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Search results for: Allo-3α-tetrahydro Cortisol 21-O-β-D-Glucuronide C27H42O11 CAS: 131061-62-6

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#35594598   2022/05/17 To Up

Using complexity science to understand the role of co-sleeping (bedsharing) in mother-infant co-regulatory processes.

Human infants spend most of their time sleeping, but over the first few years of life their sleep becomes regulated to coincide more closely with adult sleep (Galland et al., 2012; Paavonen et al., 2020). Evidence shows that co-sleeping played a role in the evolution of infant sleep regulation, as it is part of an ancient behavioral complex representing the biopsychosocial microenvironment in which human infants co-evolved with their mothers through millions of years of human history (Ball, 2003; McKenna 1986, 1990). This paper is a conceptual, interdisciplinary, integration of the literature on mother-infant co-sleeping and other mother-infant co-regulatory processes from an evolutionary (biological) perspective, using complexity science. Viewing the mother-infant dyad as a "complex adaptive system" (CAS) shows how the CAS fits assumptions of regulatory processes and reveals the role of the CAS in the ontogeny of mother-infant co-regulation of physiological (thermoregulation, breathing, circadian rhythm coordination, nighttime synchrony, and heart rate variability) and socioemotional (attachment and cortisol activity) development.
Elaine S Barry

1899 related Products with: Using complexity science to understand the role of co-sleeping (bedsharing) in mother-infant co-regulatory processes.

1 mg 100 UG 1 G1mg100 μg100 mg

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#35328551   2022/03/15 To Up

Evaluation of Ammonia Nitrogen Exposure in Immune Defenses Present on Spleen and Head-Kidney of Wuchang Bream ().

Ammonia is one of the most important environmental factors in aquatic ecosystems. However, there are limited studies on the effects of chronic or long-term ammonia stress and its potential molecular mechanism in fish. This study aimed to investigate the immune response and molecular mechanisms in the spleen and head-kidney of fish following chronic ammonia exposure. (9.98 ± 0.48 g) were exposed to different concentrations of total ammonia nitrogen (0-30 mg/L) for 30 days. Ammonia exposure caused significant increases in cortisol levels and decreases in lysozyme and complement 3/4 concentrations in the serum, indicating inhibitory effects of ammonia stress on innate immune responses. Ammonia exposure also induced concentration-dependent increases in ammonia concentrations in tissue, pathological damage and indexes of spleen and head-kidney. Additionally, the contents of immunoglobulin M (IgM), interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) as well as mRNA levels of toll-like receptors (TLRs)/Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)-independent signaling molecules in the spleen and head-kidney were significantly downregulated after ammonia exposure. Our findings suggested that chronic ammonia exposure caused the suppression of innate and adaptive immune responses through downregulating TLR/MyD88-independent signaling. Adverse influences of chronic ammonia stress were more severe in the spleen than in the head-kidney.
Honghui Guo, Siqi Chen, Kang Ouyang, Yu Kuang, Hui Yang, Yingying Wang, Rong Tang, Xi Zhang, Dapeng Li, Li Li

2848 related Products with: Evaluation of Ammonia Nitrogen Exposure in Immune Defenses Present on Spleen and Head-Kidney of Wuchang Bream ().

5 G

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#35320588   2022/04/05 To Up

Allergic contact dermatitis from dipropylene glycol in hydrocortisone lotion.


Malina Yamashita Peterson, Joohee Han, Erin M Warshaw

1861 related Products with: Allergic contact dermatitis from dipropylene glycol in hydrocortisone lotion.

100 units250 mg100 assays100 μg4 Arrays/Slide100 µg100 μg100 μg1 kit100ug Lyophilized

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#34653663   2021/10/12 To Up

Dietary α-lipoic acid can alleviate the bioaccumulation, oxidative stress, cell apoptosis, and inflammation induced by lead (Pb) in Channa argus.

