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#33645070   // To Up

[Improvement effect and mechanism of ethanol extract from Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium on triglyceride in hyperlipidemia model rat].

The aim of this paper was to study the improvement effect of ethanol extract from Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium(CRP) on triglyceride of hyperlipidemia model rats, and to explore the possible mechanism. SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, positive control group, and high, medium and low-dose CRP ethanol extract groups, with 10 rats in each group. During the experiment, except for the normal group that was fed with distilled water and ordinary feed, rats in the other groups were given different concentrations of alcohol and fed with high-sugar and fat diets. All rats were given free diets. While being modeled, each group was administered with 0.01 mL·g~(-1) by gavage once a day for six weeks. Blood samples were collected after two weeks, four weeks and six weeks of drug treatment. After the completion of the experiment, blood, liver and adipose tissue were collected. Triglyceride(TG), alanine aminotransferase(ALT), aspartate aminotransferase(AST), alkaline phosphatase(ALP) in serum, TG in liver tissue and TG in fecal were detected. Free fatty acid(FFA) and triglyceride-related hydrolase, such as adipose tiglyceride lipase(ATGL), lipoprotein lipase(LPL), hepatic lipase(HL), hormone-sensitive triglyceride lipase(HSL) were detected by ELISA. The mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors(PPARγ), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 c(SREBP-1 c) and farnesoid X receptor(FXR) were determined by RT-PCR. Compared with the model group, each administration group could reduce TG levels in serum and liver to varying degrees, reduce serum ALT, AST, ALP activities, significantly reduce free fatty acid content in serum, significantly increase triglyceride metabolism-related enzymes, including fat ATGL, LPL and liver HL content, and significantly reduced the content of fat HSL. According to the study of transcriptional regulation genes relating to triglyceride metabolism, extract from CRP could significantly increase the mRNA expressions of PPARγ and FXR. In conclusion, ethanol extract from CRP could ob-viously reduce the TG level of hyperlipidemia model rats, and might reduce plasma TG content by increasing PPARγ-LPL/ATGL and FXR-HL triglyceride hydrolysis pathways.
Yu-Zhong DU, Jie Su, Mei-Qiu Yan, Su-Hong Chen, Gui-Yuan Lyu, Jing-Jing Yu

1239 related Products with: [Improvement effect and mechanism of ethanol extract from Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium on triglyceride in hyperlipidemia model rat].

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#33617364   // To Up

and L. Mixture Regulates Lipolytic Activity in Differentiated 3T3-L1 Cells.

In this study, we investigated the lipolytic effects of an (Indian gooseberry [IG]) and L. (barley sprout [BP]) mixture on differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. On the ninth day of differentiation, Oil red O staining and Western blotting were performed; additionally, glycerol release and triglyceride (TG), fatty acid (FA), and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels were measured. Compared to the differentiation-induced control (C) group, the IG and BP mixture inhibited intracellular TG and FA levels by 61.7% and 48.9%, respectively, at a concentration of 200 μg/mL. Moreover, the mixture increased glycerol release and cAMP levels by more than twofold more than those in the C group. Western blotting was performed to confirm the protein expression involved in lipolysis, and the IG and BP mixture was found to significantly increase the protein activities of AMP-activated protein kinase, protein kinase A, and hormone-sensitive lipase compared to those of the C group. Furthermore, the mixture significantly inhibited the protein activities of phosphodiesterase 3B, adipose TG lipase, and perilipin compared to those of the C group at a concentration of 200 μg/mL. We found that the IG and BP mixture activates the cAMP pathway and regulates lipolytic enzymes, which are necessary for lipolysis. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the IG and BP mixture can be potentially developed as a new material for targeting mechanisms underlying lipolysis.
Soo-Jeung Park, Minhee Lee, Dong Hwan Oh, Jong-Lae Kim, Mi-Ryeong Park, Tae Gi Kim, Ok-Kyung Kim, Jeongmin Lee

2610 related Products with: and L. Mixture Regulates Lipolytic Activity in Differentiated 3T3-L1 Cells.

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#33594826   2021/02/16 To Up

Inhibition of PAI-1 Promotes Lipolysis and Enhances Weight Loss in Obese Mice.

This study investigates the therapeutic potential of a small molecule inhibitor of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), TM5441, in reversing diet-induced obesity in mice.
Joshua A Levine, Shantel Olivares, Toshio Miyata, Douglas E Vaughan, Anne S Henkel

2138 related Products with: Inhibition of PAI-1 Promotes Lipolysis and Enhances Weight Loss in Obese Mice.

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#33579649   2021/01/07 To Up

Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on metabolic status, BW and expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in adipose tissue of dairy cows during peripartum.

