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Search results for: Acyl CoA Synthase

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#33637828   2021/02/26 To Up

Reduced gonadotroph stimulation by ethanolamine plasmalogens in old bovine brains.

Ethanolamine plasmalogens (EPls), unique alkenylacyl-glycerophospholipids, are the only known ligands of G-protein-coupled receptor 61-a novel receptor co-localised with gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors on anterior pituitary gonadotrophs. Brain EPl decreases with age. Commercial EPl-extracted from the cattle brain (unidentified age)-can independently stimulate FSH secretion from gonadotrophs. We hypothesised that there exists an age-related difference in the quality, quantity, and ability of bovine brain EPls to stimulate bovine gonadotrophs. We compared the brains of young (about 26 month old heifers) and old (about 90 month old cows) Japanese Black bovines, including EPls obtained from both groups. Additionally, mRNA expressions of the EPl biosynthesis enzymes, glyceronephosphate O-acyltransferase, alkylglycerone phosphate synthase, and fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1 (FAR1) were evaluated in young and old hypothalami. The old-brain EPl did not stimulate FSH secretion from gonadotrophs, unlike the young-brain EPl. Molecular species of EPl were compared using two-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified 20 EPl molecular species of which three and three exhibited lower (P < 0.05) and higher (P < 0.05) ratios, respectively, in old compared to young brains. In addition, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction detected higher FAR1 levels in the POA, but not in the ARC&ME tissues, of old cows than that of fertile young heifers. Therefore, old-brain EPl may be associated with age-related infertility.
Hiroya Kadokawa, Miyako Kotaniguchi, Onalenna Kereilwe, Shinichi Kitamura

1295 related Products with: Reduced gonadotroph stimulation by ethanolamine plasmalogens in old bovine brains.

100 mg500 ml100mg500 ml10 ml100mg

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#33565572   // To Up

HMGB1 regulates ferroptosis through Nrf2 pathway in mesangial cells in response to high glucose.

Ferroptosis, a novel type of programmed cell death, is involved in inflammation and oxidation of various human diseases, including diabetic kidney disease. The present study explored the role of high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) on the regulation of ferroptosis in mesangial cells in response to high glucose. Compared with healthy control, levels of serum ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reactive oxygen species (ROS), malonaldehyde (MDA), and HMGB1 were significantly elevated in diabetic nephropathy (DN) patients, accompanied with deregulated ferroptosis-related molecules, including long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 4 (ACSL4), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1), and glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4). In vitro assay revealed that erastin and high glucose both induced ferroptosis in mesangial cells. Suppression of HMGB1 restored cellular proliferation, prevented ROS and LDH generation, decreased ACSL4, PTGS2, and NOX1, and increased GPX4 levels in mesangial cells. Furthermore, nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was decreased in DN patients and high glucose-mediated translocation of HMGB1 in mesangial cells. Knockdown of HMGB1 suppressed high glucose-induced activation of TLR4/NF-κB axis and promoted Nrf2 expression as well as its downstream targets including HO-1, NQO-1, GCLC, and GCLM. Collectively, these findings suggest that HMGB1 regulates glucose-induced ferroptosis via Nrf2 pathway in mesangial cells.
You Wu, Ying Zhao, Han-Ze Yang, Yan-Jun Wang, Yan Chen

1471 related Products with: HMGB1 regulates ferroptosis through Nrf2 pathway in mesangial cells in response to high glucose.

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#33556109   2021/02/08 To Up

Identification of differentially expressed genes involved in amino acid and lipid accumulation of winter turnip rape (Brassica rapa L.) in response to cold stress.

