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Establishing or Exaggerating Causality for the Gut Microbiome: Lessons from Human Microbiota-Associated Rodents.

Human diseases are increasingly linked with an altered or "dysbiotic" gut microbiota, but whether such changes are causal, consequential, or bystanders to disease is, for the most part, unresolved. Human microbiota-associated (HMA) rodents have become a cornerstone of microbiome science for addressing causal relationships between altered microbiomes and host pathology. In a systematic review, we found that 95% of published studies (36/38) on HMA rodents reported a transfer of pathological phenotypes to recipient animals, and many extrapolated the findings to make causal inferences to human diseases. We posit that this exceedingly high rate of inter-species transferable pathologies is implausible and overstates the role of the gut microbiome in human disease. We advocate for a more rigorous and critical approach for inferring causality to avoid false concepts and prevent unrealistic expectations that may undermine the credibility of microbiome science and delay its translation.

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Microscopic analysis and microstructural characterization of the organic and inorganic components of dairy fouling during the cleaning process.

This study evaluated the organic residues of milk fouling using fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The inorganic content was analyzed with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, complemented with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. These techniques were applied to evaluate milk fouling cleanliness using an alkaline product and an enzymatic formulation based on protease and amylase. The results showed that the efficiency of enzymatic cleaning was 87.1% when it was evaluated at 55°C for 30 min, and with a medium of pH 8.5. No difference was found from the efficacy in eliminating dairy fouling observed for the chemical cleaning (86.9%). The fluorescence microscopy proved useful for determining the organic solid components in the outer layer of the dairy fouling. The fouling spatial disposition in 3 dimensions, obtained by confocal laser scanning microscopy, showed that it was formed of 51.3% sugars, 9.3% fats, and 39.4% proteins, with the enzymatic cleaning of these compounds being homogeneous, compared with chemical cleaning. The protein and lipid contents were in the surface layer, whereas sugars were located in the innermost part that contributes to the Maillard reaction during fouling formation. After enzymatic cleaning, the reduction in the concentration of Ca and P was 71.61 and 74.67%, respectively, compared with fouling intact. Thus, enzymatic cleaning, without the accumulation of Na from chemical cleaning, leaves 1.5 times less mineral than chemical cleaning. Knowing the content and structure of fouling in the industry helps to formulate better products to achieve proper levels of cleanliness. Additionally, studying the cleaning residues helps to avoid problems of cross-contamination between batches or subsequent microbial growths (biofilms) on surfaces with residues.

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Domestic refrigerator temperatures in Spain: Assessment of its impact on the safety and shelf-life of cooked meat products.

Temperature is one of the main factors governing the growth of microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to provide temperature conditions representative of the food products stored in domestic refrigerators and to assess the impact of the temperature (fluctuation) on the shelf-life of refrigerated cooked meat products, from the safety and the spoilage point of view. The analysis of the time-temperature profiles recorded from 160 domestic refrigerators of households from small (28%) and large (72%) municipalities in Catalonia (Spain) showed that the 24 h-mean temperature could be described by a normal distribution (mean = 5.4 °C, standard deviation = 2.3 °C) with a mean value within the upper limit of the appropriate storage temperature of refrigerated products (i.e. ≤6 °C). The impact of door openings or day and night was not significant. Temperature distribution showed differences depending on the season, being higher in the cold season than in the warm one. Noteworthy, refrigerators of elderly (≥ 65 years old) households showed a higher percentage of time at temperatures >8 °C in comparison with those of the general population. Overall, the 75th percentile of the distribution of the 24 h-mean temperature values was 6.7 °C. This study can be used as a scientific evidence of the consumer storage stage when food business operators or laboratories conduct shelf-life studies. According to the simulation of the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in cooked meat products, risk scenarios were identified in which the critical level of the pathogen could be reached before lactic acid bacteria achieved the spoilage level. The fluctuation of the refrigerator temperature ranged from 0.5 up to 12.2 °C within the 24 h-profile. The assessment of the safety of cooked meat products stored at constant temperature or under different time-temperature profiles showed that both the mean and the fluctuation of the profile had an impact on the shelf-life, which was higher at low temperatures. The improvement of the household refrigerated storage would be an effective way to increase food safety of refrigerated ready-to-eat food.

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FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Anti 3 DG imidazolone Mon EnzyChrom™ D-Lactate As FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Ofloxacin CAS Number [824 FDA Standard Frozen Tissu MultiGene Gradient therm EnzyChrom™ Aspartate Tr Multiple organ tumor tiss FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Thermal Shaker with cooli Rabbit Anti-FGF3 Oncogene

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Attitudes and beliefs of Eastern European consumers towards piglet castration and meat from castrated pigs.

