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#35000074   2022/01/09 To Up

Adenosine signaling mediate pain transmission in the central nervous system.

Pain is a common clinical symptom that seriously affects the quality of life in a variety of patient populations. In recent years, research on the role of adenosine signaling in pain modulation has made great progress. Adenosine is a purine nucleoside and a neuromodulator, and regulates multiple physiological and pathophysiological functions through the activation of four G protein-coupled receptors, which are classified as A, A, A, and A adenosine receptors (ARs). Adenosine and its receptors that are widespread in the central nervous system (CNS) play an important role in the processing of nociceptive sensory signals in different pain models. ARs have the highest affinity to adenosine, and the role in analgesia has been well investigated. The roles of ARs and ARs in the modulation of pain are controversial because they have both analgesic and pronociceptive effects. The analgesic effects of ARs are primarily manifested in neuropathic pain. In this article, we have reviewed the recent studies on ARs in the modulation of neuropathic pain, inflammatory pain, postoperative pain, and visceral pain in the CNS. Furthermore, we have outlined the pathways through which ARs contribute to pain regulation, thereby shedding light on how this mechanism can be targeted to provide effective pain relief.
Mengmeng Zhou, Jinrong Wu, Hongen Chang, Yuxin Fang, Di Zhang, Yi Guo

1281 related Products with: Adenosine signaling mediate pain transmission in the central nervous system.

50 UG 50 UG2 Pieces/Box2 Pieces/BoxInhibitors2 Pieces/Box

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#34981132   2022/01/04 To Up

The effects of caffeine on bone mineral density and fracture risk.

Caffeine is a regular part of the diet of many adults (coffee, tea, soft drinks, and energy drinks). Multiple molecular effects of caffeine suggest that it may promote bone loss. Given the extensive consumption of caffeine worldwide, any impact of caffeine consumption on bone strength and/or density would have large population health implications. The most well-established pharmacological effect of caffeine is non-specific antagonism of adenosine receptors. Adenosine regulates bone metabolism in a complex manner, with in vitro studies suggesting that direct stimulation of adenosine A and A receptors induces bone formation by activating osteoblasts and suppressing osteoclast differentiation and function. Thus, competitive inhibition of adenosine A receptors by caffeine may inhibit bone formation and promote bone resorption. However, antagonism of adenosine A receptors may have opposing effects. Caffeine has also been suggested to affect bone through derangement of calcium metabolism, alteration of vitamin D responses, and other mechanisms. In clinical and population-based studies, the impact of caffeine consumption on bone metabolism offers a mixed picture, with some but not all studies suggesting a potential link between caffeine intake and reduced bone mineral density or increased fracture risk. Differences in methodology, selected populations, and duration/timing of the studies may account for study outcome discrepancies. The in vitro effects of caffeine on cells involved in bone metabolism suggest that caffeine intake may promote osteoporosis, and some but not all clinical studies support a modest adverse caffeine impact. Herein, we describe the basic biology of caffeine as it pertains to bone, review the clinical literature to date, and consider the implications of the current data on clinical practice and future studies.
N K Berman, S Honig, B N Cronstein, M H Pillinger

2161 related Products with: The effects of caffeine on bone mineral density and fracture risk.

25 mg1 mg100ug200 units100ug Lyophilized11000 tests

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#34973721   2021/10/26 To Up

Hair-growth promoting effect and anti-inflammatory mechanism of Ginkgo biloba polysaccharides.