Winter turnip rape (Brassica rapa L.) is an important overwintering oil crop that is widely planted in northwestern China. It considered to be a good genetic resource for cold-tolerant research because its roots can survive harsh winter conditions. Here, we performed comparative transcriptomics analysis of the roots of two winter turnip rape varieties, Longyou7 (L7, strong cold tolerance) and Tianyou2 (T2, low cold tolerance), under normal condition (CK) and cold stress (CT) condition. A total of 8,366 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between the two L7 root groups (L7CK_VS_L7CT), and 8,106 DEGs were detected for T2CK_VS_T2CT. Among the DEGs, two ω-3 fatty acid desaturase (FAD3), two delta-9 acyl-lipid desaturase 2 (ADS2), one diacylglycerol kinase (DGK), and one 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase 2 (KCS2) were differentially expressed in the two varieties and identified to be related to fatty acid synthesis. Four glutamine synthetase cytosolic isozymes (GLN), serine acetyltransferase 1 (SAT1), and serine acetyltransferase 3 (SAT3) were down-regulated under cold stress, while S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase proenzyme 1 (AMD1) had an up-regulation tendency in response to cold stress in the two samples. Moreover, the delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS), δ-ornithine aminotransferase (δ-OAT), alanine-glyoxylate transaminase (AGXT), branched-chain-amino-acid transaminase (ilvE), alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase (AASS), Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and arginine decarboxylase related to amino acid metabolism were identified in two cultivars variously expressed under cold stress. The above DEGs related to amino acid metabolism were suspected to the reason for amino acids content change. The RNA-seq data were validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR of 19 randomly selected genes. The findings of our study provide the gene expression profile between two varieties of winter turnip rape, which lay the foundation for a deeper understanding of the highly complex regulatory mechanisms in plants during cold treatment.
Yan Fang, Jeffrey A Coulter, Junyan Wu, Lijun Liu, Xuecai Li, Yun Dong, Li Ma, Yuanyuan Pu, Bolin Sun, Zaoxia Niu, Jiaojiao Jin, Yuhong Zhao, Wenbo Mi, Yaozhao Xu, Wancang Sun

2898 related Products with: Identification of differentially expressed genes involved in amino acid and lipid accumulation of winter turnip rape (Brassica rapa L.) in response to cold stress.

100 UG25 1 kit96tests100ug Lyophilized 1 G0.5 mg5025 g100ug Lyophilized2 10 rxns

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#33520816   2020/07/15 To Up

Gender dependent differences in lipid metabolism in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

The present study investigates gender dependent effects of insulin resistance on lipid profile and adipocytokines in individuals with diabetes receiving oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs). The aim was also to reveal the changes in the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and inflammation.
Abhijit A Ghadge, Abhay M Harsulkar, Arundhati G Diwan, Aniket A Kuvalekar

1167 related Products with: Gender dependent differences in lipid metabolism in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

1096T96T2000 Units200ul2000 pcs50 200ul10mg

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#33519285   // To Up

Effect of Vitamin E Supplementation on Deposition and Gene Expression Profiling of Abdominal Fat in Broiler Chickens.

The aim of this study was to study the regulation of abdominal fat deposition by DL--tocopherol acetate (vitamin E) in broilers. Diets supplemented with 50 IU vitamin E significantly diminished abdominal fat deposition in broilers at day 35. Transcriptome sequencing results for abdominal fat tissues of the control (FC) and 50 IU vitamin E-supplemented (FT) groups identified 602 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), which were enriched in cellular process, cell and cell part, and binding Gene Ontology terms. Pathway functional analysis revealed that the DEGs were enriched in 42 metabolic pathways. Notably, the most enriched pathway, fatty acid biosynthesis, was found to play a key role in lipid metabolism. Further, the key regulators of lipid metabolism, including fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha, and acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1, demonstrated decreased expression following vitamin E supplementation. Herein, we have identified pathways and genes regulated by vitamin E, thereby providing novel insights into the nutrients regulating abdominal fat deposition in broilers.
Min Zhang, Jianlei Li, Yuting Zhu, Qiong Wu, Yan Li, Dingrui Huang, Zhending Gan, Lipeng Zhong, Jingyu Huang, Hongyi Li, Weihua Xu, Mao Zhang, Qichun Hung, Yanfa Sun

2321 related Products with: Effect of Vitamin E Supplementation on Deposition and Gene Expression Profiling of Abdominal Fat in Broiler Chickens.

300 units96 tests1242ug45 μg96tests

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#33473363   2020/11/10 To Up

Expression profiles and polymorphic identification of the gene and their association with body size traits in Dezhou donkeys.

