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Search results for: MOG peptide Proteins

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#38732169   2024/05/01 To Up

Lactate Dehydrogenase-Elevating Virus Infection Inhibits MOG Peptide Presentation by CD11b+CD11c+ Dendritic Cells in a Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis.

Infections may affect the course of autoimmune inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Infections with lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV) protected mice from developing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse counterpart of MS. Uninfected C57BL/6 mice immunized with the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide (MOG35-55) experienced paralysis and lost weight at a greater rate than mice who had previously been infected with LDV. LDV infection decreased the presentation of the MOG peptide by CD11b+CD11c+ dendritic cells (DC) to pathogenic T lymphocytes. When comparing non-infected mice to infected mice, the histopathological examination of the CNS showed more areas of demyelination and CD45+ and CD3+, but not Iba1+ cell infiltration. These results suggest that the protective effect of LDV infection against EAE development is mediated by a suppression of myelin antigen presentation by a specific DC subset to autoreactive T lymphocytes. Such a mechanism might contribute to the general suppressive effect of infections on autoimmune diseases known as the hygiene hypothesis.
Pyone Pyone Soe, Mélanie Gaignage, Mohamed F Mandour, Etienne Marbaix, Jacques Van Snick, Jean-Paul Coutelier

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#38701189   2024/05/03 To Up

Oxidative phosphorylation regulates B cell effector cytokines and promotes inflammation in multiple sclerosis.

Dysregulated B cell cytokine production contributes to pathogenesis of immune-mediated diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS); however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study we investigated how cytokine secretion by pro-inflammatory (GM-CSF-expressing) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10-expressing) B cells is regulated. Pro-inflammatory human B cells required increased oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) compared with anti-inflammatory B cells. OXPHOS reciprocally modulated pro- and anti-inflammatory B cell cytokines through regulation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) signaling. Partial inhibition of OXPHOS or ATP-signaling including with BTK inhibition resulted in an anti-inflammatory B cell cytokine shift, reversed the B cell cytokine imbalance in patients with MS, and ameliorated neuroinflammation in a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalitis mouse model. Our study identifies how pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines are metabolically regulated in B cells and identifies ATP and its metabolites as a "fourth signal" that shapes B cell responses and is a potential target for restoring the B cell cytokine balance in autoimmune diseases.
Rui Li, Yanting Lei, Ayman Rezk, Diego A Espinoza, Jing Wang, Huiru Feng, Bo Zhang, Isabella P Barcelos, Hang Zhang, Jing Yu, Xinrui Huo, Fangyi Zhu, Changxin Yang, Hao Tang, Amy C Goldstein, Brenda L Banwell, Hakon Hakonarson, Hongwei Xu, Michael Mingueneau, Bo Sun, Hulun Li, Amit Bar-Or

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#38630950   2024/04/17 To Up

Life-Threatening MOG Antibody-Associated Hemorrhagic ADEM With Elevated CSF IL-6.

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is one characteristic manifestation of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD). A previously healthy man presented with retro-orbital headache and urinary retention 14 days after Tdap vaccination. Brain and spine MRI suggested a CNS demyelinating process. Despite treatment with IV steroids, he deteriorated, manifesting hemiparesis and later impaired consciousness, requiring intubation. A repeat brain MRI demonstrated new bilateral supratentorial lesions associated with venous sinus thrombosis, hemorrhage, and midline shift. Anti-MOG antibody was present at a high titer. CSF IL-6 protein was >2,000 times above the upper limits of normal. He improved after plasma exchange, then began monthly treatment alone with anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, tocilizumab, and has remained stable. This case highlights how adult-onset MOGAD, like childhood ADEM, can rapidly become life-threatening. The markedly elevated CSF IL-6 observed here supports consideration for evaluating CSF cytokines more broadly in patients with acute MOGAD.
Akash Virupakshaiah, Carson E Moseley, Steven Elicegui, Lee M Gerwitz, Collin M Spencer, Elizabeth George, Maulik Shah, Bruce A C Cree, Emmanuelle Waubant, Scott S Zamvil

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#38468222   2024/03/11 To Up

Administration methods and dosage of poly(lactic acid)-glycol intervention to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalitis mice.

Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-associated disorders (MOGAD) is an autoimmune central nervous system disease. Antigen-specific immune tolerance using nanoparticles such as Polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) have recently been used as a new therapeutic tolerization approach for CNS autoimmune diseases. We examined whether MOG conjugated with PLGA could induce MOG-specific immune tolerance in an experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) mouse model. EAE was induced in sixty C57BL/6 J wild-type mice using MOG peptide with complete Freund's Adjuvant. The mice were divided into 12 groups (n = 5 each) to test the ability of MOG conjugated PLGA intervention to mitigate the severity or improve the outcomes from EAE with and without rapamycin compared to antigen alone or PLGA alone. EAE score and serum MOG-IgG titers were compared among the interventions.Kindly check and confirm the processed Affiliation “4” is appropriate.I confirmed the Aff 4.Affiliation: Corresponding author information have been changed to present affiliation. Kindly check and confirm.I checked and confirmed the Corresponding author's information.
Amy E Wright, Shuhei Nishiyama, Patrick Han, Philip Kong, Michael Levy

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#38465945   2024/02/23 To Up

Scoring Central Nervous System Inflammation, Demyelination, and Axon Injury in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a common immune-based model of multiple sclerosis (MS). This disease can be induced in rodents by active immunization with protein components of the myelin sheath and Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) or by the transfer of myelin-specific T effector cells from rodents primed with myelin protein/CFA into naïve rodents. The severity of EAE is typically scored on a 5-point clinical scale that measures the degree of ascending paralysis, but this scale is not optimal for assessing the extent of recovery from EAE. For example, clinical scores remain high in some EAE models (e.g., myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein [MOG] peptide-induced model of EAE) despite the resolution of inflammation. Thus, it is important to complement clinical scoring with histological scoring of EAE, which also provides a means to study the underlying mechanisms of cellular injury in the central nervous system (CNS). Here, a simple protocol is presented to prepare and stain spinal cord and brain sections from mice and to score inflammation, demyelination, and axonal injury in the spinal cord. The method for scoring leukocyte infiltration in the spinal cord can also be applied to score brain inflammation in EAE. A protocol for measuring soluble neurofilament light (sNF-L) in the serum of mice using a Small Molecule Assay (SIMOA) assay is also described, which provides feedback on the extent of overall CNS injury in live mice.
Carmen C Ucciferri, Annette Gower, Nuria Alvarez-Sanchez, Heather Whetstone, Valeria Ramaglia, Jennifer L Gommerman, Koroboshka Brand-Arzamendi, Raphael Schneider, Shannon E Dunn

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#38433828   2024/02/16 To Up

Sustained effects on immune cell subsets and autoreactivity in multiple sclerosis patients treated with oral cladribine.

Cladribine tablet therapy is an efficacious treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS). Recently, we showed that one year after the initiation of cladribine treatment, T and B cell crosstalk was impaired, reducing potentially pathogenic effector functions along with a specific reduction of autoreactivity to RAS guanyl releasing protein 2 (RASGRP2). In the present study we conducted a longitudinal analysis of the effect of cladribine treatment in patients with RRMS, focusing on the extent to which the effects observed on T and B cell subsets and autoreactivity after one year of treatment are maintained, modulated, or amplified during the second year of treatment.
Rikke Holm Hansen, Marina Rode von Essen, Mie Reith Mahler, Stefan Cobanovic, Finn Sellebjerg

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#38335658   2024/02/09 To Up

Development of an in vitro peptide-stimulated T cell assay to evaluate immune effects by cannabinoid compounds.

Previous studies demonstrated that cannabinoids exhibit immunosuppressive effects in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). To ask questions about treatment timing and investigate mechanisms for immune suppression by the plant-derived cannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), an in vitro peptide stimulation of naive splenocytes (SPLC) was developed to mimic T cell activation in EAE. The peptide was derived from the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) protein, which is one component of the myelin sheath. MOG peptide is typically used with an immune adjuvant to trigger MOG-reactive T cells that attack MOG-containing tissues, causing demyelination and clinical disease in EAE. To develop the in vitro model, naïve SPLC were stimulated with MOG peptide on day 0 and restimulated on day 4. Cytokine analyses revealed that CBD and THC suppressed MOG peptide-stimulated cytokine production. Flow cytometric analysis showed that intracellular cytokines could be detected in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. To determine if intracellular calcium was altered in the cultures, cells were stimulated for 4 days to assess the state of the cells at the time of MOG peptide restimulation. Both cannabinoid-treated cultures had a smaller population of the calcium-positive population as compared to vehicle-treated cells. These results demonstrate the establishment of an in vitro model that can be used to mimic MOG-reactive T cell stimulation in vivo.
Olivia Cresswell, Karis Blankenship, Barbara L F Kaplan

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#38323310   2024/01/20 To Up

Midline-1 regulates effector T cell motility in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis via mTOR/microtubule pathway.

