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Silkworm storage protein Bm30K-19G1 has a certain antifungal effects on Beauveria bassiana.

Storage proteins in the 30 K family are ubiquitous in the hemolymph of insects and play important roles in adult metamorphosis, development, egg formation, carrier transport and even host immunity. Some studies have shown that the 30 K proteins can inhibit apoptosis and have certain antifungal effects. The silkworm protein Bm30K-19G1 is a low molecular weight apolipoprotein that is abundant in hemolymph of fifth instar larvae. Our previous transcriptome sequencing, real-time PCR analysis and proteomic studies showed that the expression level of the 30 K protein gene was significantly up-regulated in the silkworm infected with Beauveria bassiana. In this study, the ORF sequence of Bm30K-19G1 was amplified by PCR. The sequence is 1311 bp in length and encodes a 436 amino acid peptide. Bm30K-19G1 was expressed in all tested tissues of fifth instar larvae, with highest expression in fat body and the lowest expression in the midgut. Bm30K-19G1 protein was successfully expressed in the prokaryotic expression system using pET-28a(+) as vector and E. coli Arctic Express (DE3) as the expression bacterium strain. The expressed recombinant Bm30K-19G1 protein has an inhibitory effect on the conidial germination and hyphal growth of B. bassiana. Bm30K-19G1 also inhibited the growth and reproduction of B. bassiana in vivo; the median lethal time of infected silkworms was postponed by 6.4 h and the time for death of all infected larvae was postponed by 10 h. The results indicated that the silkworm storage protein 30K-19G1 is an antifungal protein against B. bassiana and help to elucidate the molecular mechanism of silkworm resistance against B. bassiana.

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Molecular properties and tissue distribution of 30K proteins as ommin-binding proteins from diapause eggs of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

We previously reported the purification of an ommin-binding protein (OMBP) from an acid-methanol extract of diapause eggs of the silkworm and that OMBP reacted with the anti-30K proteins antiserum. In order to clarify the relationship between OMBP and the 30K proteins, we attempted to determine the sequence of the N-terminal amino acid of OMBP, which was separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). We observed ten protein spots of various isoelectric points; the spots corresponded with 30 kDa. Based on the sequence of the N-terminal amino acid (20 residues), the spots belonged to two kinds of 30K proteins (6G1 and 19G1), which are known as the major plasma proteins in the larval hemolymph of the silkworm. The proteins are expected to attach to polysaccharide because they reacted with concanavalin A and elderberry bark lectin. Immunohistochemical observations clarified that the proteins were localized in yolk granules and serosa in the diapause egg. These results suggest that OMBP is composed of 30K proteins which were modified with polysaccharides. In addition, the expression of 30K proteins mRNA was observed at early embryonic stage in diapause eggs by RT-PCR analysis. The 30K proteins as OMBP may play an important role in the transport and accumulation of tryptophan metabolites and ommochrome during the formation of serosa.

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Silkworm midgut proteins interacting with a hemolymph protease inhibitor, CI-8.

CI-8 is the chymotrypsin inhibitor in hemolymph from the silkworm, Bombyx mori. It occurs in the midgut at the spinning stage of larva, but little information on the mechanism of its uptake in the midgut is available. We found that two polypeptides interacting with CI-8 are in the midgut membrane, and we purified them using a biotinylated CI-8, viz., p29 and p60, having molecular sizes of 29 kDa and 60 kDa respectively. The structures of p29 and p60 were examined by N-terminal amino acid sequencing and peptide mass mapping, including tryptic digestion. p29 was highly similar to the matured 19G1-30K lipoprotein from hemolymph, but p60 was novel. Purified p29 was recognized by anti-19G1-30K antibody, and was confirmed to be similar to 19G1-30K. The antibody also neutralized the CI-8 binding ability of p29 in the midgut membrane. p29 and p60 are perhaps proteinaceous factors involved in the uptake of CI-8 into the midgut through the membrane.

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Glucan-binding activity of silkworm 30-kDa apolipoprotein and its involvement in defense against fungal infection.

The silkworm Bombyx mori 30-kDa lipoproteins (6G1 and 19G1), major components of the hemolymph, were shown to bind to glucans. 6G1 apolipoprotein was expressed as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase in Escherichia coli and assayed for its binding activity. The purified recombinant 6G1 apolipoprotein specifically bound to beta-glucan, but not to chitin, mannan, peptidoglycan, or oligosaccharide chains on glycoproteins. The beta-glucan binding of the recombinant 6G1 was inhibited by laminaribiose and laminarin, a soluble glucan, but not by lipopolysaccharide or insect blood sugar, trehalose at physiological concentration. Furthermore, the recombinant 6G1 was shown to participate in the activation of prophenoloxidase cascade and to interfere with hyphal growth of the entomopathogenic fungus Paecilomyces tenuipes, injected into pupae of B. mori. These results suggest that 6G1 lipoprotein plays a role in the protection of B. mori against invading fungi.

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Complete nucleotide sequences of major plasma protein genes of Bombyx mori.

In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, a family of hormone-sensitive genes encodes major plasma proteins, termed '30K proteins'. We reported the organization of the 30K protein gene family together with the structure and expression of a member of the gene family (Mori, S. et al. (1991) J. Mol. Biol. 218, 7-12). In this communication, we present the complete structures of two other 30K protein genes in the family. Sequence analyses demonstrated that all three genes are similar to each other; a short first exon and protein-coding second exon are interspersed by a single intron. Structures homologous to the putative regulatory elements for the 30K protein gene expression are also found around each gene.

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