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Search results for: Ah Receptor (AHR) Antibody

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#34576297   2021/09/20 To Up

Kynurenine Pathway of Tryptophan Metabolism in Migraine and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders.

Migraine, the leading cause of disability in the population aged below 50, is associated with functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders (FGIDs) such as functional nausea, cyclic vomiting syndrome, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Conversely, changes in intestinal GI transit may cause diarrhea or constipation and are a component of the autonomic symptoms associated with pre- and post-dorsal phases of migraine attack. These mutual relationships provoke a question on a common trigger in migraine and FGIDs. The kynurenine (l-kyn) pathway (KP) is the major route for l-tryptophan (l-Trp) metabolism and transforms l-Trp into several neuroactive compounds. Changes in KP were reported in both migraine and FGIDs. Migraine was largely untreatable, but several drugs approved lately by the FDA, including monoclonal antibodies for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and its receptor, create a hope for a breakthrough in migraine treatment. Derivatives of l-kyn were efficient in pain relief with a mechanism including CGRP inhibition. KP products are important ligands to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), whose activation is implicated in the pathogenesis of GI and migraine. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) may play a role in migraine and IBS pathogeneses, and KP metabolites detected downstream of TLR activation may be an IBS marker. The TLR4 signaling was observed in initiating and maintaining migraine-like behavior through myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) in the mouse. The aim of this review is to justify the view that KP modulation may provide common triggers for migraine and FGIDs with the involvement of TLR, AhR, and MyD88 activation.
Michal Fila, Jan Chojnacki, Elzbieta Pawlowska, Joanna Szczepanska, Cezary Chojnacki, Janusz Blasiak

1123 related Products with: Kynurenine Pathway of Tryptophan Metabolism in Migraine and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders.

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#34155552   2021/06/21 To Up

Nuclear expression of VDR and AHR is mutually exclusive in glandular cells in endometriosis.

The vitamin D receptor (VDR) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) are two nuclear receptors that exert their effects by binding with ligands and forming a molecular complex. These complexes translocate to the nucleus and activate the expression of a series of genes which have a response element to VDR or AHR. Both receptors have been identified in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, a common disease characterized by the formation of endometrium-like tissue in ectopic zones. Despite numerous therapies, there is no definitive cure for endometriosis at the pharmacological level. Our study aims to describe the location and the expression of VDR and AHR at the protein level. For this purpose, an evaluation was performed using tissue from the three normal phases of the endometrium (proliferative, early, and late secretory) and in endometriosis by immunohistochemistry, using anti-VDR and anti-AHR antibodies. We demonstrate that in the nuclei of glandular cells in endometriosis, the expression of VDR and AHR is mutually exclusive-when the expression of one receptor is high, the other one is low-suggesting a possible target in the treatment of endometriosis. We also identify a significant change in the expression of glandular cytoplasmic AHR between the proliferative and late secretory endometrium.
Francesco De Pascali, Livio Casarini, Christina Kuhn, Manuela Simoni, Sven Mahner, Udo Jeschke, Viktoria von Schönfeldt

2130 related Products with: Nuclear expression of VDR and AHR is mutually exclusive in glandular cells in endometriosis.

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#33963922   2021/05/08 To Up

Neurons expressing the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the locus coeruleus and island of Calleja major are novel targets of dioxin in the mouse brain.

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) acts as a receptor that responds to ligands, including dioxin. The AhR-ligand complex translocates from the cytoplasm into the nucleus to induce gene expression. Because dioxin exposure impairs cognitive and neurobehavioral functions, AhR-expressing neurons need to be identified for elucidation of the dioxin neurotoxicity mechanism. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect AhR-expressing neurons in the mouse brain and confirm the specificity of the anti-AhR antibody using Ahr mice. Intracellular distribution of AhR and expression level of AhR-target genes, Cyp1a1, Cyp1b1, and Ahr repressor (Ahrr), were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively, using mice exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The mouse brains were shown to harbor AhR in neurons of the locus coeruleus (LC) and island of Calleja major (ICjM) during developmental period in Ahr mice but not in Ahr mice. A significant increase in nuclear AhR of ICjM neurons but not LC neurons was found in 14-day-old mice compared to 5- and 7-day-old mice. AhR was significantly translocated into the nucleus in LC and ICjM neurons of TCDD-exposed adult mice. Additionally, the expression levels of Cyp1a1, Cyp1b1, and Ahrr genes in the brain, a surrogate of TCDD in the tissue, were significantly increased by dioxin exposure, suggesting that dioxin-activated AhR induces gene expression in LC and ICjM neurons. This histochemical study shows the ligand-induced nuclear translocation of AhR at the single-neuron level in vivo. Thus, the neurotoxicological significance of the dioxin-activated AhR in the LC and ICjM warrants further studies.
Eiki Kimura, Masanobu Kohda, Fumihiko Maekawa, Yoshiaki Fujii-Kuriyama, Chiharu Tohyama

1806 related Products with: Neurons expressing the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the locus coeruleus and island of Calleja major are novel targets of dioxin in the mouse brain.