The aim of this study was to optimize the separation and purification technology of water-soluble Ginkgo biloba leaves polysaccharides (WGBP), analyze its composition characteristics, observe its hair-growth promoting effect in alopecia areata mice, clarify the polysaccharide fraction with bioactive activities, and explore its anti-inflammation mechanism. We isolated acidic polysaccharides (WGBP-A2) and purified a RG-I type polysaccharide (WGBP-A2b) with a molecular weight of 44 kDa. Results showed that WGBP-A2 could significantly increase the contents of VEGF and HGF in the skin tissue of alopecia areata mice, decrease the contents of Inflammatory factors in the serum. On a cellular level, the expressions of p-p65 and p-IκBα, TNF-α and IL-1β in HUVECs treated with WGBP-A2b were down-regulated. The bioinformatic analysis showed that the inflammation signaling pathway was significantly changed. Its specific mechanism may be related to its regulating the expression of p-p65 p-IκBα, TNF-α and IL-1β proteins in the inflammation signaling pathway.
Yingna Li, Yu Sheng, Jiuyue Liu, Guangyu Xu, Wanwen Yu, Qingwen Cui, Xuechun Lu, Peige Du, Liping An

2474 related Products with: Hair-growth promoting effect and anti-inflammatory mechanism of Ginkgo biloba polysaccharides.

0.2 mg0.1 mg1000 TESTS/0.65ml5mg100.00 ug0.1ml (1mg/ml)100.00 ug0.1ml (1mg/ml)0.1 mg96 Tests/kit100.00 ug1 mg

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#34948374   2021/12/17 To Up

CXCR4 and CXCR7 Inhibition Ameliorates the Formation of Platelet-Neutrophil Complexes and Neutrophil Extracellular Traps through Adora2b Signaling.

Peritonitis and peritonitis-associated sepsis are characterized by an increased formation of platelet-neutrophil complexes (PNCs), which contribute to an excessive migration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) into the inflamed tissue. An important neutrophilic mechanism to capture and kill invading pathogens is the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Formation of PNCs and NETs are essential to eliminate pathogens, but also lead to aggravated tissue damage. The chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 on platelets and PMNs have been shown to play a pivotal role in inflammation. Thereby, CXCR4 and CXCR7 were linked with functional adenosine A2B receptor (Adora2b) signaling. We evaluated the effects of selective CXCR4 and CXCR7 inhibition on PNCs and NETs in zymosan- and fecal-induced sepsis. We determined the formation of PNCs in the blood and, in addition, their infiltration into various organs in wild-type and Adora2b-/- mice by flow cytometry and histological methods. Further, we evaluated NET formation in both mouse lines and the impact of Adora2b signaling on it. We hypothesized that the protective effects of CXCR4 and CXCR7 antagonism on PNC and NET formation are linked with Adora2b signaling. We observed an elevated CXCR4 and CXCR7 expression in circulating platelets and PMNs during acute inflammation. Specific CXCR4 and CXCR7 inhibition reduced PNC formation in the blood, respectively, in the peritoneal, lung, and liver tissue in wild-type mice, while no protective anti-inflammatory effects were observed in Adora2b-/- animals. In vitro, CXCR4 and CXCR7 antagonism dampened PNC and NET formation with human platelets and PMNs, confirming our in vivo data. In conclusion, our study reveals new protective aspects of the pharmacological modulation of CXCR4 and CXCR7 on PNC and NET formation during acute inflammation.
Kristian-Christos Ngamsri, Rizki A Putri, Christoph Jans, Katharina Schindler, Anika Fuhr, Yi Zhang, Jutta Gamper-Tsigaras, Sabrina Ehnert, Franziska M Konrad

1960 related Products with: CXCR4 and CXCR7 Inhibition Ameliorates the Formation of Platelet-Neutrophil Complexes and Neutrophil Extracellular Traps through Adora2b Signaling.

100 mg0.1 mg1000 tests50 ug 25 mg100 µg10 mg200ug100ug Lyophilized500 MG100ug0.1ml (1mg/ml)

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#34947478   2021/12/20 To Up

Synthesis of Arylene Ether-Type Hyperbranched Poly(triphenylamine) for Lithium Battery Cathodes.

