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Protein kinase Akt2/PKBβ is involved in blastomere proliferation of preimplantation mouse embryos.

Activation of Akt/Protein Kinase B (PKB) by phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) controls several cellular functions largely studied in mammalian cells, including preimplantation embryos. We previously showed that early mouse embryos inherit active Akt from oocytes and that the intracellular localization of this enzyme at the two-cell stage depends on the T-cell leukemia/lymphoma 1 oncogenic protein, Tcl1. We have now investigated whether Akt isoforms, namely Akt1, Akt2 and Akt3, exert a specific role in blastomere proliferation during preimplantation embryo development. We show that, in contrast to other Akt family members, Akt2 enters male and female pronuclei of mouse preimplantation embryos at the late one-cell stage and thereafter maintains a nuclear localization during later embryo cleavage stages. Depleting one-cell embryos of single Akt family members by microinjecting Akt isoform-specific antibodies into wild-type zygotes, we observed that: (a) Akt2 is necessary for normal embryo progression through cleavage stages; and (b) the specific nuclear targeting of Akt2 in two-cell embryos depends on Tcl1. Our results indicate that preimplantation mouse embryos have a peculiar regulation of blastomere proliferation based on the activity of the Akt/PKB family member Akt2, which is mediated by the oncogenic protein Tcl1. Both Akt2 and Tcl1 are essential for early blastomere proliferation and embryo development.

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Evaluation of the Insulin-like Growth Factor Receptor Pathway in Patients with Advanced Breast Cancer Treated with Trastuzumab.

Trastuzumab is a monoclonal antibody against HER2-positive breast cancer. Despite improving the natural history of the disease, there is a number of patients who are resistant to it, whereas all patients will eventually develop resistance and disease will progress. Inconsistent preclinical data show that the IGF-R pathway may contribute to either de novo or acquired resistance to trastuzumab.

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AKT2 is the predominant AKT isoform expressed in human skeletal muscle.

Skeletal muscle physiology and metabolism are regulated by complex networks of intracellular signaling pathways. Among many of these pathways, the protein kinase AKT plays a prominent role. While three AKT isoforms have been identified (AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3), surprisingly little is known regarding isoform-specific expression of AKT in human skeletal muscle. To address this, we examined the expressions of each AKT isoform in muscle biopsy samples collected from the vastus lateralis of healthy male adults at rest. In muscle, AKT2 was the most highly expressed AKT transcript, exhibiting a 15.4-fold increase over AKT1 and AKT3 transcripts. Next, the abundance of AKT protein isoforms was determined using antibody immunoprecipitation followed by Liquid Chromatography-Parallel Reaction Monitoring/Mass Spectrometry. Immunoprecipitation was performed using either mouse or rabbit pan AKT antibodies that were immunoreactive with all three AKT isoforms. We found that AKT2 was the most abundant AKT isoform in human skeletal muscle (4.2-fold greater than AKT1 using the rabbit antibody and 1.6-fold greater than AKT1 using the mouse antibody). AKT3 was virtually undetectable. Next, cultured primary human myoblasts were virally-transduced with cDNAs encoding either wild-type (WT) or kinase-inactive AKT1 (AKT1-K179M) or AKT2 (AKT2-K181M) and allowed to terminally differentiate. Myotubes expressing WT-AKT1 or WT-AKT2 showed enhanced fusion compared to control myotubes, while myotubes expressing AKT1-K179M showed a 14% reduction in fusion. Myotubes expressing AKT2-K181M displayed 63% decreased fusion compared to control. Together, these data identify AKT2 as the most highly-expressed AKT isoform in human skeletal muscle and as the principal AKT isoform regulating human myoblast differentiation.

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A B-cell receptor-related gene signature predicts survival in mantle cell lymphoma: results from the Fondazione Italiana Linfomi MCL-0208 trial.

Mantle cell lymphoma patients have variable clinical courses, ranging from indolent cases that do not require immediate treatment to aggressive, rapidly progressing diseases. Thus, diagnostic tools capable of stratifying patients according to their risk of relapse and death are needed. This study included 83 samples from the Fondazione Italiana Linfomi MCL-0208 clinical trial. Through gene expression profiling and quantitative real-time PCR we analyzed 46 peripheral blood and 43 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lymph node samples. A prediction model to classify patients was developed. By analyzing the transcriptome of 27 peripheral blood samples, two subgroups characterized by a differential expression of genes from the B-cell receptor pathway (B-cell receptor and B-cell receptor) were identified. The prediction model based on the quantitative real-time PCR values of six representative genes (, and ), was used to classify the 83 cases (43 B-cell receptor and 40 B-cell receptor). The B-cell receptor signature associated with shorter progression-free survival (=0.0074), selected the mantle cell lymphoma subgroup with the shortest progression-free survival and overall survival (=0.0014 and =0.029, respectively) in combination with high (>30%) Ki-67 staining, and was an independent predictor of short progression- free survival along with the Mantle Cell Lymphoma International Prognostic Index-combined score. Moreover, the clinical impact of the 6- gene signature related to the B-cell receptor pathway identified a mantle cell lymphoma subset with shorter progression-free survival intervals also in an external independent mantle cell lymphoma cohort homogenously treated with different schedules. In conclusion, this 6-gene signature associates with a poor clinical response in the context of the MCL- 0208 clinical trial. ().

