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#31987818   2020/01/07 To Up

Ehrlichia canis TRP36 diversity in naturally infected-dogs from an urban area of Colombia.

Ehrlichia canis is the etiologic agent of a highly prevalent tick-borne disease, canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME). Four defined E. canis genotypes based on the trp36 gene sequences have been reported, three of them identified in North or South America. The diversity of E. canis has been investigated using genetic and serologic approaches based on distinct 36 kDa tandem repeat protein (trp36) gene sequences that have been reported. The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of E. canis infection in dogs from Medellín, Colombia by PCR and determine the E. canis diversity using molecular and serologic approaches. Blood was collected from dogs (n = 300) with clinical signs of CME for PCR detection of E. canis 16S rRNA, dsb and trp36 DNA. Phylogenetic analysis of trp36 gene sequences was performed using MEGA. A serological evaluation was performed using immunofluorescence microscopy and ELISA with species-specific peptides from E. canis TRP19 and TRP36 (3 genotypes) and E. chaffeensis (TRP32). E. canis DNA (16S rRNA and/or dsb) was detected in 18 % (53/300) of dogs by PCR amplification. The trp36 gene was amplified and sequenced from 35/53 16S rRNA/dsb PCR positive samples revealing three genotypes: United States (US; n = 21), Costa Rica (CR; n = 11), and Brazil (BR; n = 3). Most dogs (33/35) with detectable trp36 DNA had anti-E. canis TRP19 and TRP36 peptide antibodies that corresponded to the genotype detected by PCR. Dogs that had antibodies to the TRP19 peptide (82/300; 38 %), also had antibodies to one or more genotype-specific TRP36 peptides. Based on TRP36 serology, the dogs exhibited highest frequency of infection with the US genogroup (US = 26), followed by the CR genogroup (CR = 19) and the BR genogroup (BR = 11). Notably, 26/53 trp36 PCR positive dogs had detectable antibodies to multiple E. canis genotypes (US/BR/CR = 8, BR/CR = 7, US/CR = 6 and US/BR = 5) suggesting coinfection or multiple sequential infections with different genotypes. Colombian dogs did not have antibodies to E. chaffeensis as determined by a TRP32 species-specific ELISA. Our results demonstrate the presence of three previously defined genotypes in North and South America in Colombian dogs (US, BR, CR). These results also demonstrate that TRP19 and TRP36 serology can provide valuable information regarding E. canis exposure and the potential genotype(s) involved in infection.
Esteban Arroyave, Juan D Rodas-González, Xiaofeng Zhang, Marcelo B Labruna, María S González, Jorge A Fernández-Silva, Jere W McBride

1109 related Products with: Ehrlichia canis TRP36 diversity in naturally infected-dogs from an urban area of Colombia.

1 mg100 µg1 mg100 µg0.2 mg100 μg100ug100ug Lyophilized1 Set4 Membranes/Box1 Set100ug Lyophilized

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#31351993   2019/07/25 To Up

Purification and partial biochemical characterization of recombinant lactate dehydrogenase 1 (LDH-1) of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a key enzyme to produce energy during hypoxia by anaerobic glycolysis. In the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, two protein subunits (LDH-1 and LDH-2) were previously identified, deduced from two different transcripts that come from the same LDH gene by processing via mutually exclusive alternative splicing. LDH-1 contains exon five and LDH-2 contains exon six and the two proteins differ only in 15 amino acid residues. Both subunits were independently cloned and overexpressed in E. coli as a fusion protein containing a chitin binding domain. Previously, recombinant LDH-2 was successfully purified and characterized, but LDH-1 was insoluble and aggregated forming inclusion bodies. We report the production of soluble LDH-1 by testing different pHs in the buffers used to lyse the bacterial cells before the purification step and the characterization of the purified protein to show that the cDNA indeed codes for a functional and active protein. The recombinant native protein is a homotetramer of approximately 140 kDa composed by 36 kDa subunits and has higher affinity for pyruvate than for lactate. LDH-1 has an optimum pH of 7.5 and is stable between pH 8.0 and 9.0; pH data analysis showed two pKa values of 6.1 ± 0.15 and 8.8 ± 0.15 suggesting a histidine and asparagine, respectively, involved in the active site. The enzyme optimal temperature was 44 °C and it was stable between 20 and 60 °C. LDH-1 was slightly activated by NaCl, KCl and MgCl and fully inhibited by ZnCl.
Lilia Leyva-Carrillo, Magally Hernandez-Palomares, Elisa M Valenzuela-Soto, Ciria G Figueroa-Soto, Gloria Yepiz-Plascencia

