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Exposure to solar UV radiation in outdoor construction workers using personal dosimetry.

Occupational exposure to solar UV radiation (SUVR), a Group 1 carcinogen according to the IARC classification is at high exposure levels in outdoor construction workers, usually above the suggested occupational limits. Furthermore, there are no regulations related to this exposure in the EU, except for the artificial UVR. Also, the use of the ICNIRP exposure guideline in an outdoor setting poses problems of adequate dose assessment. In this context, the main purpose of the study was to perform direct measurements of the SUVR dose in outdoor workers from the construction sector, using individual SUVR dosimeters (GENESIS-UV system), for a period of 7 months, from April to October, in a prospective, observational study in two groups of 10 outdoor workers in Romania, located at two different geographic sites. In term of cumulative standard erythema dose (SED), our study population of outdoor construction workers received high levels of solar UV radiation, ranging from 165 SED to 453 SED during 7 months of occupational activity, from April to October. Our results, ranging from 1.28 SED (standard erythema dose) per day to 6.4 SED per day pose an alarm signal to the national and European health authorities to take preventive action for outdoor workers, as the ICNIRP suggested limit value of 1.33 SED for mean daily erythemal UV exposure is vastly exceeded. We suggest that personal dosimetry for SUVR, from simple devices to complex systems as GENESIS-UV should be regularly and mandatory used in outdoor workers, similarly to the usage of personal dosimetry in occupational exposure to ionizing radiations, which could be included in European and national legislation to reduce both, the level of exposure and the detrimental effects on outdoor workers' health.

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Elder abuse and associated factors in eastern romania.

This article explores elder abuse in a hospitalised population. We wanted to identify details related to psychological and emotional abuse in the older population in our region and to determine the importance of the Elderly Abuse Suspicion Index (EASI ) in comprehensive geriatric assessments.

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Folding of single-stranded circular DNA into rigid rectangular DNA accelerates its cellular uptake.

Despite the importance of the interaction between DNA and cells for its biological activity, little is known about exactly how DNA interacts with cells. To elucidate the relationship between the structural properties of DNA and its cellular uptake, a single-stranded circular DNA of 1801 bases was designed and folded into a series of rectangular DNA (RecDNA) nanostructures with different rigidities using DNA origami technology. Interactions between these structures and cells were evaluated using mouse macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. RecDNA with 50 staple DNAs, including four that were Alexa Fluor 488-labeled, was designed. RecDNA with fewer staples, down to four staples (all Alexa Fluor 488-labeled), was also prepared. Electrophoresis and atomic force microscopy showed that all DNA nanostructures were successfully obtained with a sufficiently high yield. Flow cytometry analysis showed that folding of the single-stranded circular DNA into RecDNA significantly increased its cellular uptake. In addition, there was a positive correlation between uptake and the number of staples. These results indicate that highly folded DNA nanostructures interact more efficiently with RAW264.7 cells than loosely folded structures do. Based on these results, it was concluded that the interaction of DNA with cells can be controlled by folding using DNA origami technology.

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Influence of carbon source complexity on porosity, water retention and extracellular matrix composition of Neurospora discreta biofilms.

To evaluate carbon source complexity as a process lever to impact the microstructure, chemical composition and water retention capacity of biofilms produced by Neurospora discreta.

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Development of container free sample exposure for synchrotron X-ray footprinting.

The method of X-ray Footprinting and Mass Spectrometry (XFMS) on large protein assemblies and membrane protein samples requires high flux density to overcome the hydroxyl radical scavenging reactions produced by the buffer constituents and the total protein content. Previously, we successfully developed microsecond XFMS using microfluidic capillary flow and a micro-focused broadband X-ray source at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron beamlines, but the excessive radiation damage incurred when using capillaries prevented the full usage of a high-flux density beam. Here we present another significant advance for the XFMS method: the instrumentation of a liquid injection jet to deliver container free samples to the X-ray beam. Our preliminary experiments with a liquid jet at a bending magnet X-ray beamline demonstrate the feasibility of the approach, and show a significant improvement in the effective dose for both the Alexa fluorescence assay and protein samples compared to conventional capillary flow methods. The combination of precisely controlled high dose delivery, shorter exposure times, and elimination of radiation damage due to capillary effects significantly increases the signal quality of the hydroxyl radical modification products and the dose-response data. This new approach is the first application of container free sample handling for XFMS, and opens up the method for even further advances, such as high-quality microsecond time-resolved XFMS studies.

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Evaluating the quality of voice assistants' responses to consumer health questions about vaccines: an exploratory comparison of Alexa, Google Assistant and Siri.

To assess the quality and accuracy of the voice assistants (VAs), Amazon Alexa, Siri and Google Assistant, in answering consumer health questions about vaccine safety and use.

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Apolipoprotein M-bound sphingosine-1-phosphate regulates blood-brain barrier paracellular permeability and transcytosis.