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Role of YAP1 as a Marker of Sensitivity to Dual AKT and P70S6K Inhibition in Ovarian and Uterine Malignancies.

The PI3K/AKT/P70S6K pathway is an attractive therapeutic target in ovarian and uterine malignancies because of its high rate of deregulation and key roles in tumor growth. Here, we examined the biological effects of MSC2363318A, which is a novel inhibitor of AKT1, AKT3, and P70S6K.

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Differential effects of peptidoglycan on colorectal tumors and intestinal tissue post-pelvic radiotherapy.

Immediate medical intervention is required after pelvic tumor radiotherapy to protect the radiosensitive intestine and also to mitigate tumor growth. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been shown to promote tissue repair processes. Here, we analyzed the effect observed upon combining the TLR2 agonist, peptidoglycan (PGN), with radiation therapy on tumors as well as intestinal tissue, both in vitro and in vivo. In contrast to radiotherapy alone, PGN when combined with ionizing radiation (IR) elicited enhanced antitumor effects and also reduced the IR-induced intestinal damage. Mechanistic studies showed that PGN first induced an IL13 response in the irradiated intestine, but was decreased in tumor cell models screened by Th1/Th2 FlowCytomix assay and validated by the application of IL13 and anti-IL13 neutralizing antibodies. Next, PGN stimulated Akt3, but not Akt1/2, as was verified by AKT1/2/3 plasmid transfection assay and in AKT1/2/3 knockout mice in vivo. Akt3 expression was inhibited in 20 μg/mL PGN-treated tumor cells and in 1.5 mg/kg PGN-treated mouse tumor models. However, Akt3 was raised via IL13 in the irradiated intestine and human intestinal cell line after the same treatment. Finally, PGN activated mTOR via IL13/AKT3 in the intestine and restored intestinal structure and function. As an adjuvant to radiotherapy, PGN inhibited tumorigenesis by suppression of mTOR activity. To summarize, the IL13/AKT3/mTOR pathway was lessened in PGN-treated irradiated tumors but was raised in the normal intestine tissue. This distinct effect of PGN on normal and tumor tissues during pelvic radiotherapy suggests that PGN may be a promising adjuvant therapy to radiation.

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Gene expression profiling of epithelial ovarian cancer reveals key genes and pathways associated with chemotherapy resistance.

The aim of this study is to analyze gene expression data to identify key genes and pathways associated with resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and to improve clinical treatment strategies. The gene expression data set was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus and included 12 chemotherapy-resistant EOC samples and 16 chemotherapy-sensitive EOC samples. A differential analysis was performed to screen out differentially expressed genes (DEGs). A functional enrichment analysis was conducted for the DEGs using the database for annotation, visualization, and integration discovery. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed with information from the human protein reference database. Pathway-pathway interactions were determined with a test based on the hypergeometric distribution. A total of 1564 DEGs were identified in chemotherapy-sensitive EOC, including 654 upregulated genes and 910 downregulated genes. The top three upregulated genes were HIST1H3G, AKT3, and RTN3, while the top three downregulated genes were NBLA00301, TRIM62, and EPHA5. A Gene Ontology enrichment analysis showed that cell adhesion, biological adhesion, and intracellular signaling cascades were significantly enriched in the DEGs. A KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that the calcium, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and B cell receptor signaling pathways were significantly over-represented in the DEGs. A PPI network containing 101 interactions was acquired. The top three hub genes were RAC1, CAV1, and BCL2. Five modules were identified from the PPI network. Taken together, these findings could advance the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying intrinsic chemotherapy resistance in EOC.

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Knockdown of AKT3 and PI3KCA by RNA interference changes the expression of the genes that are related to apoptosis and autophagy in T98G glioblastoma multiforme cells.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant and invasive human brain tumor and it is characterized by a poor prognosis and short survival time. The PI3K/AKT/PTEN signaling pathway plays a crucial role in GBM development and it is connected with the regulation of apoptosis and autophagy. Akt is involved in various aspects of cancer cell biology such as cell survival, in addition to both apoptosis and autophagy. The current study was undertaken to examine the effect of the siRNAs that target AKT3 and PI3KCA genes on the apoptosis and autophagy of T98G cells.

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Anti-PD-1 and PD-L1 therapy for bladder cancer: what is on the horizon?

Oncologic therapeutics has evolved enormously as we entered the 21st century. Unfortunately, the treatment of advanced urothelial cancer has remained unchanged over the last two decades despite a better understanding of the genetic alterations in bladder cancer. Pathways such as the PI3K/AKT3/mTOR and FGFR have been implicated in urothelial bladder cancer. However, targeted therapies have not shown proven benefit yet and are still considered investigational. Recently, researchers have been successful in manipulating the systemic immune response to mount antitumor effects in melanoma, lung cancer and lymphoma. Historically, intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin immunotherapy has been highly active in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. Early data suggest that immune checkpoint inhibitors will soon prove to be another cornerstone in the treatment armamentarium of advanced bladder cancer.

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