Castration of male piglets is a common practice to avoid boar taint but is being questioned. The present work has an exploratory character and aims to investigate the beliefs and attitudes of Eastern European consumers regarding boar taint, surgical castration immunocastration and perception of meat from castrated pigs and to find out possible segments of consumers regarding these attitudes and beliefs. For this purpose, a consumer study was carried out involving 5508 consumers from 13 Eastern European countries (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, North Macedonia, Hungary, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Ukraine). The questionnaire included statements related to beliefs about castration and perception of meat from castrated pigs, attitudes towards meat from castrated pigs. Results show that in general beliefs and attitudes of the consumers are not defined, probably because of the lack of knowledge (information was not provided to the consumers) towards these issues. Three different clusters of consumers were obtained with different beliefs towards castration.

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Schizandrin B Mitigates Rifampicin-Induced Liver Injury by Inhibiting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

Schisandra chinensis is widely used and effective in protecting liver. There are many mechanisms of drug-induced hepatocyte injury, among which endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced cell injury plays an important role. However, little is known about whether schisandra chinensis can inhibit rifampicin (RFP)-induced hepatocyte injury by affecting ER stress. In our study, firstly, L02 cells were treated with different concentrations of RFP for different time intervals, and the apoptosis, survival rate and endoplasmic reticulum stress gene and protein expressions of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP 78), PKR-like ER kinase (PERK), activating transcription factor (ATF)4, C/EBP-homologus protein (CHOP), ATF6, arginine-rich, mutated in early stage tumors (ARMET), p-inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1) were measured. We found that RFP increased apoptosis of L02 cells, decreased cell survival, and increased the gene and protein expression levels of GRP78, PERK, ATF4, CHOP, ATF6, ARMET, p-IRE1 and XBP-1, suggesting that RFP could induce hepatocyte injury, and the degree of injury was positively correlated with the dose and time of RFP. Next, we treated RFP-damaged hepatocytes with schizandrin B. We found that schizandrin B increased cell survival rate in dose-dependent and time-dependent manner, decreased cell apoptosis rate, and reduced protein and gene expression levels of GRP78, PERK, ATF4, CHOP, ATF6, ARMET and XBP-1. These results indicate that schizandrin B alleviates RFP-induced injury in L02 cells by inhibiting ER stress.

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The Effect of Isolated and Synthetic Dietary Fibers on Markers of Metabolic Diseases in Human Intervention Studies: A Systematic Review.

Observational studies provide strong evidence for the health benefits of dietary fiber (DF) intake; however, human intervention studies that supplement isolated and synthetic DFs have shown inconsistent results. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to summarize the effects of DF supplementation on immunometabolic disease markers in intervention studies in healthy adults, and considered the role of DF dose, DF physicochemical properties, intervention duration, and the placebo used. Five databases were searched for studies published from 1990 to 2018 that assessed the effect of DF on immunometabolic markers. Eligible studies were those that supplemented isolated or synthetic DFs for ≥2 wk and reported baseline data to assess the effect of the placebo. In total, 77 publications were included. DF supplementation reduced total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol, HOMA-IR, and insulin AUC in 36-49% of interventions. In contrast, <20% of the interventions reduced C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, glucose, glucose AUC, insulin, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. A higher proportion of interventions showed an effect if they used higher DF doses for CRP, TC, and LDL cholesterol (40-63%), viscous and mixed plant cell wall DFs for TC and LDL cholesterol (>50%), and longer intervention durations for CRP and glucose (50%). Half of the placebo-controlled studies used digestible carbohydrates as the placebo, which confounded findings for IL-6, glucose AUC, and insulin AUC. In conclusion, interventions with isolated and synthetic DFs resulted mainly in improved cholesterol concentrations and an attenuation of insulin resistance, whereas markers of dysglycemia and inflammation were largely unaffected. Although more research is needed to make reliable recommendations, a more targeted supplementation of DF with specific physicochemical properties at higher doses and for longer durations shows promise in enhancing several of its health effects.

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A cross-cultural perspective on impact of health and nutrition claims, country-of-origin and eco-label on consumer choice of new aquaculture products.

Over the last decade, an increasing number of new value-added aquaculture products made their way onto the European market, as a response to growing demand for healthier diet, and more sustainable and locally produced protein sources. The importance of these drivers of consumer choice for aquaculture products' acceptance paves the way for a relevant reorientation of the European aquaculture industry towards a more consumer-centred approach. This research uses discrete choice experiments to examine the effect of health and nutrition claims, country-of-origin (COO), and eco-labels on consumer choice of new aquaculture products in a cross-cultural context. Three products with different preserving methods have been chosen for the study: fresh (chilled), canned, and smoked product. Results indicate that COO label "produced in own country" together with ASC eco-label function better than the health and nutrition claims as driver of choice. Results further point to the existence of different segments of "nutrition conscious", "ethnocentric", "price conscious", and "eco-conscious" consumers.

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