This study aims to evaluate the effects of dietary α-lipoic acid (α-LA) on bioaccumulation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation in Channa argus after 28 d of lead (Pb) exposure. A total of 300 fish were divided into five groups: the first group was the control group and the other four groups were exposed to waterborne Pb (800 ppb) and fed α-LA diets supplemented with 0, 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg. The results demonstrated that dietary α-LA effectively reduced the Pb accumulation in the liver, kidney, gill, intestine, and muscle of C. argus after exposure to Pb. Meanwhile, dietary α-LA reversed alterations in the biochemical parameters (Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), cortisol (COR), and creatinine (CRE)) and immunity parameters (myeloperoxidase (MPO), complement 3 (C3), lysozyme (LYS), complement 4 (C4), C-reactive protein (CRP), and immunoglobulin M (IgM)) in the serum of fish caused by Pb. Pb-induced reduction of antioxidant enzyme activities (Catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)) was inhibited by dietary α-LA. And malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PC) content exhibited an opposite trend. Meanwhile, dietary supplemented with α-LA was found to relieve Pb-induced oxidative stress by downregulating Keap1 mRNA expression levels and upregulating the expression levels of CAT, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), GSH-Px, and Cu/Zn SOD. Furthermore, α-LA supplementation reversed Pb-induced upregulation of pro-inflammatory genes (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)), Pro-apoptotic genes (Bcl-2-associated X (Bax), caspase (Cas)-3, and tumor protein p53 (p53)) and Hsp70, and downregulation of anti-inflammatory genes (IL-10, inhibitor of κBα (IκBα), and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)) and anti-apoptosis gene (B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)). Overall, dietary α-LA supplementation could enhance the innate immunity and antioxidant capacity of fish, attenuating the Pb accumulation, and cell apoptosis after being exposed to Pb. Furthermore, dietary α-LA could relieve Pb-induced inflammatory response and oxidative stress of fish via regulating NF-κB and Nrf2 signaling, respectively.
Min Li, Yidi Kong, Xueqin Wu, Zhuang Yin, Xiaotian Niu, Guiqin Wang

1147 related Products with: Dietary α-lipoic acid can alleviate the bioaccumulation, oxidative stress, cell apoptosis, and inflammation induced by lead (Pb) in Channa argus.

2 Pieces/Box96 assays1 mg400 ug400 ug

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#34552969   2021/09/06 To Up

Exploratory Study of Fecal Cortisol, Weight, and Behavior as Measures of Stress and Welfare in Shelter Cats During Assimilation Into Families of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Cats are a common companion animal (CA) in US households, and many live in families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The prevalence of ASD is one in 54, and many children have behavior challenges as well as their diagnostic communication disorders. Benefits of CAs for children with ASD have been identified, but little is known about the welfare of CAs in these homes. This study explored the welfare of cats ( = 10) screened for ideal social and calm temperament using the Feline Temperament Profile (FTP) and adopted by families of children with ASD. Cat stress was measured using fecal cortisol, weight, and a behavior stress measure (cat stress score). Measures were taken at baseline in the shelter, 2-3 days after adoption, and at weeks 6, 12, and 18. Outcome measures suggested the adopted cats' stress levels did not increase postadoption; however, the small sample size limited analytical power and generalizability. This study provides preliminary evidence for the success of cat adoption by families of children with ASD, when cats have been temperament screened and cat behavior educational information is provided. Further research is warranted to confirm these findings.
Gretchen K Carlisle, Rebecca A Johnson, Colleen S Koch, Leslie A Lyons, Ze Wang, Jessica Bibbo, Nancy Cheak-Zamora

1168 related Products with: Exploratory Study of Fecal Cortisol, Weight, and Behavior as Measures of Stress and Welfare in Shelter Cats During Assimilation Into Families of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

5 G100ug48 assays 10 mg1 ml500 MG25 mg20 µl (10 mM)

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#34246665   2021/07/08 To Up

The impact of chronic unpredictable early-life stress (CUELS) on boldness and stress-reactivity: Differential effects of stress duration and context of testing.

