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#31746346   2019/10/31 To Up

RCE‑4, a potential anti‑cervical cancer drug isolated from Reineckia carnea, induces autophagy via the dual blockade of PI3K and ERK pathways in cervical cancer CaSki cells.

The steroidal saponin RCE‑4 (1β, 3β, 5β, 25S)‑spirostan‑1, 3‑diol 1‑[α‑L‑rhamnopyranosyl‑(1→2)‑β‑D‑xylopyranoside], isolated from Reineckia carnea, exerts significant anti‑cervical cancer activity by inducing apoptosis. The potential effect of RCE‑4 on proliferation inhibition and autophagy induction has rarely been studied. Therefore, the focus of the present study was to investigate the effects of RCE‑4 on proliferation, and to elucidate the detailed mechanisms involved in autophagy induction in cervical cancer cells. CaSki cells were treated with RCE‑4 or/and autophagy inhibitors, and the effect of RCE‑4 on cellular proliferation was assessed by MTT assay. The pro‑autophagic properties of RCE‑4 were subsequently confirmed using monomeric red fluorescent protein‑green fluorescent protein‑microtubule‑associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B (LC3) adenoviruses and CYTO‑ID autophagy assays, and by assessing the accumulation of lipid‑modified LC3 (LC3II). The mechanisms of RCE‑4‑induced autophagy were investigated by western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that inhibiting autophagy significantly promoted RCE‑4‑induced cell death, indicating that autophagy served a protective role following RCE‑4 treatment. In addition, RCE‑4‑induced autophagy was reflected by increased expression levels of the serine/threonine‑protein kinase ULK1, phosphorylated (p)‑ULK1, p‑Beclin‑1 and LC3II, the formation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes, and sequestosome 1 (p62) degradation. Subsequent analysis indicated that RCE‑4 activated the AMP‑activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway by upregulating AMPK and p‑AMPK, and also inhibited the PI3K and extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways by downregulating p‑PI3K, p‑Akt, p‑mTOR, Ras, c‑Raf, p‑c‑Raf, dual specificity mitogen‑activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)1/2, p‑MEK1/2 and p‑Erk1/2. Additionally, with increased treatment times RCE‑4 may impair lysosomal cathepsin activity and inhibit autophagy flux by suppressing the expression of AMPK, p‑AMPK, ULK1, p‑ULK1 and p‑Beclin‑1, and upregulating that of p62. These results indicated that the dual RCE‑4‑induced inhibition of the PI3K and ERK pathways may result in a more significant anti‑tumor effect and prevent chemoresistance, compared with the inhibition of either single pathway; furthermore, dual blockade of PI3K and ERK, and the AMPK pathway may be involved in the regulation of autophagy caused by RCE‑4. Taken together, RCE‑4 induced autophagy to protect cancer cells against apoptosis, but AMPK‑mediated autophagy was inhibited in the later stages of RCE‑4 treatment. In addition, autophagy inhibition improved the therapeutic effect of RCE‑4. These data highlight RCE‑4 as a potential candidate for cervical cancer treatment.
Wei Xiang, Ren-Jing Zhang, Gui-Lan Jin, Li Tian, Fan Cheng, Jun-Zhi Wang, Xiang-Fei Xing, Wei Xi, Shu-Jun Tang, Jian-Feng Chen

1106 related Products with: RCE‑4, a potential anti‑cervical cancer drug isolated from Reineckia carnea, induces autophagy via the dual blockade of PI3K and ERK pathways in cervical cancer CaSki cells.



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#29413354   2018/01/16 To Up

Fluorometric detection of nitroaromatics by fluorescent lead complexes: A spectroscopic assessment of detection mechanism.

Three Schiff base ligands such as 2‑[(2‑Hydroxy‑3‑methoxy‑benzylidene)‑amino]‑2‑hydroxymethyl‑propane‑1,3‑diol (HL1), 2‑[(2‑Hydroxy‑benzylidene)‑amino]‑2‑hydroxymethyl‑propane‑1,3‑diol (HL2), 2‑[(3,5‑Dichloro‑2‑hydroxy‑benzylidene)‑amino]‑2‑hydroxymethyl‑propane‑1,3‑diol (HL3) have been synthesized by condensation of aldehydes (such as 3,5‑Dichloro‑2‑hydroxy benzaldehyde, 2‑Hydroxy‑benzaldehyde, and 2‑Hydroxy‑3‑methoxy‑benzaldehyde) with Tris‑(hydroxymethyl)amino methane and characterized by IR, UV-vis and H NMR spectroscopy. Then all these three ligands have been used to prepare Pb(II) complexes by reaction with lead(II) acetate tri-hydrate in methanol. In view of analytical and spectral (IR, UV-vis and Mass) studies, it has been concluded that, except HL2, other two ligands form 1:1 metal complexes (1 and 3) with lead. Between two complexes, complex 3 is highly fluorescent and this property has been used to identify the pollutant nitroaromatics. Finally, the quenching mechanism has been established by means of spectroscopic investigation.
Tanmay Chattopadhyay, Sourav Chatterjee, Ishani Majumder, Soumen Ghosh, Sangee Yoon, Eunji Sim

1342 related Products with: Fluorometric detection of nitroaromatics by fluorescent lead complexes: A spectroscopic assessment of detection mechanism.

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