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) dietary supplementation reduces milk fat content and yield, but its effects on lipid metabolism and energy status remain controversial. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary CLA on adipose tissue (AT) mRNA abundance of genes related to lipid metabolism, plasma indicators of metabolic status, body condition score (BCS) and BW changes in dairy cows. Sixteen multiparous Holstein cows (3.2 ± 1.4 lactations, 615 ± 15 kg BW) were randomly assigned to treatments: 1) CLA; rumen-protected CLA (75 g/d) or 2) Control; equivalent amount of rumen inert fatty acid (FA) as the previous diet (78 g/d), from -20.2 ± 3.2 (mean ± SEM) to 21d relative to calving (d 0). Subcutaneous AT was biopsied from the tail-head region at d 21 to determine the mRNA abundance of genes related to lipid metabolism. Blood samples were collected at -20.2 ± 3.2, 0, 7, 14 and 21d relative to calving to determine plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), insulin and glucose. Conjugated linoleic acid decreased milk fat yield and milk fat content by 15 and 16%, respectively. Cows fed CLA had lower plasma NEFA and BHBA and greater glucose and insulin concentrations (P < 0.05). Mean BCS at 21d postpartum was greater (P < 0.01; 2.89 vs 2.25), and BCS loss from the day of enrollment to 21d postpartum was reduced (P < 0.01; -0.13 vs -0.64) in the CLA group. The expression of acylcoenzyme A oxidase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A, hormone-sensitive lipase, β2 adrenergic receptor and acetyl-CoA carboxylase was downregulated by CLA supplementation, whereas the expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein, lipoprotein lipase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma was upregulated (P < 0.01). In summary, CLA-supplemented cows showed signs of better metabolic status and less severe fat mobilization. Moreover, CLA increased mRNA abundance of genes related to lipogenesis and decreased mRNA abundance of genes related to FA oxidation and lipolysis in the AT of dairy cows during early lactation.
E Dirandeh, M Ghorbanalinia, A R Roodbari, M G Colazo

1268 related Products with: Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on metabolic status, BW and expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in adipose tissue of dairy cows during peripartum.

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#33555857   2021/02/08 To Up

Versatile Lipases from the -like Family: A Mechanistic Insight Using Computational Approaches.

Lipases are enzymes able to catalyze the hydrolysis or synthesis of triglycerides, depending on the reaction conditions, whereas sterol esterases show the same ability on sterol esters. Structurally, both kinds of enzymes display an α/β-hydrolase fold, with a substrate-binding pocket formed by a hydrophobic cavity covered by a mobile lid. However, it has been reported that some lipases from the -like family display wide substrate specificity on both triglycerides and sterol esters. Among them, enzymes with different biotechnological applications, such as the lipase isoenzymes produced by and the sterol esterase from , have been exhaustively characterized and their crystal structures are available. Differences in substrate affinity among these proteins have been attributed to changes in their hydrophobicity. In this work, we analyzed the full catalytic mechanisms of these proteins using molecular dynamics tools, gaining insight into their mechanistic properties. In addition, we developed an protocol to predict the substrate specificity using and lipases as model enzymes and triglycerides and cholesterol esters with different fatty acid chain lengths as model substrates. The protocol was validated by comparing the results with those described in the literature. These results would be useful to perform virtual screening of substrates for enzymes of the -like family with unknown catalytic properties.
Javier Rodríguez-Salarichs, Mario García de Lacoba, Alicia Prieto, María Jesús Martínez, Jorge Barriuso

1315 related Products with: Versatile Lipases from the -like Family: A Mechanistic Insight Using Computational Approaches.

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#33551168   2021/02/04 To Up

All-trans retinoic acid controls differentiation, proliferation, and lipolysis in isolated subcutaneous adipocytes from peripartal Holstein cows.

Preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation are critical for normal adipose tissue development, including achieving a mature phenotype, characterized by its ability to accumulate triacylglycerol and release fatty acids. In nonruminants, it is well known that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), the most-active form of vitamin A, helps regulate proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in several types of cells including adipocytes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ATRA on proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and lipolysis of primary bovine adipocytes isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissue of 5 healthy Holstein cows at 17 (±4 standard deviations) d postpartum. Cells were stimulated with increasing concentrations of ATRA (0.2, 2, and 20 nM) at the preconfluent (2 d) and postconfluent (8 d) preadipocyte stage or at the mature adipocyte stage (2 d). All concentrations of ATRA inhibited preconfluent preadipocyte proliferation with decreased proportion of S-phase cells and reduced protein abundance of cyclins (CCND1, CCND2, CCND3, CCNE1) and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK2, CDK4, CDK6). Compared with vehicle, ATRA treatment induced apoptosis in preconfluent preadipocytes. Additionally, ATRA (0.2, 2, and 20 nM) supplementation also inhibited differentiation of postconfluent preadipocytes through downregulation of protein abundance of PPARγ and C/EBPα. After induction of differentiation, basal lipolysis in mature adipocytes increased upon treatment with all concentrations of ATRA. However, data on phosphorylated hormone-sensitive lipase or PLIN1 indicated that ATRA had no effect on epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis in mature adipocytes. Overall, these results demonstrate that ATRA might inhibit lipid accumulation by suppressing preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation, subsequently leading to apoptosis in postconfluent preadipocytes and promoting basal lipolysis in mature adipocytes. Overall, these in vitro responses provide some insights into the potential for nutritional management to modulate adipose tissue lipolysis, particularly in overconditioned cows during the dry period, which are more susceptible to suffer metabolic disorders due to excessive fat mobilization postpartum.
Qiushi Xu, Yunhui Fan, Juan J Loor, Yusheng Liang, Xudong Sun, Hongdou Jia, Chenxu Zhao, Chuang Xu