We synthesized a new poly(triphenylamine), having a hyperbranched structure, and employed it in lithium-ion batteries as an organic cathode material. Two types of monomers were prepared with hydroxyl groups and nitro leaving groups, activated by a trifluoromethyl substituent, and then polymerized via the nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction. The reactivity of the monomers differed depending on the number of hydroxyl groups and the AB type monomer with one hydroxyl group successfully produced poly(triphenylamine). Based on thermal, optical, and electrochemical analyses, a composite poly(triphenylamine) electrode was made. The electrochemical performance investigations confirmed that the lithium-ion batteries, fabricated with the poly(triphenylamine)-based cathodes, had reasonable specific capacity values and stable cycling performance, suggesting the potential of this hyperbranched polymer in cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries.
Inah Kang, Taewoong Lee, Young Rok Yoon, Jee Woo Kim, Byung-Kwon Kim, Jinhee Lee, Jin Hong Lee, Sang Youl Kim

2462 related Products with: Synthesis of Arylene Ether-Type Hyperbranched Poly(triphenylamine) for Lithium Battery Cathodes.

96T0.2 mg25 µg25 µg250 ml

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#34846650   2021/11/30 To Up

Exogenous adenosine activates A2A adenosine receptor to inhibit RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis via AP-1 pathway to facilitate bone repair.

Adenosine is a purine nucleoside involved in regulating bone homeostasis through binding to A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 adenosine receptors (A1R, A2AR, A2BR, and A3R, respectively). However, the underlying mechanisms by which adenosine and receptor subtypes regulate osteoclast differentiation remain uncertain. This study aims to assess the role of exogenous adenosine and receptor subtypes in receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation and explore the underlying molecular mechanisms.
Xin Cheng, Chengcheng Yin, Yongqiang Deng, Zubing Li

1574 related Products with: Exogenous adenosine activates A2A adenosine receptor to inhibit RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis via AP-1 pathway to facilitate bone repair.

100ul100ul100ul100ul100ug/vial100ul 1 G100 μg50μl200ul1 mg25 g

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#34846447   2021/01/20 To Up

Recent advances toward environment-friendly photodetectors based on lead-free metal halide perovskites and perovskite derivatives.

Recently, metal-halide perovskites have emerged as promising materials for photodetector (PD) applications owing to their superior optoelectronic properties, such as ambipolar charge transport characteristics, high carrier mobility, and so on. In the past few years, rapid progress in lead-based perovskite PDs has been witnessed. However, the critical environmental instability and lead-toxicity seriously hinder their further applications and commercialization. Therefore, searching for environmentally stable and lead-free halide perovskites (LFHPs) to address the above hurdles is certainly a worthwhile subject. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of currently explored LFHPs with an emphasis on their crystal structures, optoelectronic properties, synthesis and modification methods, as well as the PD applications. LFHPs are classified into four categories according to the replacement strategies of Pb, including AB(ii)X, AB(iii)X, AB(i)B(iii)'X, and newly-emerging perovskite derivatives. Then, we give a demonstration of the preliminary achievements and limitations in environment-friendly PDs based on such LFHPs and perovskite derivatives, and also discuss their applications in biological synapses, imaging, and X-ray detection. With the perspective of their properties and current challenges, we provide an outlook for future directions in this rapidly evolving field to achieve high-quality LFHPs and perovskite derivatives for a broader range of fundamental research and practical applications.
Ying Li, Zhifeng Shi, Wenqing Liang, Jingli Ma, Xu Chen, Di Wu, Yongtao Tian, Xinjian Li, Chongxin Shan, Xiaosheng Fang

2317 related Products with: Recent advances toward environment-friendly photodetectors based on lead-free metal halide perovskites and perovskite derivatives.

500gm 2 ml Ready-to-use 1 mg100 25 mg1 mg100μg100ug Lyophilized100 extractions 5 g100 mg

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#34831054   2021/10/21 To Up

Adenosine Receptor Antagonists to Combat Cancer and to Boost Anti-Cancer Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy.

