adverse reaction. However, except for one recent report, injection of facility-effective genes in monkey organ cultured anterior segments (MOCAS) have no effect in live NHP. While intracameral injection of an FIV. BOVPGFS-myc.GFP PGF synthase vector construct reproducibly induces an ~2 mmHg reduction in IOP, the effect is much less than that of topical PGF analogue eyedrops, and dissipates after 5 months. The turnoff mechanism has yet to be defeated, although proteasome inhibition enhances reporter gene expression in MOCAS. Intracanalicular injection might minimize off-target effects that activate turn-off mechanisms. An AD-P21 vector injected sub-tenon is effective in 'right-timing' wound healing after trabeculectomy in live laser-induced glaucomatous monkeys. In human (H)OCAS, depletion of TM cells by saponification eliminates the aqueous flow response to pressure elevation, which can be restored by either cultured TM cells or by IPSC-derived TM cells. There were many other steps along the way, but much was accomplished, biologically and therapeutically over the past half century of research and development focused on one very small but complex ocular apparatus. I am deeply grateful for this award, named for a giant in our field that none of us can live up to.
Paul L Kaufman

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#32446559   2020/05/06 To Up

Stability of RNA sequences derived from the coronavirus genome in human cells.

Most viruses inhibit the innate immune system and/or the RNA degradation processes of host cells to construct an advantageous intracellular environment for their survival. Characteristic RNA sequences within RNA virus genomes or RNAs transcribed from DNA virus genomes contribute toward this inhibition. In this study, we developed a method called "Fate-seq" to comprehensively identify the RNA sequences derived from RNA and DNA viruses, contributing RNA stability in the cells. We examined the stabilization activity of 5,924 RNA fragments derived from 26 different viruses (16 RNA viruses and 10 DNA viruses) using next-generation sequencing of these RNAs fused 3' downstream of GFP reporter RNA. With the Fate-seq approach, we detected multiple virus-derived RNA sequences that stabilized GFP reporter RNA, including sequences derived from severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Comparative genomic analysis revealed that these RNA sequences and their predicted secondary structures are highly conserved between SARS-CoV and the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, which is responsible for the global outbreak of the coronavirus-associated disease that emerged in December 2019 (COVID-19). These sequences have the potential to enhance the stability of viral RNA genomes, thereby augmenting viral replication efficiency and virulence.
Hiroyasu Wakida, Kentaro Kawata, Yuta Yamaji, Emi Hattori, Takaho Tsuchiya, Youichiro Wada, Haruka Ozaki, Nobuyoshi Akimitsu

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#31987147   2019/12/03 To Up

A novel RNA aptamer-modified riboswitch as chemical sensor.

In this study, a novel label- and immobilization-free RNA aptamer-modified riboswitch-based biosensor was developed by using RNA aptamer modified secondary-structural scaffolds to control the identity of the ribosomal binding sequence (RBS). In the developed sensor, the duplex RNA aptamers-modified cis-repressor sequence is introduced upstream to the RBS of the indicating gene (gfp gene), leading to formatting an RNA bubble due to the none-complementary state of the RNA aptamers in the hairpin structure of the cis-repressor sequence. Without the presence of the target molecule, the ribosome cannot identify the RBS of the indicating gene as the RBS is hidden by the introduced cis-repressor, consequently, the indicating gene in the sensor would not be expressed, demonstrating the absence of the target. On the contrary, with the presence of the target molecule, the binding of aptamer with the target would induce the enlargement of the RNA bubble, leading to the separation of the cis-repressor sequence and RBS. Hence, the indicating gene would be expressed, manifesting the existence of the target. In addition, the developed sensor can quantitatively report the target concentrations by measuring the gfp gene-encoded GFP (green fluorescent protein) concentration. The approach proposed in this study can be used to construct sensors for detecting various chemicals by introducing the corresponding aptamers, therefore, this strategy can potentially provide a new set of analytical tools in the field of analytical chemistry.
Jing Wang, Dongmei Yang, Xiaogang Guo, Qitao Song, Luxi Tan, Lichun Dong

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#31838941   2019/12/14 To Up

Prefrontal Cortex Regulates Chronic Stress-Induced Cardiovascular Susceptibility.