2674 related Products with: Purification and partial biochemical characterization of recombinant lactate dehydrogenase 1 (LDH-1) of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

30 mg100ul3 mg100tests1 mg10001000100010ml100ul100 mg100IU

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#31078630   2019/05/10 To Up

Blimp-1 is involved in B cell activation and maturation in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp-1), a transcription factor containing zinc finger, is required and sufficient to trigger terminal differentiation of B cells in mammals. The Blimp-1 (OnBlimp-1) from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was identified and characterized its expression pattern during B cell activation and maturation. The cDNA of OnBlimp-1 open reading frame is 2547 bp encoding a protein of 848 amino acids and the predicted molecular weight is 93.36 kDa. OnBlimp-1 contains a SET domain and five ZnF_C2H2 domains, which shares high homology with that of other species. OnBlimp-1 transcription was detected in all examined tissues with high expression in the spleen (SPL). Analysis of sorted lymphocyte populations, including IgM and IgM cells from peripheral blood (PBL), SPL and anterior kidney (AK), indicated that the OnBlimp-1 transcription was highly expressed in the IgM B cells. Upon LPS stimulation, OnBlimp-1 expression was up-regulated in tissues of PBL, SPL and AK significantly. The expression of OnBlimp-1, as well as the secreted IgM, was significantly up-regulated in the SPL and AK leukocytes stimulated with anti-OnIgM monoclonal antibody and LPS in vitro, respectively. Above results suggest that OnBlimp-1, a cytokine regulating the terminal differentiation of activated B cells to antibody-secreting cells, is likely to play important roles in B cell activation and maturation in Nile tilapia.
Liting Wu, Enxu Zhou, Along Gao, Linghe Kong, Siwei Wu, Xia Bian, Yuan Li, Bingxi Li, Shengli Fu, Zheng Guo, Jianmin Ye

1414 related Products with: Blimp-1 is involved in B cell activation and maturation in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized

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#30797006   2019/02/20 To Up

Atypical organic-solvent tolerant bacterial hormone sensitive lipase-like homologue EstAG1 from Staphylococcus saprophyticus AG1: Synthesis and characterization.

Biocatalysts exerting activity against ester bonds have a broad range of applications in modern biotechnology. Some of the most industrially relevant enzymes of this type are lipolytic and their market is predicted to uphold leadership up till 2024. In this study, a novel bacterial hormone-sensitive lipase-like (bHSL) family homologue, designated EstAG1, was discovered by mining gDNA of bacteria isolated from fat contaminated soil in Lithuania. Putative lipolytic enzyme was cloned, overexpressed in E. coli, purified and characterized determining its biochemical properties. While the true physiological role of the discovered leaderless, ~36 kDa enzyme is unknown, metal-activated EstAG1 possessed optima at 45-47.5 °C, pH 7.5-8, with a generally intermediate activity profile between esterases and lipases. Furthermore, EstAG1 was hyperactivated by ethanol, dioxane and DMSO, implicating that it could be industrially applicable enzyme for the synthesis of valuable products such as biodiesel, flavor esters, etc. Sequence analysis and structure modeling revealed that the highest sequence homology of EstAG1 with the closest structurally and functionally described protein makes up only 26%. It was also revealed that EstAG1 has some differences in the bHSL family-characteristic conserved sequence motives. Therefore, EstAG1 presents interest both in terms of biotechnological applications and basic research.
Alisa Gricajeva, Ingrida Bikutė, Lilija Kalėdienė

1476 related Products with: Atypical organic-solvent tolerant bacterial hormone sensitive lipase-like homologue EstAG1 from Staphylococcus saprophyticus AG1: Synthesis and characterization.

250ul96 wells (1 kit)25 Rxns Kit5 mg500 MG250ulBacterial streak200ul

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#30592968   2018/12/25 To Up

Intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis due to a hemolytic toxin from Vibrio vulnificus and protection by a 36 kDa glycoprotein from Rhus verniciflua Stokes.

