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           Search results for: 6-O-Benzyl-2,3-di-O-acetyl-methyl-α-D-glucopyranoside C18H24O8 CAS: 162284-50-6    

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RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, n-hexyl 2-butenoate, CAS Registry Number 19089-92-0.


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Facile synthesis of noncytotoxic PEGylated dendrimer encapsulated silver sulfide quantum dots for NIR-II biological imaging.

Near-infrared-II (NIR-II, 1000-1700 nm) bioimaging features high penetration depth and high spatio-temporal resolution compared to traditional fluorescence imaging, but the key is to develop stable and biocompatible NIR-II fluorophores suitable for in vivo applications. Silver sulfide quantum dots (Ag2S QDs) have been demonstrated to be excellent for in vivo NIR-II imaging with unique optical properties and decent biocompatibility, but they often require complex post modifications for in vivo applications. Herein we demonstrate a facile one-pot strategy to synthesize PEGylated dendrimer-encapsulated Ag2S QDs useful for in vivo NIR-II imaging. Silver ions were first loaded into the core of an acylthiourea-functionalized dendrimer (PEG-PATU) through coordination between silver ions and acylthiourea groups, followed by the addition of sodium sulfide to form Ag2S QDs in situ. The resulting PEG-PATU Ag2S QDs exhibit excellent NIR-II fluorescence signals, and thus could be used for high efficiency labelling and tracking of A549 cancer cell mobility in vivo and real time visualization of the vast circulatory network of a mouse.

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Identification and regulation of xenometabolite derivatives cis- and trans-3,4-methylene-heptanoylcarnitine in plasma and skeletal muscle of exercising humans.

Little is known about xenometabolites in human metabolism, particularly under exercising conditions. Previously, an exercise-modifiable, likely xenometabolite derivative, -3,4-methylene-heptanoylcarnitine, was reported in human plasma. Here, we identified -3,4-methylene-heptanoylcarnitine, and its -isomer, in plasma and skeletal muscle by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We analyzed the regulation by exercise and the arterial-to-venous differences of these cyclopropane ring-containing carnitine esters over the hepato-splanchnic bed and the exercising leg in plasma samples obtained in three separate studies from young, lean and healthy males. Compared to other medium-chain acylcarnitines, the plasma concentrations of the 3,4-methylene-heptanoylcarnitine isomers only marginally increased with exercise. Both isomers showed a >2-fold increase in the skeletal muscle tissue of the exercising leg; this may be due to the net effect of fatty acid oxidation in the exercising muscle and uptake from blood. The latter idea is supported by a >2-fold increased net uptake in the exercising leg only. Both isomers showed a constant release from the hepato-splanchnic bed, with an increased release of the -isomer after exercise. The isomers differ in their plasma concentration with a four times higher concentration of the -isomer regardless of the exercise state. This is the first approach studying kinetics and fluxes of xenolipid isomers from tissues under exercised conditions, supporting the hypothesis that hepatic metabolism of cyclopropane ring-containing fatty acids is one source of these acylcarnitines in plasma. The data also provide clear evidence for an exercise-dependent regulation of xenometabolites, opening perspectives for future studies about the physiological role of this largely unknown class of metabolites.

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Efficient Enzymatic Synthesis of Cephalexin in Suspension Aqueous Solution System.

An efficient method for the enzymatic synthesis of cephalexin (CEX) from 7-amino-3-deacetoxycephalosporanic acid (7-ADCA) and D-phenylglycine methyl ester (PGME) using immobilized penicillin G acylase (IPGA) as catalyst in suspension aqueous solution system was developed, where reactant 7-ADCA and product CEX are mainly present as solid particles. The effects of key factors on the enzymatic synthesis were investigated. Results showed that continuous feeding of PGME was more efficient for the synthesis of CEX than batch mode. Under the optimized conditions, the maximum 7-ADCA conversion ratio of 99.3% and productivity of 200 mmol/L/h were achieved, both of which are much superior to the homogeneous aqueous solution system. Besides, IPGA still retained 95.4% of its initial activity after ten cycles of enzymatic synthesis, indicating the excellent stability of this approach. The developed approach shows great potential for the industrial production of CEX via enzyme-based route. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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Effect of elasticity on the phagocytosis of micro/nanoparticles.