Finding out the genetic mechanism of growth and development traits and the development of related molecular markers can help improve the breeding of livestock. The long-chain acyl coenzyme A synthase 1 () gene plays a major role in lipid synthesis and fatty acid catabolism. However, there are few studies on the gene polymorphism of Dezhou donkeys. This study analyzed the expression level of the gene in different tissues of young and adult Dezhou donkeys, as well as association analysis of four gene polymorphic loci in 450 individuals. The results showed that expression levels of the gene are higher in heart, liver, spleen, lung, renal, gastric and muscle tissues of adult donkeys than in those of young donkeys. In the association analysis between genotype and body size traits, the wild genotype DD at the locus in female and male donkeys was greater than the mutant genotype II ( ); genotype II of was significantly higher than that of DD in withers height, body length, rump width and body weight of male donkeys ( ); and showed a tendency for the wild genotype II to be greater than the mutant genotype DD in female and male donkeys ( ). In addition, among the five haplotype combinations constructed, Hap3Hap3 (II-II-DD-DD) and Hap6Hap6 (DD-II-II-II) haplotype combinations were superior to other haplotype combinations in growth traits, which also indicated that the results of haplotype combination association analysis and genotype association analysis tended to be the same. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that the polymorphic loci of the gene can be used as candidate molecular markers for the growth and development of Dezhou donkeys, and provide a theoretical reference for the breeding of Dezhou donkeys.
Zhenyu Lai, Fei Wu, Zihui Zhou, Mei Li, Yuan Gao, Guijun Yin, Jie Yu, Chuzhao Lei, Ruihua Dang

1618 related Products with: Expression profiles and polymorphic identification of the gene and their association with body size traits in Dezhou donkeys.

300 units10 mg500 MG100ul25 mg96T5ug50 ug 96T50 mg25 mg

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#33417824   // To Up

Chemical Ecology, Biochemistry, and Molecular Biology of Insect Hydrocarbons.

Insect cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) consist of complex mixtures of straight-chain alkanes and alkenes, and methyl-branched hydrocarbons. In addition to restricting water loss through the cuticle and preventing desiccation, they have secondarily evolved to serve a variety of functions in chemical communication and play critical roles as signals mediating the life histories of insects. In this review, we describe the physical properties of CHCs that allow for both waterproofing and signaling functions, summarize their roles as inter- and intraspecific chemical signals, and discuss the influences of diet and environment on CHC profiles. We also present advances in our understanding of hydrocarbon biosynthesis. Hydrocarbons are biosynthesized in oenocytes and transported to the cuticle by lipophorin proteins. Recent work on the synthesis of fatty acids and their ultimate reductive decarbonylation to hydrocarbons has taken advantage of powerful new tools of molecular biology, including genomics and RNA interference knockdown of specific genes, to provide new insights into the biosynthesis of hydrocarbons.
Gary J Blomquist, Matthew D Ginzel

2359 related Products with: Chemical Ecology, Biochemistry, and Molecular Biology of Insect Hydrocarbons.

1L500 grams 2x5L1000 tests1 ml 6 ml Ready-to-use 100ug1x10e7 cells25 mg 5 G1 mL

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#33417213   // To Up

The Drosophila melanogaster as Genetic Model System to Dissect the Mechanisms of Disease that Lead to Neurodegeneration in Adrenoleukodystrophy.

Drosophila melanogaster is the most successful genetic model organism to study different human disease with a recent increased popularity to study neurological disorders. Drosophila melanogaster has a complex yet well-defined brain with defined anatomical regions with specific functions. The neuronal network in the adult brain has a structural organization highly similar to human neurons, but in a brain that is much more amenable for complex analyses. The availability of sophisticated genetic tools to study neurons permits to examine neuronal functions at the single cell level in the whole brain by confocal imaging, which does not require sections. Thus, Drosophila has been used to successfully study many neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease and has been recently adopted to understand the complex networks leading to neurological disorders with metabolic origins such as Leigh disease and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD).In this review, we will describe the genetic tools available to study neuronal structures and functions and also illustrate some limitations of the system. Finally, we will report the experimental efforts that in the past 10 years have established Drosophila melanogaster as an excellent model organism to study neurodegenerative disorders focusing on X-ALD.
Margret H Bülow, Brendon D Parsons, Francesca Di Cara

2396 related Products with: The Drosophila melanogaster as Genetic Model System to Dissect the Mechanisms of Disease that Lead to Neurodegeneration in Adrenoleukodystrophy.

430 tests100 1 kit1 mg1 kit600 Tests / Kit1 kit(96 Wells)

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#33414430   2021/01/07 To Up

Neutral lipids as early biomarkers of cellular fate: the case of α-synuclein overexpression.