Extracellular adenosine accumulates in the environment of numerous tumors. For years, this fact has fueled preclinical research to determine whether adenosine receptors (ARs) could be the target to fight cancer. The four ARs discovered so far, A, A, A and A, belong to the class A family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and all four have been involved in one way or another in regulating tumor progression. Prompted by the successful anti-cancer immunotherapy, the focus was placed on the ARs more involved in regulation of immune cell differentiation and activation and that are able to establish molecular and functional interactions. This review focuses on the potential of A and A receptor antagonists in cancer control and in boosting anti-cancer chemotherapy and immunotherapy. The article also overviews the ongoing clinical trials in which AR and AR ligands are being tested in anti-cancer therapy.
Rafael Franco, Rafael Rivas-Santisteban, Gemma Navarro, Irene Reyes-Resina

2298 related Products with: Adenosine Receptor Antagonists to Combat Cancer and to Boost Anti-Cancer Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy.

0.1 mg1000 100.00 ug100ul100 1 ml100 μg100ul100 100.00 ul

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#34808556   2021/11/19 To Up

Cordycepin suppresses glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic transmission through activation of A adenosine receptor in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons.

Cordycepin (known as 3-deoxyadenosine, CRD), a natural product from the valuable traditional Chinese medicine Cordyceps militaris, has been reported to improve cognitive function and modulate neuroprotective effects on the central nervous system (CNS). However, the modulating mechanisms of cordycepin on information processing in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons are not fully understood. To clarify how cordycepin modulates synaptic responses of pyramidal neurons in rat hippocampal CA1 region, we conducted an electrophysiological experiment using whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and mEPSCs, respectively) and the spontaneous and miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs and mIPSCs, respectively) recorded by this technique evaluated pure single or multi-synapse responses and enabled us to accurately quantify how cordycepin influenced the pre and postsynaptic aspects of synaptic transmission. The present results showed that cordycepin significantly decreased the frequency of both glutamatergic and GABAergic postsynaptic currents without affecting the amplitude, while these inhibitory effects were antagonized by the A adenosine receptor antagonist (DPCPX), but not the A (ZM 241385), A (MRS1754) and A (MRS1191) adenosine receptor antagonists. Taken together, our results suggested that cordycepin had a clear presynaptic effect on glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission, and provided novel evidence that cordycepin suppresses the synaptic transmission through the activation of AAR.
Jinxiu Wang, Yanchun Gong, Haoyuan Tan, Wenxi Li, Baiyi Yan, Chunfang Cheng, Juan Wan, Wei Sun, Chunhua Yuan, Li-Hua Yao

2767 related Products with: Cordycepin suppresses glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic transmission through activation of A adenosine receptor in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons.

100ug100ug200ul50 ug 100 μg1 ml200ug2 mg100ug100ug

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#34792724   2021/11/18 To Up

An overview of current therapeutic strategies for glioblastoma and the role of CD73 as an alternative curative approach.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a complicated and heterogeneous brain tumor with short-term survival outcomes. Commercial therapies are not practical due to cell infiltration capacity, high proliferative rate, and blood-brain barrier. In this context, recognition of the molecular mechanism of tumor progression might help the development of new cancer therapeutics. Recently, more evidence has supported CD73 and downstream adenosine A2A/A2B receptor signaling playing a crucial role in glioblastoma pathogenesis; therefore, targeting CD73 in murine tumor models can reduce tumor development. CD73 is an ecto-enzyme inducing tumor metastasis, angiogenesis, and immune escape via the production of extracellular adenosine in the tumor microenvironment. In this review, we provided information about clinical characteristics as well as the therapeutic management of glioblastoma. Then, we focused on newly available experimental evidence distinguishing between the essential role of CD73 on this tumor growth and a new method for the treatment of GBM patients.
S Arab, F Hasannejad

2582 related Products with: An overview of current therapeutic strategies for glioblastoma and the role of CD73 as an alternative curative approach.

50 assays

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