Effector T cell activation, migration, and proinflammatory cytokine production are crucial steps in autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS). While several therapeutic approaches targeting T cell activation and proinflammatory cytokines have been developed for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, there are no therapeutic agents targeting the migration of effector T cells, largely due to our limited understanding of regulatory mechanisms of T cell migration in autoimmune disease. Here we reported that midline-1 (Mid1) is a key regulator of effector T cell migration in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a widely used animal model of MS. mice were generated by Crispr-Cas9 technology. T cell-specific Mid1 knockout chimeric mice were generated by adoptive transfer of T cells into lymphocyte deficient mice. Mice were either immunized with MOG (active EAE) or received adoptive transfer of pathogenic T cells (passive EAE) to induce EAE. Transwell assay or footpad injection were used to assess the migration of T cells. Mid1 was significantly increased in the spinal cord of wild-type () EAE mice and disruption of Mid1 in T cells markedly suppressed the development of both active and passive EAE. Transcriptomic and flow cytometric analyses revealed a marked reduction in effector T cell number in the central nervous system of mice after EAE induction. Conversely, an increase in the number of T cells was observed in the draining lymph nodes of mice. Mice that were adoptively transferred with pathogenic T cells also exhibited milder symptoms of EAE, along with a lower T cell count in the spinal cord. Additionally, disruption of Mid1 significantly inhibited T-cell migration both and . RNA sequencing suggests a suppression in multiple inflammatory pathways in mice, including mTOR signaling that plays a critical role in cell migration. Subsequent experiments confirmed the interaction between Mid1 and mTOR. Suppression of mTOR with rapamycin or microtubule spindle formation with colcemid blunted the regulatory effect of Mid1 on T cell migration. In addition, mTOR agonists MHY1485 and 3BDO restored the migratory deficit caused by Mid1 depletion. Our data suggests that Mid1 regulates effector T cell migration to the central nervous system via mTOR/microtubule pathway in EAE, and thus may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of MS.
Yingying Wei, Wenjuan Li, Jie Huang, Zachary Braunstein, Xinxin Liu, Xinlu Li, Jeffrey Deiuliis, Jun Chen, Xinwen Min, Handong Yang, Quan Gong, Leya He, Zheng Liu, Lingli Dong, Jixin Zhong

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#38266047   2024/01/24 To Up

Astrocytic TIMP-1 regulates production of Anastellin, an inhibitor of oligodendrocyte differentiation and FTY720 responses.

Astrocyte activation is associated with neuropathology and the production of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP1). TIMP1 is a pleiotropic extracellular protein that functions both as a protease inhibitor and as a growth factor. Astrocytes that lack expression of do not support rat oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (rOPC) differentiation, and adult global knockout () mice do not efficiently remyelinate following a demyelinating injury. Here, we performed an unbiased proteomic analysis and identified a fibronectin-derived peptide called Anastellin (Ana) that was unique to the astrocyte secretome. Ana was found to block rOPC differentiation in vitro and enhanced the inhibitory influence of fibronectin on rOPC differentiation. Ana is known to act upon the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1, and we determined that Ana also blocked the pro-myelinating effect of FTY720 (or fingolimod) on rOPC differentiation Administration of FTY720 to wild-type C57BL/6 mice during MOG-experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis ameliorated clinical disability while FTY720 administered to mice lacking expression of () had no effect. Analysis of and fibronectin () transcripts from primary human astrocytes from healthy and multiple sclerosis (MS) donors revealed lower expression was coincident with elevated in MS astrocytes. Last, analyses of proteomic databases of MS samples identified Ana peptides to be more abundant in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of human MS patients with high disease activity. A role for Ana in MS as a consequence of a lack of astrocytic TIMP-1 production could influence both the efficacy of fingolimod responses and innate remyelination potential in the MS brain.
Pearl A Sutter, Cory M Willis, Antoine Menoret, Alexandra M Nicaise, Anthony Sacino, Arend H Sikkema, Evan R Jellison, Kyaw K Win, David K Han, William Church, Wia Baron, Anthony T Vella, Stephen J Crocker

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#38215654   2024/01/11 To Up

Eugenol alleviates the symptoms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice by suppressing inflammatory responses.

Eugenol is a principal compound in essential clove oil, known for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. While recent studies have demonstrated its neuroprotective effects on central nervous system (CNS) injuries, such as brain ischemia/reperfusion injuries, but its potential impact on multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disease of the CNS, has not yet been explored. We evaluated the therapeutic effects of eugenol on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an established animal model of MS. EAE was induced in C57BL/6 mice using the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptide. Clinical symptoms, including paralysis, were monitored daily, and levels of pro-inflammatory mediators were evaluated using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analyses, and immunohistochemistry. Daily oral administration of eugenol to MOG-induced EAE mice led to a notable decline in the severity of clinical symptoms. Eugenol inhibited EAE-related immune cell infiltration and the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. Histological examinations confirmed its ability to mitigate inflammation and demyelination in the spinal cord post-EAE induction. Eugenol alleviates neuroinflammation in the spinal cords of EAE-induced mice, primarily through anti-inflammatory action.
Jihye Lee, Sungmoo Hong, Meejung Ahn, Jeongtae Kim, Changjong Moon, Hiroshi Matsuda, Akane Tanaka, Yoshihiro Nomura, Kyungsook Jung, Taekyun Shin

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