Rhus verniciflua stokes (RVS) has been used as a functional food to cure inflammatory diseases in Korea. In the present study, we carry out an investigation of the cellular mechanism of a 36 kDa glycoprotein isolated from RVS fruit (RVS glycoprotein) during the apoptosis of human gastrointestinal epithelial HCT116 cells induced by the hemolytic toxin (VvhA) produced by V. vulnificus. Recombinant protein (r) VvhA produced by V. vulnificus stimulated apoptosis by activating the phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC) through the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, RVS glycoprotein significantly inhibited the level of ROS production and PKC activation in rVvhA-stimulated HCT116 cells. Interestingly, we found that RVS glycoprotein has inhibitory effects on the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), which are responsible for the expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 in HCT116 cells treated with rVvhA, respectively. On the basis of these results, we suggest that RVS glycoprotein blocks mitochondrial apoptotic cell death induced by rVvhA via the inhibition of ROS-mediated signaling events in HCT116 cells.
Young-Min Lee, Jong Pil Park, Kye-Taek Lim, Sei-Jung Lee

1262 related Products with: Intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis due to a hemolytic toxin from Vibrio vulnificus and protection by a 36 kDa glycoprotein from Rhus verniciflua Stokes.

100 ug1 ml100ug100 μg1 kit0.2 mg1 kit1 mg1 kit100 extractions1 kit1 mL

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#30576954   2018/11/09 To Up

Speciation of zinc in fish feed by size exclusion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry - using fractional factorial design for method optimisation and mild extraction conditions.

Zinc (Zn) is an element essential to all living organisms and it has an important role as a cofactor of several enzymes. In fish, Zn deficiency has been associated with impaired growth, cataracts, skeletal abnormalities and reduced activity of various Zn metalloenzymes. Fish meal and fish oil traditionally used in salmon feed preparation are being replaced by plant-based ingredients. Zinc additives are supplemented to salmon feed to ensure adequate Zn levels, promoting good health and welfare in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The main objective of the present study was to evaluate Zn species found in an Atlantic salmon feed. This work describes a Zn extraction method that was optimized using a fractional factorial design (FFD), whereby the effect of six factors could be studied by performing only eight experiments. The effects of the type of extraction solution and its molar concentration, pH, presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate, temperature and extraction time on Zn extraction were investigated. Mild extraction conditions were chosen in order to keep the Zn species intact. Total Zn (soluble fractions and non-soluble fractions) was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest Zn recovery was obtained using 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.5 at a temperature of 4 °C for 24 h where the total Zn in soluble fraction and non-soluble fraction was 9.9 ± 0.2% and 98 ± 6%, respectively. Zinc speciation analysis (on the soluble fractions) was further conducted by size exclusion inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (SEC-ICP-MS). The SEC-ICP-MS method provided qualitative and semi-quantitative information regarding Zn species present in the soluble fractions of the feed. Four Zn-containing peaks were found, each with different molecular weights: Peak 1 (high molecular weight - ≥600 kDa), peak 2 and peak 3 (medium molecular weight - 32 to 17 kDa) were the least abundant (1-6%), while peak 4 (low molecular weight - 17 to 1.36 kDa) was the most abundant (84-95%).
M S Silva, V Sele, J J Sloth, P Araujo, H Amlund

1715 related Products with: Speciation of zinc in fish feed by size exclusion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry - using fractional factorial design for method optimisation and mild extraction conditions.

96 wells100ul100tests50ug50ug10 100ul100tests96T

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#30348621   2018/10/19 To Up

Opposing roles of inter-α-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4 in recurrent pregnancy loss.

The mechanism behind an increased risk of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) remains largely unknown. In our previous study, we identified that inter-α-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4 (ITI-H4) is highly expressed at a modified molecular weight of 36 kDa in serum derived from RPL patients. Yet, the precise molecular mechanism and pathways by which the short form of ITI-H4 carries out its function remain obscure.
Lan Li, Bum-Chae Choi, Ji Eun Ryoo, Sang-Jin Song, Chang-Zhu Pei, Kwang Yul Lee, Jinyoung Paek, Kwang-Hyun Baek

2951 related Products with: Opposing roles of inter-α-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4 in recurrent pregnancy loss.

100 ul50 mg400Tests50mg10mg10 mg1 ml5 mg1mg100 ul2.5 mg25mg

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