Background The medial prefrontal cortex is necessary for appropriate appraisal of stressful information, as well as coordinating visceral and behavioral processes. However, prolonged stress impairs medial prefrontal cortex function and prefrontal-dependent behaviors. Additionally, chronic stress induces sympathetic predominance, contributing to health detriments associated with autonomic imbalance. Previous studies identified a subregion of rodent prefrontal cortex, infralimbic cortex (IL), as a key regulator of neuroendocrine-autonomic integration after chronic stress, suggesting that IL output may prevent chronic stress-induced autonomic imbalance. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that the IL regulates hemodynamic, vascular, and cardiac responses to chronic stress. Methods and Results A viral-packaged small interfering RNA construct was used to knockdown vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGluT1) and reduce glutamate packaging and release from IL projection neurons. Male rats were injected with a vGluT1 small interfering RNA-expressing construct or GFP (green fluorescent protein) control into the IL and then remained as unstressed controls or were exposed to chronic variable stress. IL vGluT1 knockdown increased heart rate and mean arterial pressure reactivity, while chronic variable stress increased chronic mean arterial pressure only in small interfering RNA-treated rats. In another cohort, chronic variable stress and vGluT1 knockdown interacted to impair both endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent vasoreactivity ex vivo. Furthermore, vGluT1 knockdown and chronic variable stress increased histological markers of fibrosis and hypertrophy. Conclusions Knockdown of glutamate release from IL projection neurons indicates that these cells are necessary to prevent the enhanced physiological responses to stress that promote susceptibility to cardiovascular pathophysiology. Ultimately, these findings provide evidence for a neurobiological mechanism mediating the relationship between stress and poor cardiovascular health outcomes.
Derek Schaeuble, Amy E B Packard, Jessica M McKlveen, Rachel Morano, Sarah Fourman, Brittany L Smith, Jessie R Scheimann, Benjamin A Packard, Steven P Wilson, Jeanne James, David Y Hui, Yvonne M Ulrich-Lai, James P Herman, Brent Myers

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#31501884   // To Up

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Gene Therapy for Brain Metastases Using Myeloid Cell-Specific Gene Promoters.

Brain metastases (BrM) develop in 20-40% of cancer patients and represent an unmet clinical need. Limited access of drugs into the brain because of the blood-brain barrier is at least partially responsible for therapeutic failure, necessitating improved drug delivery systems.
Tereza Andreou, Nora Rippaus, Krzysztof Wronski, Jennifer Williams, David Taggart, Stephanie Cherqui, Ashley Sunderland, Yolanda D Kartika, Teklu Egnuni, Rebecca J Brownlie, Ryan K Mathew, Sheri L Holmen, Christopher Fife, Alastair Droop, Mihaela Lorger

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#29928581   2018/04/25 To Up

protaTETHER - a method for the incorporation of variable linkers in protein fusions reveals impacts of linker flexibility in a PKAc-GFP fusion protein.

Protein fusions are of fundamental importance in the study of cellular biology and the elucidation of cell signaling pathways, and the importance of linkers for the proper function of protein fusions is well documented in the literature. However, there are few convenient methods available to experimentalists for the systematic implementation of linkers in protein fusions. In this work, we describe a universal approach to the creation and insertion of focused linker libraries into protein fusions. This process, deemed protaTETHER, utilizes reiterative oligomer design, PCR-mediated linker library generation, and restriction enzyme-free cloning methods in a straightforward, three-step cloning process. We utilize a fusion between the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKAc) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) for the development of the protaTETHER method, implementing small linker libraries that vary by length, sequence, and predicted secondary structural elements. We analyze the impact of linker length and sequence on the expression, activity, and subcellular localization of the PKAc-GFP fusions, and use these results to select a PKAc-GFP fusion construct with robust expression and enzymatic activity. Based upon the results of both biochemical experiments and molecular modeling, we determine that linker flexibility is more important than linker length for optimal kinase activity and expression.
Jessica L Norris, Robert M Hughes

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#29580208   2018/03/27 To Up

Screening for inhibitors of mutacin synthesis in Streptococcus mutans using fluorescent reporter strains.

Within the polymicrobial dental plaque biofilm, bacteria kill competitors by excreting mixtures of bacteriocins, resulting in improved fitness and survival. Inhibiting their bacteriocin synthesis might therefore be a useful strategy to eliminate specific pathogens. We used Streptococcus mutans, a highly acidogenic inhabitant of dental plaque, as a model and searched for natural products that reduced mutacin synthesis. To this end we fused the promoter of mutacin VI to the GFP+ gene and integrated the construct into the genome of S. mutans UA159 by single homologous recombination.
Priyanka Premnath, Michael Reck, Kathrin Wittstein, Marc Stadler, Irene Wagner-Döbler

1525 related Products with: Screening for inhibitors of mutacin synthesis in Streptococcus mutans using fluorescent reporter strains.

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