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is formed by the endothelial cells lining cerebral microvessels, but how blood-borne signaling molecules influence permeability is incompletely understood. We here examined how the apolipoprotein M (apoM)-bound sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling pathway affects the BBB in different categories of cerebral microvessels using ApoM deficient mice (). We used two-photon microscopy to monitor BBB permeability of sodium fluorescein (376 Da), Alexa Fluor (643 Da), and fluorescent albumin (45 kDA). We show that BBB permeability to small molecules increases in mice. Vesicle-mediated transfer of albumin in arterioles increased 3 to 10-fold in mice, whereas transcytosis in capillaries and venules remained unchanged. The S1P receptor 1 agonist SEW2871 rapidly normalized paracellular BBB permeability in mice, and inhibited transcytosis in penetrating arterioles, but not in pial arterioles. Thus, apoM-bound S1P maintains low paracellular BBB permeability in all cerebral microvessels and low levels of vesicle-mediated transport in penetrating arterioles.

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Looking for the hidden: Characterization of lysogenic phages in potential pathogenic Vibrio species from the North Sea.

The incidence of potentially pathogenic Vibrio species in the marine environment around Europe, is correlated with the increase of surface seawater temperature. Despite their importance, little is known about the trigger factors of potential outbreak-causing strains in this region. As prophages may compose a major reservoir of virulence traits in marine ecosystems, this study aims to identify and characterize the genomes of lysogenic Vibrio phages exemplarily from the North Sea. Therefore, 31 isolates from potentially pathogenic Vibrio species from the North Sea were screened for inducible prophages with mitomycin C. From them, one V. cholerae isolate and 40% V. parahaemolyticus isolates carried inducible prophages. Three lysogenic phages were selected for genomic characterization. The phage vB_VpaM_VP-3212 (unclassified Myoviridae) has a genome with a length of 36.81 Kbp and 55 CDS were identified. This lysogenic phage of V. parahaemolyticus contains genes related to replicative transposition mechanism, such as transposase and mobile elements similar to Mu-like viruses. The phage vB_VpaP_VP-3220 (Podoviridae, unclassified Nona33virus) has a genome length of 58,14 Kbp and contains 63 CDS. This V. parahaemolyticus phage probably uses a headful (pac) packaging replication mechanism. The phage vB_VchM_VP-3213 (unclassified Myoviridae) has a genome with a length of 41 Kbp and 63 CDS were identified, including integrase and Xer system for lysogenic recombination. This lysogenic phage of V. cholerae has similar genomic features as lambdoid phages. Although no pathogenicity genes were identified, their similarity among other phage genomes indicates that these phages can affect the development of pathogenic Vibrio strains in marine environments.

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Oxidative stress as a potential target in acute kidney injury.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major problem for health systems being directly related to short and long-term morbidity and mortality. In the last years, the incidence of AKI has been increasing. AKI and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are closely interconnected, with a growing rate of CKD linked to repeated and severe episodes of AKI. AKI and CKD can occur also secondary to imbalanced oxidative stress (OS) reactions, inflammation, and apoptosis. The kidney is particularly sensitive to OS. OS is known as a crucial pathogenetic factor in cellular damage, with a direct role in initiation, development, and progression of AKI. The aim of this review is to focus on the pathogenetic role of OS in AKI in order to gain a better understanding. We exposed the potential relationships between OS and the perturbation of renal function and we also presented the redox-dependent factors that can contribute to early kidney injury. In the last decades, promising advances have been made in understanding the pathophysiology of AKI and its consequences, but more studies are needed in order to develop new therapies that can address OS and oxidative damage in early stages of AKI.

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Single molecule characterization of individual extracellular vesicles from pancreatic cancer.

Biofluid-accessible extracellular vesicles (EVs) may represent a new means to improve the sensitivity and specificity of detecting disease. However, current methods to isolate EVs encounter challenges when they are used to select specific populations. Moreover, it has been difficult to comprehensively characterize heterogeneous EV populations at the single vesicle level. Here, we robustly assessed heterogeneous EV populations from cultured cell lines via nanoparticle tracking analysis, proteomics, transcriptomics, transmission electron microscopy, and quantitative single molecule localization microscopy (qSMLM). Using qSMLM, we quantified the size and biomarker content of individual EVs. We applied qSMLM to patient plasma samples and identified a pancreatic cancer-enriched EV population. Our goal is to advance single molecule characterization of EVs for early disease detection. : EV: Extracellular Vesicle; qSMLM: quantitative Single Molecule Localization Microscopy; PDAC: Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma; EGFR: epidermal growth factor receptor 1; CA19-9: carbohydrate antigen 19-9; SEC: size exclusion chromatography; WGA: wheat germ agglutinin; AF647: Alexa Fluor 647; Ab: antibody; HPDEC: Healthy Pancreatic Ductal Epithelial Cell; TEM: Transmission Electron Microscopy.

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