A broad range of investigation methods and frameworks are currently used to throughly study the elasticity of various types of micro/nanoparticles (MNPs) with different properties and to explore the effect of such properties on their interactions with biological species. Specifically, the elasticity of MNPs serves as a key influencing factor with respect to important aspects of phagocytosis, such as the clathrin-mediated phagocytosis, caveolae-mediated phagocytosis, macropinocytosis, and cell membrane fusion. Achieving a clear understanding of the relationships that exist between the elasticity of MNPs and their phagocytic processes is essential to improve their performance in drug delivery, which is related to aspects such as circulation lifetime in blood, accumulation time in tissues, and resistance to metabolism. Resolving such aspects is very challenging, and related efforts require using the right tools/methods, which are not always easy to identify. This review aims to facilitate this by summarizing and comparing different cell phagocytosis pathways, while considering various MNPs exhibiting different elastic properties, shape change capabilities, and their effect on cellular uptake. We conduct an overview of the advantages exhibited by different MNPs with respect to both in vitro and in vivo delivery, taking computational simulation analysis and experimental results into account. This study will provide a guide for how to investigate various types of MNPs in terms of their elastic properties, together with their biomedical effects that rely on phagocytosis.

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Allergic contact dermatitis from acetophenone azine in a Canadian child.


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Whole-genome sequence analysis of paris virus 1: a novel member of the genus Potyvirus infecting Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis.

The complete genome sequence of a novel potyvirus, tentatively named "paris virus 1" (ParV1, GenBank accession no. MN549985), infecting Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis was determined in this study. A single large open reading frame (nt 96-9818) encoding a 3240-aa polyprotein that is predicted to be cleaved into 10 mature proteins was detected in the ParV1 genome. Comparative analysis of the ParV1 genome sequence with those of other potyviruses identified nine cleavage sites and conserved motifs that are typical features of potyviruses. Pairwise sequence comparisons showed that the ParV1 polyprotein shares 49.6-65.1% nucleotide and 47.1-68.9% amino acid sequence identity with viruses of the genus Potyvirus. BLAST analysis revealed that ParV1 shares 65.1% nucleotide and 68.9% amino acid sequence identity with Thunberg fritillary mosaic virus (TFMV, accession no. CAI59123), its closest known relative. These results suggest that paris virus 1 (ParV1) is a new member of the genus Potyvirus.

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Atomic Modulation, Structural Design, and Systematic Optimization for Efficient Electrochemical Nitrogen Reduction.

Ammonia (NH) is a pivotal precursor in fertilizer production and a potential energy carrier. Currently, ammonia production worldwide relies on the traditional Haber-Bosch process, which consumes massive energy and has a large carbon footprint. Recently, electrochemical dinitrogen reduction to ammonia under ambient conditions has attracted considerable interest owing to its advantages of flexibility and environmental friendliness. However, the biggest challenge in dinitrogen electroreduction, i.e., the low efficiency and selectivity caused by poor specificity of electrocatalysts/electrolytic systems, still needs to be overcome. Although substantial progress has been made in recent years, acquiring most available electrocatalysts still relies on low efficiency trial-and-error methods. It is thus imperative to establish some critical guiding principles for nitrogen electroreduction toward a rational design and accelerated development of this field. Herein, a basic understanding of dinitrogen electroreduction processes and the inherent relationships between adsorbates and catalysts from fundamental theory are described, followed by an outline of the crucial principles for designing efficient electrocatalysts/electrocatalytic systems derived from a systematic evaluation of the latest significant achievements. Finally, the future research directions and prospects of this field are given, with a special emphasis on the opportunities available by following the guiding principles.

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