Early-life stress (ELS) has been shown to result in a diverse array of long-lasting impacts; for example, increasing vulnerability to disease or building 'resilience' in adulthood. Previously, zebrafish (Danio rerio) have been used to understand the mechanisms by which ELS induces different behavioral phenotypes in adults, with alterations in both learning and anxiety observed in exposed individuals. Here, we subjected zebrafish larvae to chronic unpredictable early-life stress (CUELS) for 7 or 14 days, to investigate the impact on boldness towards a new environment and novel object, and stress-reactivity. We observed that 7 days of CUELS resulted in increased time spent in the top of a novel tank (indicating boldness) but did not alter approach to a novel object. Although CUELS did not affect stress-reactivity in terms of cortisol levels, decreased anxiety-like response to conspecific alarm substance (CAS) was observed in both ELS groups (7 and 14 days of CUELS). Therefore, for the first time, we observe a potential negative effect of CUELS by dampening the behavioral stress response following exposure to CAS. Overall, these data support the use of zebrafish as a translational model to study the broad range of ELS-induced permanent changes in behavior. It could also be used to investigate the mechanisms underlying both the positive and the negative effects of early-life adversity.
Barbara D Fontana, Madeleine Cleal, William H J Norton, Matthew O Parker

2345 related Products with: The impact of chronic unpredictable early-life stress (CUELS) on boldness and stress-reactivity: Differential effects of stress duration and context of testing.

5 GStress           100 UG1 100ul625 mg100 mg 25 MG100ul

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#34216043   2021/07/03 To Up

Alpha frontal asymmetry underlies individual differences in reactivity to acute psychosocial stress in males.

People vary in their responses to stress. The present study aimed to investigate whether and how alpha frontal asymmetry (AFA) measured in the resting state underlies the individual differences in psychological responses to acute psychosocial stress (e.g., increases in heart rate and cortisol) induced by the Trier social stress test. Forty-three healthy male adults were enrolled in this study. The results showed that the AFA score negatively predicted both heart rate and cortisol responses, that is relatively higher right-frontal activity during the resting state was related to a stronger physiological stress response. These results indicated that higher withdrawal motivation or effortful control is associated with a higher physiological stress response, which suggested that AFA in the resting state can serve as a biological predictor of acute stress responses in men.
Yuanquan Ma, Huini Peng, Hongtao Liu, Ruolei Gu, Xiaohu Peng, Jianhui Wu

1265 related Products with: Alpha frontal asymmetry underlies individual differences in reactivity to acute psychosocial stress in males.

25 100.00 ug 100 UG100ug100ug100ug Lyophilized1 kit(96 Wells)100

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#34199836   2021/06/04 To Up

Variations in Behavioral and Physiological Traits in Yearling Tibetan Sheep ().

Temperament is a consistent behavioral difference among individuals over time or in different contexts. A comprehensive understanding of temperament and complex behavioral interactions enhances knowledge on animal evolution, welfare, and productivity. However, reports on the development of behavioral consistency over ontogeny are vague. Here, we tested the ontogeny of the temperament and physiological traits of Tibetan sheep () in three crucial age stages. The mean level of the risk-taking variable increased, while that of the vocalizations variable decreased. The exploration variable was stable over ontogeny. The novelty decreased and the heart rate increased from the juvenile to the adolescent stage but stabilized at the adult stage. The fecal cortisol concentration (CORT) variable was stable at the juvenile and adolescent stages but decreased at the adult stage. Stable correlations were reported for the juvenile and adolescent stages and for the behavioral variables and heart rate. However, some correlations emerged only after maturation, whereas others disappeared over ontogeny. Moreover, CORT was independent of temperament and heart rate at different ages. These results demonstrate that age affects temperament and physiology and their correlations. Hence, developmental aspects should be incorporated into future temperament studies.
Yibo Yu, Yun Wang, Liang Zhong, Hongjuan Zhu, Jiapeng Qu

2755 related Products with: Variations in Behavioral and Physiological Traits in Yearling Tibetan Sheep ().

96T0.1 ml1mg1 ml1 ml1 mg100 μg5mg100 μg100 units1 g

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