α-synuclein (α-syn) accumulation and aggregation is a common pathological factor found in synucleinopathies, a group of neurodegenerative disorders that includes Parkinson´s disease (PD). It has been proposed that lipid dyshomeostasis is responsible for the occurrence of PD-related processes, however, the precise role of lipids in the onset and progression of neurodegenerative disorders remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate the effect of α-syn overexpression on neutral lipid metabolism and how this impacts on neuronal fate. We found lipid droplet (LD) accumulation in cells overexpressing α-syn to be associated with a rise in triacylglycerol (TAG) and cholesteryl ester (CE) levels. α-syn overexpression promoted diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 upregulation and acyl-CoA synthetase activation, triggering TAG buildup, that was accompanied by an increase in diacylglycerol acylation. Moreover, the CE increment was associated with higher activity of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase. Interestingly, α-syn overexpression increased cholesterol lysosomal accumulation. We observed that sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1 and SREBP-2 were differentially regulated by α-syn overexpression. The latter gave rise to a reduction in SREBP-1 nuclear translocation and consequently in fatty acid synthase expression, whereas it produced an increase in SREBP-2 nuclear localization. Surprisingly, and despite increased cholesterol levels, SREBP-2 downstream genes related to cholesterolgenesis were not upregulated as expected. Notably, phospholipid (PL) levels were diminished in cells overexpressing α-syn. This decrease was related to the activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) with a concomitant imbalance of the PL deacylation-acylation cycle. Fatty acids released from PLs by iPLA2 and cPLA2 action were esterified into TAGs, thus promoting a biological response to α-syn overexpression with uncompromised cell viability. When the described steady-state was disturbed under conditions favoring higher levels of α-syn, the response was an enhanced LD accumulation, this imbalance ultimately leading to neuronal death.
Natalia P Alza, Melisa A Conde, Paola G Scodelaro-Bilbao, Gabriela A Salvador

2489 related Products with: Neutral lipids as early biomarkers of cellular fate: the case of α-synuclein overexpression.

100tests1,000 tests10 assays

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#33340324   2020/12/19 To Up

Overexpression and inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase affect central metabolic pathways in tobacco.

Little has been established on the relationship between the mevalonate (MVA) pathway and other metabolic pathways except for the sterol and glucosinolate biosynthesis pathways. In the MVA pathway, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMGS) catalyses the condensation of acetoacetyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA to form HMG-CoA. Our previous studies had shown that while the recombinant Brassica juncea HMGS1 (BjHMGS1) mutant S359A displayed 10-fold higher enzyme activity than wild-type (wt) BjHMGS1, transgenic tobacco overexpressing S359A (OE-S359A) exhibited higher sterol content, growth rate and seed yield than OE-wtBjHMGS1. Herein, untargeted proteomics and targeted metabolomics were employed to understand the phenotypic effects of HMGS overexpression in tobacco by examining which other metabolic pathways were affected. SWATH-MS quantitative proteomics analysis on OE-wtBjHMGS1 and OE-S359A identified the misregulation of proteins in primary metabolism and cell wall modification, while some proteins related to photosynthesis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle were upregulated in OE-S359A. Metabolomic analysis indicated corresponding changes in carbohydrate, amino acid and fatty acid contents in HMGS-OEs, and F-244, a specific inhibitor of HMGS, was applied successfully on tobacco to confirm these observations. Finally, the crystal structure of acetyl-CoA-liganded S359A revealed that improved activity of S359A likely resulted from a loss in hydrogen bonding between Ser359 and acyl-CoA which is evident in wtBjHMGS1. This work suggests that regulation of plant growth by HMGS can influence the central metabolic pathways. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that the application of the HMGS-specific inhibitor (F-244) in tobacco represents an effective approach for studying the HMGS/MVA pathway.
Pan Liao, Shiu-Cheung Lung, Wai Lung Chan, Menglong Hu, Geoffrey Kwai-Wai Kong, Thomas J Bach, Quan Hao, Clive Lo, Mee-Len Chye

2526 related Products with: Overexpression and inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase affect central metabolic pathways in tobacco.

48 assays 96 assays 25 MG48 assays 5 mg96 assays 5 G48 assays48 samples100

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