1194 related Products with: All-trans retinoic acid controls differentiation, proliferation, and lipolysis in isolated subcutaneous adipocytes from peripartal Holstein cows.

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#33549847   2021/02/05 To Up

Hypothalamic hormone-sensitive lipase regulates appetite and energy homeostasis.

The goal of this study was to investigate the importance of central hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) expression in the regulation of food intake and body weight in mice to clarify whether intracellular lipolysis in the mammalian hypothalamus plays a role in regulating appetite.
Cecilie Hundahl, Petra Kotzbeck, Hayley B Burm, Søren H Christiansen, Lola Torz, Aske W Helge, Martin P Madsen, Cecilia Ratner, Annette K Serup, Jonatan J Thompson, Thomas O Eichmann, Tune H Pers, David P D Woldbye, Daniele Piomelli, Bente Kiens, Rudolf Zechner, Louise J Skov, Birgitte Holst

1100 related Products with: Hypothalamic hormone-sensitive lipase regulates appetite and energy homeostasis.

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#33549845   2021/02/05 To Up

Adipose tissue lipolysis is regulated by PAQR11 via altering protein stability of phosphodiesterase 4D.

Fat storage and mobilization in adipose tissue play a central role in energy metabolism and are directly linked to the development of obesity. Upon starvation, fat is mobilized from adipose tissue by lipolysis, a process by which triglycerides are hydrolyzed to free fatty acids to be used as an energy source in skeletal muscles and other tissues. However, how lipolysis is activated by starvation is not fully known. In this study, we demonstrate that PAQR11, a member of the progesterone and AdipoQ receptor family, regulates starvation-mediated lipolysis. Paqr11-deleted mice are resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity. Paqr11 deletion promotes lipolysis in white adipose tissue, characterized by increased phosphorylations of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and perilipin 1 (PLIN1) and elevated serum levels of glycerol and free fatty acids. PKA activity and cAMP levels in white adipose tissue are also increased by Paqr11 deletion, accompanied by accelerated protein degradation of phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D). Mechanistically, PAQR11 decreases the interaction of PDE4D with SKP1-CUL1-FBXO2 E3 ligase complex, thus modulating the polyubiquitination/degradation of PDE4D. Fasting decreases the expression of the Paqr11 gene, and starvation-induced lipolysis in white adipose tissue is enhanced by Paqr11 deletion, while insulin-mediated suppression of lipolysis is not affected. Collectively, these results reveal that PAQR11 regulates lipolysis of adipose tissue and affects high-fat diet-induced obesity.
Meiqin Huang, Yijun Lin, Lin Wang, Xue You, Shuo Wang, Jingyu Zhao, Meijuan Bai, Zixuan Li, Yan Chen

1884 related Products with: Adipose tissue lipolysis is regulated by PAQR11 via altering protein stability of phosphodiesterase 4D.

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#33548311   2021/02/03 To Up

Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua polysaccharide exhibits anti-fatigue activity via regulating osteocalcin signaling.

In the present study, we explored the anti-fatigue activity and its potential mechanism of a purified Polygonatum cyrtonema polysaccharide (PCP) on mice using weight-loaded swimming test. Results showed that PCP remarkably prolonged the exhaustive swimming time of mice when compared with normal control group. Meanwhile, PCP decreased serum levels of lactic acid (LA), blood uric nitrogen (BUN), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and increased the contents of liver glycogen, muscle glycogen and muscle ATP. These results revealed that PCP had good anti-fatigue ability. The histomorphologic analysis showed that PCP increased the cross-section area of the muscle fibers. Furthermore, PCP significantly enhanced the protein levels of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), phosphor-Smad1, Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and osteocalcin (OC) in skeleton. Similar variation was also observed in the expression of osteocalcin signaling mediators of phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (p-CREB) and phosphorylated hormone-sensitive lipase (p-HSL) in skeletal muscle. These results suggested that PCP resisted fatigue possibly via regulating osteocalcin signaling.
Wen-Di Shen, Xue-Ying Li, Yuan-Yuan Deng, Xue-Qiang Zha, Li-Hua Pan, Qiang-Ming Li, Jian-Ping Luo

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